Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
China is said by Chinese sources to be the largest exporter of military drones. The best-known Chinese military drones are the Wing Loong family, made by Aviation Industry Corp of China, and China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp's CH series. CH drones have been sold to military users in more than 10 countries, while the Wing Loong II, which made its maiden flight in late February, has received the largest contract ever for a Chinese drone made for export.
The pilotless aircraft is an aircraft in which there is no pilot and it is flown either by its own onboard programable flight control system or by a remote control system operated by a pilot in a carrier aircraft or on ground. Its controlled long distance flight was realized by use of its onboard autopilot, programable flight control system, remote control and telemetering system, automatic navigation system, automatic landing system, etc. Compared with the manned aircraft it is lighter in weight, smaller in size, lower in production cost and better in stealthiness. It is particularly suitable for high risk missions.
The most popular Chinese military drones on the international market are the CH family, made by the China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics, and Aviation Industry Corp of China's Wing Loong-series. CH drones have been sold to militaries in more than 10 countries, and the Wing Loong II, which made its maiden flight in March 2017, captured the largest contract ever signed for a Chinese export drone.
The pilotless aircraft have developed rapidly since a radio controlled model airplane was used as a drone abroad in the 1930s. The small low altitude and low speed piston-engined drones became operational in the 1940s and the high subsonic and supersonic high performance drones appeared in the 1950s. With the development of microelectronics, navigation and control technologies some countries developed pilotless reconnaissance aircraft after the 1960s. Now the applications of the pilotless aircraft are increasingly expanded. In military area the pilotless aircraft are used in missions of reconnaissance, communication, anti-submarine, electronic counter-measures and ground attack and in civil area they are used in geophysical survey, natural resource exploration, meteorological observation, forest fire-fighting and artificial rainfall; and in R& D area they are used in air sampling proof and advanced technology demonstration.
The investigation to the pilotless aircraft in China began in the late 1950s. The laws of the automatic takeoff and landing for both the An-2 and 11-28 aircraft were basically mastered in 1959. UAVs were first used by the US in China during the 1960s. In fact, one of the first Chinese UAVs was partially developed by reverse engineering one of Firebee unmanned aerial vehicles that was lost over China. China also acquired Russian Lavochkin target drones.
The development of the pilotless aircraft began in second half of the 1960s and by the 1980s had grown into 3 series of products, i.e. the Changkong 1 drones, WZ-5 high altitude photographic reconnaissance aircraft and small remotely controlled aircraft D4s. The pilotless aircraft design and research organizations were founded in NAI, BIAA and NPU. These universities have been used as the bases and have the capabilities of design and small scale production. The various types of the pilotless aircraft made in China have basically satisfied the needs of military and civilian applications and have gradually entered into the world market. While UAV programs in China originally were based on US and Russian designs, today Chinese researchers are producing original research and their own designs for mini, micro, vertical-takeoff-and-landing (VTOL), and flapping-wing UAVs.
With the success of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology in recent global conflicts, China is looking to position itself as a major consumer and exporter of UAVs. Hence, the previously dormant Chinese market for UAV is poised for significant growth. With UAV technologies expected to re-shape national defense strategies and policies, Chinese authorities have now implemented numerous steps to put developments back on track, while introducing indigenous UAV development programs.
Moreover, numerous countries in the Asia Pacific region are progressively modernizing their defense capabilities. Hence, authorities are now convinced that existing and new UAV programs have to be implemented at a quicker rate if China wishes to expand its influence in the Asia Pacific and global defense markets. Following its accomplishments in designing and manufacturing UAVs, China is now looking to enter the electronic warfare (EW) market.
China's research and development centers, especially Xian's Northwest Polytechnic University (NPU), and the Beijing and Nanjing Universities of Aeronautics and Astronautics, have active UAV developmental programs, intended to support the PLA's tactical C4I structure. Among the many Chinese universities and research institutions involved in UAV research are the Beijing Technology Company, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC), Hebei Electric Power Reconnaissance Design Academy, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi Engine Design Institute, and Xian ASN Technology Group Company.
China has an active program to purchase or develop unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for its armed forces. Several Western suppliers are actively interested in pursuing the market for UAVs in China. Indigenous Chinese UAVs also will be developed and could be improved with foreign assistance. Illicit sales of UAVs remain an issue. Japan and Israel, in particular, have been involved in a number of cases of selling UAV technology in violation of export restrictions to China. For example, Israel's IAI Malat sold Harpy UAVs to China in 1994 and, in May 2006, was accused of selling Sparrow UAVs also to China.
In August 2006, Japan's Yamaha Motor Company was accused of selling the RMAX helicopter UAV to Beijing Technology Company, China, which has ties to the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA), in violation of Japan'sForeign Exchange and Foreign Trade Control Law. Although Yamaha has claimed that the UAV cannot be used for military purposes because it is inoperable beyond radio range, the RMAX features allow it to easily be converted for long, autonomous missions. The Japanesemilitary, for example, used the RMAX in Iraq for surveillance. Another report said that Yamaha exported 11 UAV helicopters to Beijing's Poly Technologies and to Beijing Technology Company, both of which also have ties to the PLA.
Although China's military probably prefers to purchase a proven system, China's leadership may have determined that indigenous production of UAVs is in China's best interest. While China's military has a great interest in using UAVs in tactical C4I, it has only limited capability and experience with UAVs to date. Consequently, the practical application of UAV sensor information to battlefield operations is only in the developmental stage. The application of UAVs in tactical C4I operations is likely to increase as new UAVs become operational within the Chinese military.
China's airborne ISR program has placed significant emphasis on UAVs. China's armed forces have operated the Chang Hong (CH-1) long-range, air- launched autonomous reconnaissance drone since the 1980s. China developed the CH-1 by reverse-engineering US Firebee reconnaissance drones recovered during the Vietnam War. An upgraded version of the system was displayed at the 2000 Zhuhai air show and is being offered for export. A PRC aviation periodical reported that the CH-1 can carry a TV, daylight still, or infrared camera. It most likely is not equipped with a data link, which would allow remote-controlled operation, nor is it capable of providing real-time payload feedback to the remote operator.
China's armed forces also operate other UAVs, primarily for battlefield reconnaissance or electronic warfare. Beijing has ongoing efforts in UAV research. Interest in UAVs, mainly reconnaissance versions for use with the ground forces, underscores the PLA's requirements to increase reconnaissance and air defense capabilities.
Among the representative models produced in the past few years are some dual- use versions, such as the W-50 UAV, which can be employed for missions such as reconnaissance, radio-relay, and electronic jamming. Another UAV starting to enter the inventory is the ASN-206. Its primary military applications reportedly are day and night reconnaissance, battlefield surveillance, target location, artillery fire correction, and battle damage assessment.
ASN Technology Group is a specialized UAV R&D company in China. ASN Technology Group now is the biggest UAV production company and R&D base in China. The First UAV of China was designed and manufactured by ASN in 1958. In the following fifty years, over 40 different types of UAV were manufactured and in total over 1,500 UAV were delivered in ASN. The end users of ASN UAV products mainly are the Chinese troops. Now over 90% of the Chinese UAV market is held by ASN, which had nearly 500 employees, of whom 15% are Professors, 22% are senior engineers and 18% are engineers. ASN was awarded ISO9001 authentication in 2000. Advanced design,experienced manufacture and state of the art infrastructure, enable ASN to possess great achievement and potentiality in UAV R&D. In the fields of target drone, reconnaissance and surveillance, target acquisition and electronic warfare, the UAV products of ASN are world level and sophisticated.
A concept model of China's unmanned aerial combat vehicle named "Anjian" (Dark Sword) was displayed at the 47th International Paris Air Show, held from June 18th to June 24th of 2007. The aerial combat vehicle was designed by the Shenyang Aeroplane Design Institution under China Aviation Industry Corporation I (CAIC1), for future aerial combat.
The Tian Yi began testing in 2009, as Chengdu's step toward a future Global Hawk class HALE UAV. A new Chinese UAV design — with a 60,000-ft. cruising altitude, 300-mi. radar surveillance range and low radar reflectivity (if it uses the right composite structure) — could serve as the targeting node for China’s anti-ship ballistic missiles.
Richard Fisher notes [Testimony for the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Hearing on China's Emergent Military Aerospace and Commercial Aviation Capabilities, May 20th, 2010] "At the 2000 Zhuhai show the Guizhou WZ-2000 was revealed, a squat twin-jet powered delta winged high-altitude long-endurance UAV, which by the 2002 Zhuhai show evolved into a medium sized UAV, which by the 2008 Zhuhai show appeard to form the basis for an armed turbofan powered unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) similar in size to the U.S. General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper.
"Since the 2006 Zhuhai show there appears to emerged a rough division of labor, in which Chengdu and Guizhou concentrate on medium and long range surveillance UAVs and medium range UCAVs, while Shenyang appears to be concentrating on future long range subsonic and supersonic UCAVs. The 2006 Zhuhai show saw the revelation, in model form, of Chengdu's Tian Yi, which was revealed by internet sources in 2008 to have entered testing. While likely useful as a medium range UAV, the Tian Yi also serves to aid the development of Chengdu's Long Haul Eagle, which is close in size and configuration to the Northrop Grumman Global Hawk. In 2006 Guizhou revealed in model form its box-wing Soar Dragon UAV, credited with a 7,000km range, but there has been no subsequent information on this system.
"At the 2006 Zhuhai airshow Shenyang created a stir by introducing in model form its Dark Sword supersonic UCAV, about which Shenyang has revealed very little. In 2006 it was described in a small plaque as a "fighter," which would have been an amazing accomplishment for a UCAV, though this mission was not mentioned in its plaque at the 2008 Zhuhai show. There has been some suggestion that this design may have been inspired by South African technical assistance. A new model of the Dark Sword was revealed as part of the 2009 PLAAF Anniversary, an indication that it remains an ongoing program. At the 2008 Zhuhai show the forward-swept wing subsonic Warrior Eagle was revealed, also likely a Shenyang program. This concept appears to be a more realistic goal technologically, if one considers it is well suited for attack and surveillance missions. Wall illustrations at the 2008 Zhuhai show suggested the Warrior Eagle would also be capable of cooperative "swarm" missions. There are also indications that the X'ian Aircraft Co. may be developing a strike UCAV. "
China's rapidly expanding defense budget supported impressive advances in drone technology, prompting some to worry that the United States' global dominance in the market could soon be challenged. At the 2012 airshow in the southern coastal city of Zhuhai, China unveiled a new generation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Long-time observers of Chinese military capability reported the drones on display were bigger and more sophisticated than in the past.
Though many of the prototypes and models on display at the Zhuhai air show did not have explicit military purposes, others appeared to be clones of US drones, such as the Predator or Reaper, which have both been used in deadly missions on suspected militants. There is no evidence suggesting China plans to use its drones in a similar manner as the United States, and observers say Beijing is still likely far behind Washington in drone technology.
But a report published in July by the Defense Science Board, a committee that advises the US Defense Department, suggested that Beijing's ramped up spending and research on drones could threaten US supremacy in the sector. The unclassified report, The Role of Autonomy in DoD Systems, called China's recent focus on UAVs "alarming," warning Beijing could "easily match or outpace U.S. spending on unmanned systems, rapidly close the technology gaps and become a formidable global competitor in unmanned systems."
"In a worrisome trend, China has ramped up research in recent years faster than any other country. It displayed its first unmanned system model at the Zhuhai air show five years ago, and now every major manufacturer for the Chinese military has a research center devoted to unmanned systems. The latest pictures and models of unmanned systems from China show a reconnaissance truck with a joined wing and tail that could considerably increase range and payload and produce better handling at high altitudes.... Much of China’s efforts remain secret, but the large number of unmanned systems displayed at recent exhibitions, and very recent revelations on development and operational efforts underscore not only China’s determination to catch up in this sector, but also its desire to sell this technology abroad. ... China has had an active UAV program since the mid-1990s. However, data on the actual extent of UAV production is nearly non-existent, and there is little available information on China’s overall procurement objectives."
In China, state media said those reportedly peaceful missions include patrolling maritime regions. In September 2012, the Xinhua news agency reported that China's State Oceanic Administration would step up the use of drones to "strengthen marine surveillance" in disputed areas of the South China Sea. A Chinese government report earlier in 2012 called for 11 drone bases to be established along China's coastline by 2015.
But other missions were seemingly more mundane. The Chinese state-run Global Times reported in June 2012 that Beijing police is using a drone to spot illegal opium poppies in rural areas of the capital. Last year, the paper said the department would also use unmanned aircraft to "monitor traffic accidents, conduct aerial surveillance, or help with rescue operations."
So far there are no known instances of China carrying out deadly attacks with weaponized UAVs. But Li Yidong, a designer for the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, told the Global Times that one of the UAVs on display at the Zhuhai air show appears to have carried out 20 missions and fired 15 missiles, judging from the number of red stars and missile patterns on the drone. At the Zhuhai air show, Huang Wei, the director of a drone program at the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation told the Global Times that UAVs were, "as the Americans say," fit for missions that are "dirty, dangerous and dull."
One area of concern for the United States is that China may increasingly export its relatively inexpensive drone technology to nations around the world. That fear was heightened when the Global Times said in November 2012 that "some foreign sales" were reported at the Zhuhai air show. Chinese drones, many of which are specifically produced for the export market, may be attractive to countries that cannot afford or are otherwise prevented from purchasing the US alternatives. American drones are expensive, very sophisticated platforms. The Chinese produce a cheaper variety that basically does a similar job. The Chinese have cheap labor, technological know-how, and are always looking for export markets that are growing.
But price is only one factor that nations consider when purchasing foreign military equipment. Beijing is not likely become the "Wal-Mart" of international drone sales anytime soon. The reliability, the maintenance of these things is still unproven, and there's a lot of political baggage that comes with buying Chinese products. Chinese exports of drones may be limited by international arms sales regulations that govern exports of weapons and "dual-use" goods that have both civilian and military purposes.
Harbin BZK-005 / TYW-1
The BZK-005 high-altitude, long-range reconnaissance drone is widely used by the People's Liberation Army and has performed many operations. The Beihang Unmanned Aircraft System Technology firm was set up by Beihang University, formerly known as Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, to develop and market drones. The BZK-005 UAV high-altitude unmanned reconnaissance aircraft with a stealth capability was jointly designed by Hafei and Beihang. The fuselage is a thin-walled structure with skeleton load, mainly by the box, stringer, floor, skin, and fairing and other components.
The Harbin BZK-005 UAV debuted at the 2006 Zhuhai International Air Show debut. On September 9, 2013, the Japanese Ministry of Defense, said the Chinese military suspected BZK-005 long-range reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicles into the Japanese side of the East China Sea over the Japanese air defense identification area. The Chinese response was that it was in line with relevant international law And international practice.
The maximum ceiling of 8000 meters, 40 hours of life time. The maximum carrying weight of 150 kg, can carry a very large photoelectric pod, including day and night TV cameras, infrared cameras and so on. Such capabilities have led most to compare it with the US MQ-1 Predator. Some sources report it is known as China's "Global Hawk", mainly for the implementation of reconnaissance missions and intelligence gathering, but the Global Hawk is considerably larger.
At the 2006 Zhuhai Air Show and the 2009 Moscow air show, the China Aviation Industry Import and Export Corporation's video appeared in the BZK-005 large-scale reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicles. In 2011, the Chinese online photo showed a BZK-005 high-altitude turboprop power unmanned aerial vehicles parked in an airport hangar. With the 2006 Zhuhai Airshow pictures, the aircraft began to be well known. It is said that the aircraft is a competitive product. A US think tank reported that the aircraft under the General Staff of the People's Liberation Army under the jurisdiction of the 61135 troops, deployed in Beijing Shahe Airport.
On September 3, 2015 to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Anti-Japanese War parade, three models of 11 unmanned aerial vehicles flew in the formation. The equipment is the latest all-weather unmanned reconnaissance aircraft. These three kinds of unmanned aerial vehicles are domestic GJ-1 medium-sized long-range UAV (attack -1), BZK-005 long-range long-range unmanned aerial vehicles and 250 kg JWP02 medium-range general-purpose unmanned aerial vehicles. The main features is the reconnaissance, intelligence transmission and fire strike in one system.
The fuselage is a thin-walled structure with skeleton load. Mainly by the box, stringer, floor, skin, and fairing and other components. Fuselage skeleton using conventional aluminum alloy riveting structure, skin and fairing with glass fiber, carbon fiber, paper honeycomb and other composite materials, hot forming. The machine uses a propeller propulsion layout.
There were many propulsion systems tested in the early prototypes, and the shortcomings of the types were seen. There was no obstruction of the engine nacelle before the propeller was propelled, and the propulsion was not as efficient as the pull-in type. Propulsion propeller is difficult to find the proper position of the engine and propeller, especially on the fuselage. On the contrary, in the pull-type propeller aircraft, the engine either installed in the fuselage head or installed in front of the wing nacelle is very convenient.
When mounted on the wing, the high-speed airflow behind the propeller can also be used to increase wing lift and improve aircraft take-off performance, so pull-in aircraft occupy a dominant position. But for the UAV, because the body is smaller, the front space to install a large number of key equipment, coupled with the satellite communications antenna vision requirements, propulsion layout has become a worthwhile design.
The fuselage carries a large satellite receiving antenna for receiving ground commands while transmitting reconnaissance pictures. However, the presence of airborne radar was not found on the video of such unmanned aerial vehicles.
The TYW-1, developed by Beihang University in Beijing, one of China's top institutes for science and technology, is an unmanned aircraft for reconnaissance and combat. It is based on the BZK-005, which the university also developed. The drone is to make its maiden flight in September 2017 and will be placed on the international market in 2018, according to Wang Jianping, deputy general manager and chief designer at Beihang Unmanned Aircraft System Technology. "We aim to tap the markets in neighboring nations, as well as in Southeast Asia and the Middle East," Wang said in an exclusive interview.
This would be the first time a Chinese university sold large unmanned combat aircraft on the international market. Northwestern Polytechnical University in Xi'an, Shaanxi province, has sold small, unarmed military drones to foreign buyers.
Though facing competition, Wang said he has confidence in the TYW-1 because it is based on the BZK-005, which has proved itself with an outstanding service record. "It's fair to say the BZK-005 is the best aerodynamic design in China, as it has the best lift-to-drag ratio of the drones of its kind," he said. Lift-to-drag ratio is a key indicator of an aircraft's capability.
"Taking advantage of the good design of the BZK-005, the TYW-1 will be able to fly for about 40 hours. With a maximum takeoff weight of 1,500kilograms, it will be capable of carrying six missiles or bombs with a total weight of 300 kg." Another edge of the TYW-1 is its high level of automation. Wang said the drone can autonomously take off and land, and will be able to track a target and strike without manual control. "It's very easy to learn how to operate this drone. It will take only a month to train an operator," he said. The TYW-1 also will be an open and modular platform, which means it can use equipment and weapons developed not only by Chinese companies, but also by other nations, he added.
Wang Ya'nan, editor-in-chief of Aerospace Knowledge, said the TYW-1 will have bright market prospects for two key reasons. "First, its predecessor, the BZK-005, has a good reputation in this field through its performance in actual operations," he said. "Second, the drone's modular design will give users a wide range of options when it comes to the procurement of equipment and weapons, enabling them to choose the most suitable products. "In addition, its long endurance in the sky will be attractive to nations that must monitor vast territorial waters."
| Maximum life
|| more than 40 hours
| Cruising speed
|| 150-180 km / h (height 5000 ~ 7000 meters)
| Practical ceiling
|| 8,000 meters
| Maximum takeoff weight
|| less than 1250 kg
| Maximum mission load
|| greater than 150 kg
| Take off landing mode
|| wheeled automatic takeoff and landing, can be human intervention;
| Take-off length
|| less than 600 meters (sea level)
| Landing length
|| less than 500 meters (sea level)
CASC Rainbow (Cai Hong, abbreviated as CH) is the name of a series Chinese UAVs developed by China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics of China
2012 at 09:12 on May 28
ASN-209 multi-purpose UAV system, is based on advanced technology, high-end products. Its main function is to implement day and night battles, tactical air reconnaissance and surveillance. Through the radio data link, the UAV can be real-time control, airborne reconnaissance image information can be transmitted to the ground control station in real time. The UAV system consists of airplanes, airborne reconnaissance mission equipment, ground control stations and launch recovery units.
ASN-209 multi-purpose UAV with dual-tail push rear engine layout, excellent overall pneumatic design and electromagnetic compatibility design, so that the UAV can load a variety of different airborne electronic equipment, such as can be loaded with electronic countermeasures, communication Relay, weather detection and other different mission equipment, to achieve multi-purpose use. ASN-209 multi-purpose UAV life time of 10 hours, the role of distance of 200km, so in a ASN-209 multi-purpose UAV with dual-tail push rear engine layout, excellent overall pneumatic design and electromagnetic compatibility design, so that the UAV can load a variety of different airborne electronic equipment, such as can be loaded with electronic countermeasures, communication Relay, weather detection and other different mission equipment, to achieve multi-purpose use. ASN-209 multi-purpose UAV life time of 10 hours, the role of distance of 200km, so in a
on Nov. 18, 2010 shows a homemade "ASN-209" pilotless plane system during the 8th China International Aviation &Aerospace Exhibition in Zhuhai, south China's Guangdong Province. Ten kinds of homemade pilotless planes were displayed at the six-day exhibition.
In the recent naval exercise in the South China Sea, the Chinese navy for the first time using the "Silver Eagle" UAV for remote communication support. It is speculated that the UAV may be used to implement the "anti-intervention" strategy.
"Silver Eagle" UAV with a double tail design, after the launch of the simulation combat mission. "Silver Eagle" and the aircraft industry ASN-209 UAV model the same, which was exhibited at the Zhuhai Air Show in 2010. The only difference between the two is that the "Silver Eagle" UAV has four vertical appendages; two of which are located on the fuselage and the other two on the two wings.
It is reported that in the three hours of flight, a ground operator using the mouse and keyboard on the "Silver Eagle" UAV control. When the UAV arrived at the combat area, it maintained a cruising speed of 134 kilometers per hour, maintaining a height of 3 kilometers.
During the execution of the mission, it interfered with the enemy communication, and at the same time as a node of the People's Liberation Army communications network, a large number of messages were transmitted. When the "enemy" is approaching, the ground control station immediately launched the "anti-reconnaissance deployment plan." By lowering the height and initiating radio silence, the "Silver Eagle" evades enemy detection. After the mission is over, the UAV returns to the launch location and uses the parachute to complete the landing.
"Silver Eagle" UAV in the People's Liberation Army naval exercises in the use of, highlighting the UAV in the "anti-intervention" strategy may play a role that China may be in the surrounding waters of the conflict when using UAV.
According to the Russian military news network reported on 28 May 2012, the US strategy page recently disclosed that the Egyptian Defense Ministry has purchased a production license, the introduction of technology from China, the production of 12 ASN-209 unmanned aircraft, the transaction amount is unknown. Egypt is ready to use the Chinese UAV for intelligence reconnaissance and surveillance.
It is reported that China ASN-209 unmanned human weight 320 kg, the maximum payload 50 kg, the maximum speed of 140 km / h, the maximum combat radius of 200 km, the maximum battery life of 10 hours. A set of ASN-209 unmanned aerial vehicle system consists of a ground command center and 6-10 vehicles, each with an ASN-209 UAV and a take-off projectile. There are also unmanned aerial vehicle parts and maintenance equipment. This unmanned machine can transmit video data in real time. In addition, ASN-209 UAV can also install radio electronic warfare equipment.
According to the Russian military equality network reported on 09 June 2012, Egyptian Arab Industrialization Organization Chairman Hamid - Weheba recently revealed that Egypt began mass production of China's research and development of ASN-209 multi-purpose UAV system . Although this UAV system is produced in cooperation with Chinese military producers, more than 99% of the components are Egyptian products. At present, ASN-209's mass production has entered the second stage, and the first six UAVs manufactured in the first stage are in full compliance with the requirements of the Egyptian army. ASN-209 is China Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an Love Technology Group developed, mainly for aerial reconnaissance, battlefield surveillance, correction of artillery fire, destroy target etc., it can also be used at night. Uninterrupted cruise time of 10 hours, range 125 miles, the monitoring area is quite large, very advanced performance??????????(www.81uav.cn),????:http://www.81uav.cn/uav-news/201206/13/2274.html
Canada "Han and Defense Review" magazine published in January article Ping Kefu article said that more and more developed by China's new UAV and weapons systems into the international military market. During the South African Aerospace and Defense Exhibition in 2014, China debuted ASN-209G reconnaissance attack unmanned aerial vehicle. ASN-209G is based on ASN-209 unmanned aerial vehicles. Currently ASN-209-type UAV has been installed Liberation Army and the Egyptian Army, the article said it was China's first export of unmanned aerial vehicles.
ASN-209 UAV latest upgrade was named ASN-209G, in Chinese, "G" means "attack." Two types of unmanned aerial vehicles in size and no difference, long, wide, high are 4.273x7.5x1.539 meters. Two-type UAV payload of 50 kg, the maximum flight speed of 180 km, cruising speed of 120 to 140 km, the maximum takeoff weight of 320 kg, cruising flight height of 3000 meters.
The difference between ASN-209 and ASN-209G two-type unmanned aerial vehicles is that the fuel efficiency of the ASN-209G unmanned aerial vehicle is reduced and the cruise time is reduced from 10 hours to 5 hours from ASN-209. By reducing fuel efficiency to save the payload, used to carry two 16.5 kg semi-active laser guided missiles. This missile has never been publicly demonstrated.
China Aviation Technology Import and Export Corporation to the United Arab Emirates export pterosaur-1A UAV equipped with China North Industries Corporation developed BA-7 semi-active laser guided missiles. This means that China Aviation Technology Import and Export Corporation has not yet produced similar UAV special missiles. China Aviation Technology Import and Export Corporation's UAVs use other military manufacturing plant to produce air-to-surface missiles, and in the early years there was an incompatibility problem. At present, the problem seems to have been resolved.
The CH3 / 4 UAV developed by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation is also equipped with AR-1 missiles developed by China North Industries.
The ASN-209G UAV is equipped with an upgraded data link system with a maximum distance of 150 meters from the ground command center, 80 km from the maneuvering control center, 3.2 kbps (uplink) and 25.6 kbps (Down).
China's major arms manufacturers are exporting unmanned aerial vehicles. At present, CH3 has been in the Pakistan Army service, the latter is currently negotiating with China to import CH4 UAV related matters. The CH3 study received financial assistance from Pakistan. YL-1A has been in the UAE Army service, China is currently active to Saudi Arabia, Algeria market exports of such unmanned aerial vehicles.
China's UAV weapons system research and development has been further accelerated. CNN has demonstrated more UAV weapons systems during the 2014 Aerospace and Defense Show in South Africa, including 100 kilograms of laser-guided bombs with a range of 6 km and a circumferential error of 3 meters, and 50 kilograms of GPS guided bombs The
When using semi-active laser-guided bombs, the ASN-209G can perform a search task at altitudes of 3000 meters above sea level. After the missile is launched, the target can be tracked using the automatic terminal laser guidance system. In this mode, UAV maximum activity radius of 6 km. In the 1000-meter high school, this UAV can attack land targets within 1.5 km.
The ASN-15 unmanned reconnaissance aerial vehicle (URAV) has been deployed by the PLA ground forces for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) roles. Developed by Xi'an ASN Technology Group Company, the 6kg ASN-15 can be launched by a single soldier in his hand. The URAV can fly at a speed of 80km/h at altitudes of 50~500m, and the flight endurance is 1 hour. The uav is fitted with a CCD camera and transmits the image data to the ground station via datalink in a real-time manner. ASN-15?????(URAV)????????????(ISR)???PLA????????????????????,??6???ASN-15??????????URAV?50~500????80??/???????,???????1????UAV????CCD???????????????????????? The URAV is operated by the UAV unit of the reconnaissance battalion organic to an Army division. The UAV and the ground equipments can be dissembled and carried by soldiers in several boxes. The URAV can be recovered by parachute or gliding. URAV????????UAV?????UAV???????????????????URAV??????????? Specifications Wingspan: 3m Length: 1.8m Weight: Max take-off 6.5kg Speed: Max 80~90km/h Flight endurance: 1 hour Operating altitude: 50~500m Remote control range: 10km Powerplant: Air-cooled piston engine ?? ??: 3 ? ??: 1.8 ? ??: ???? 6.5 ?? ??: ?? 80~90 ??/?? ??: 1??? ????: 50~500 ? ????: 10 ?? ????: ??????? Last update: 1 February 2009 ????: 2009?2?1???????????(www.81uav.cn),????:http://www.81uav.cn/uav-news/200902/13/1154.html
ggerate the threat of China's UAV
The article said that today, unmanned systems are rewriting the rules of military operations, people uneasy, has become the global defense industry and the legal and ethical issues of governments. As the emergence of unmanned aerial vehicle technology, China's rise and its reshaping of international geopolitical practices also cause the outside world to unknown things "sometimes understandable, sometimes irrational" fear.
Therefore, when China and UAV these two things together, it is certain that the Chinese UAV caused the media "particularly strong sense of tension." The article argues that China is indeed developing a series of unmanned aerial vehicles and unmanned systems when "Sino-Japanese relations are tense and Sino-US relations are subtle", but this does not mean that "UAVs are already in the escalating Sino-Japanese arms race Central position "or" China UAV threatened to highlight a new round of global arms race. "
Moss believes that the outside of this concern "very unreasonable". First of all, all the advanced forces in the world are using a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles, the PLA is not alone this one. China's development of UAV technology is not an arms race, nor should the outside world be afraid of China's reasons. Second, despite China's unmanned aerial vehicle technology "may show great progress", but Israel and the United States is still firmly occupy the field of UAV leadership, China and Europe, India, Russia and other countries ranked second in the echelon The Moreover, China is currently promoting the modernization of military technology, UAV system is only part of it, rather than special cases.
UAV missions diversify
However, the article argues that it is worth noting that China is now "already on how to use the ever-expanding UAV team showdown." Moss pointed out that there have been recent reports that China had planned to send UAVs into Myanmar, killing and killing 13 Chinese crews. Although the Chinese government ultimately did not use this tactic, but China's move "is clearly in the follow the United States, trying to keep the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the fight against the enemy outside the country's rights."
In addition, the territorial dispute between the East China Sea and the South China Sea has also prompted China to accelerate the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, "the ideal weapon for maritime surveillance missions." According to a PLA generals recently claimed that the use of UAV surveillance Diaoyu Islands Islands has now become a practice. Peter Singh, head of the 21st century Security and Intelligence Center at the Brookings Institution, argues that both China and Japan want to remain more in the disputed area to swear sovereignty and monitor each other. Unmanned systems help to achieve this goal, especially its ability to stay better than the traditional platform. The article also pointed out that, in addition to the development of new unmanned aerial vehicles, the PLA Air Force will also be the old F-6 fighter into unmanned aerial vehicles, deployed in Fujian, these aircraft "is obviously used to monitor the Diaoyu Islands and as an armed conflict Of the low cost of weapons ".
Moss pointed out that China's deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles is not limited to military purposes. In Liaoning Province, the local government is allegedly using the UAV to monitor the border between China and the DPRK and is building two coastal UAV bases to monitor the province's jurisdiction in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Bay area. At the same time, China's State Oceanic Administration, as one of China's major marine agencies, announced last August that it would build a UAV base in 11 coastal provinces in China, which is expected to be completed by 2015 And put into use. The article argues that China's development in the field of UAVs has benefited from the "Big Dipper" navigation system. At present, the system already has 16 active satellites, covering the entire China and the Asia-Pacific region.
The article argues that if the provincial government and civil law enforcement departments to prepare with the People's Liberation Army with UAVs, so that a large unmanned aerial vehicle team to perform a variety of different tasks, will take several years to achieve the interconnection between the various departments of unmanned aerial vehicles. However, China does not lack the relevant technology to obtain shortcuts.
Domestic UAV project many
Over the years, China has put forward dozens of UAV concepts, most of which have stopped at the laboratory or runway stage. However, the Chinese aviation sector "has invested a lot of energy" developed a variety of UAV models for the PLA selection. In addition, Chinese engineers were able to learn from Israel's advanced technology after receiving the "Habib" UAV from Israel Aerospace Industries in the 1990s.
The article quoted Singh's view that in the past few years, the Chinese UAV has evolved from nothing to "at least 25 different models of public exhibitions at the equipment show." It can be seen, Beijing's unmanned aerial vehicle project is indeed ambitious, but Singh also reminded, should not exaggerate China's UAV capability, because the current discussion is only "a small number of Chinese UAV", and These unmanned aerial vehicles "strength far behind the United States."
If the US military standards as a basis, China only 6 to 10 kinds of UAV models to meet the combat level. With the US military unmanned combat capability gap, the performance of the PLA "seems to be better than other troops."
At present, China Aviation Technology Import and Export Corporation has developed a variety of ASN series of unmanned aerial vehicles, of which at least two have been put into actual use. One is the ASN-15 UAV, which is a small intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) UAV, similar to the US RQ-11 "crow" portable portable unmanned aerial vehicle; another Which is similar to the US military's "scan eagle" (flight time up to 20 hours), may be widely reported by the media, in 2011 to participate in the PLA Navy South China Sea exercise "Silver Eagle" UAV.
Vertical Takeoff UAV (VTUAV) as a particularly suitable for offshore ISTAR and fire control tasks of the equipment, also began to enter the People's Liberation Army active duty. The article said that in 2012, there was a media on the People's Liberation Army Navy a frigate use UAV for picture reports, the aircraft is likely to be purchased from the Greek company in the West of the "Komkoput" S-100 no one Machine, China has purchased a total of 18, claiming to be used for civil purposes. In addition, China has also developed the SVU-200 and V750 unmanned helicopter, the former at the end of 2012 first flight, which in the near future was put into civilian. Moss said the PLA Navy is exploring the possible use of unmanned helicopters in anti-submarine warfare, and is also interested in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles on aircraft carriers because UAVs can "greatly enhance China's anti-intervention / Ability to refuse ".
At the same time, China also has a variety of larger, more advanced UAV. There are two models known as the death of the task known as the death of the US MQ-1 "predator" and MQ-9 "death" hollow long-range unmanned aerial vehicles similar to them, respectively, Cheng Fei Design Institute developed the "pterosaur" UAV and CATIC Group CH-4 UAV. According to "Global Times" recently reported that the former as the "death" UAV similar attack aircraft, while the latter more play the role of multi-purpose aircraft for military and civilian units at the same time use. Another China UAV producer Aerospace Long March International Trade Co., Ltd. is developed CH-91-type UAV, the aircraft is said to have begun production, followed by model CH-92 UAV will also enter the amount of 2014 Production. In addition, the China Aerospace Science and Industry Group has also exhibited a similar level of WJ-600-type UAV, propeller propulsion "pterosaur" and CH-4-type unmanned aerial vehicles, the aircraft using jet propulsion the way.
In addition, Cheng Fei Industrial Group is developing the "Xianglong" (also known as "Xiangying") UAV is also worthy of attention. The machine resembles the US military's RQ-4 "Global Hawk" high-altitude long-range unmanned aerial vehicles. The article said that the recent flow of the aircraft on the runway to stay on the photos, indicating that its research and development work is effectively advancing. There are reports that China is developing two were named
"Wing Blade" and "Dark Sword" (Dark Sword) stealth unmanned aerial vehicles, the former and the US military RQ-170 "Sentinel" UAV similar to the latter may refer to the US Navy is still in the experimental stage X-74B Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. At the same time, China's technical staff are also "is developing similar to the British 'Black Hornets' miniature helicopters of the new generation of nano-UAV."
China UAV to enter the international market
Moss pointed out in the article, and now China's space sector must also meet from the military and government departments of the huge demand. It is not difficult to imagine, there are a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles compete with each other, large-scale production to meet the demand. In fact, a senior company in China Aviation Science and Industry Corporation in November last year had predicted that China's UAV sales will double in 2013, usher in blowout growth.
In addition to the domestic market, the Chinese UAV manufacturers also have high hopes for export products. Among the above mentioned a number of unmanned aerial vehicles, similar to the "predator" CH-4-type UAV was focused on the promotion, the recent appearance of Abu Dhabi defense exhibition. The article said that the aircraft belonging to the China Aviation Technology Group's "Rainbow" family UAV, is considered an upgraded version of CH-3 UAV, which has been exported to Pakistan. According to RIA Novosti in the recent Zhuhai air show during the report, "Pterosaur" UAV has also been "successfully into the international market."
The article believes that China has correctly found the gaps in the international market. As the current unmanned aerial vehicles have become relatively few countries, and the number of countries capable of producing unmanned aerial vehicles, China's unmanned system of cheap and natural become a big advantage. The article said that a US "Predator" UAV cost about 4.5 million US dollars, "death" UAV unit price is as high as nearly 10 million US dollars, even if the country is willing to bear the astronomical, have to try to pass the US Congress audit To qualify for purchase. Compared with similar products in the United States, China's UAVs are said to "cost less than $ 1 million", thus becoming a lot of international customers affordable products, especially for those "can not or do not want to use the United States to technology" countries For example.
Moss said that if the development of China's UAV technology really have a place to be vigilant, it is unlikely to be its threat to Japan and the United States in the Asia-Pacific region, but the low price of China's armed UAV and "Lower export thresholds" have led to the proliferation of such equipment in developing countries.
ASN-104 unmanned reconnaissance aircraft
ASN-104 unmanned reconnaissance aircraft (formerly known as D-4) is a small low-altitude low-speed unmanned reconnaissance aircraft developed by Xi'an Aisheng Technology Group, Northwestern Polytechnical University. March 1980 began to develop, in October 1982 the first test flight, in 1985 into small batch production. ASN-104 is mainly used for military reconnaissance and civil aviation measurements. It can provide the army to the enemy depth of 60 km within the battlefield of the air reconnaissance intelligence and real-time monitoring.
Chinese name ASN-104 unmanned reconnaissance aircraft Wingspan 4.3 meters Captain 3.3 meters Machine high 0.9 meters
The system is equipped with a reconnaissance 6, ground station 1 set. The aircraft does not need the airport and the runway, with the rocket boost, in the launcher on the long launch of the dragon. After the takeoff is complete, the rocket automatically falls off. The aircraft was reclaimed by parachute, and the abdomen of the airplane was fitted with a shock absorber and a pair of skids to absorb the impact load at the time of landing. ASN-104 remote control distance of 60 km, the development of ASN-105 remote control distance of 100 km.
Power unit: 1 HS-510 four-cylinder two-stroke air-cooled piston engine, the maximum power of 22 kilowatts (30 hp).
Main airborne equipment: all-round heading flight control system, radio remote control, telemetry systems, aerial cameras and television cameras.
Size data: wing area of ??1.85 square meters.
Weight and load: the maximum takeoff weight of 140 kg, the task equipment weight 30 kg.
Performance data: the maximum flat speed of 205 km / h, cruising speed of 150 km / h, practical ceiling 3200 meters, remote control radius of 60 km, life time 2 hours.
ASN-104 and ASN-105 UAV were developed in the 1980s by Xi'an ASN Technology Group Company, and was revealed by China Aviation Technology Import and Export Co. (CATIC) in the 1990s for export market. Both of these UAVs are also in service with the PLA for tactical reconnaissance, day/night surveillance, border patrol, artillery spotting, and aerial photography and prospecting.
Both UAVs are capable of transmitting imagery data to the ground station in real-time. The ASN-104 has a maximum remote-control distance of 60km, while the ASN-105’s maximum remote-control distance is 100km. The ASN-104 made its maiden flight in February 1982, and received its design certificate in December 1983. The ASN-105 first flew in the mid-1980s.
Each system has six UAVs and the ground station, which comprises a command &control vehicle, a mobile control vehicle, a mobile photo processing vehicle, and a mobile television image processing vehicle. The UAV is launched by rocket boosters, and recovered by parachute. The UAV is fitted with an under-fuselage impact absorbing device to minimise the damage caused during recovering.
The ASN-104 has high-mounted wings, slightly tapered from roots to tips. The ASN-105’s wings are high-mounted, straight to the midsection, and tapered from mid-wing to tips. The engine is a single, prop-driven engine in the nose section. The fuselage is round and tapers to front and rear, with fixed landing pads. The tail flats are high-mounted on the body and equally tapered. The fin is equally tapered.
The basic variant of the UAV is fitted with an aerial photographic camera and a television imaging system. The imagery intelligence can be transmitted to the ground station in real-time, or stored in data storage devices. In a typical mission, the photographic camera can cover an area of up to 1,700 square kilometres. The size of the photo is 18cm X 18cm. Later variants could carry night vision devices and CCD cameras.
The ground station of the ASN-104 include the radio tracking system, radio remote-control system, radio positioning and television image processing equipment. Each control station has two crewmembers: a navigator/commander and a UAV controller. If necessary, the radio tracking and remote-controlling systems can be disintegrated from the command and control vehicle and become man-portable. The aerial photographic photos and television images are processed in the mobile photo processing vehicle (dark room) and the mobile television image processing vehicle respectively.
The ASN-105 has an integrated radio tracking/remote-controlling system which can perform the tracking and controlling of the UAVs. The system is fully computerised. The UAV can fly according to the pre-programmed autopilot, and can be switched into remote-controlling mode at any stage of the flight. The system can be assisted by a tripod-mounted signal relay system, which can be carried by crewmembers in the mountain regions to receive and re-send the image signals.
The ground control station of the ASN-105
The ASN-104/105 is powered by a HS-510 four cylinder dual ignition air cooled piston engine with a power rating of 22kw. The engine uses ordinary automobile fuel.
Weight: Max take-off 140kg; Max mission payload 30 kg
Speed: Maximum 250km/h, cruising 150km/h
Flight Endurance: 2hours
Service Ceiling: 3,200m
Remote Control Distance: 60km (ASN-104), 100km (ASN-105)
Chinese name: ASN-206 English name: NWPU ASN-206
A SN - 206 is a short - range, multi - purpose unmanned aerial vehicle developed by. In 1987 , the state decided to develop a more advanced UAV system by the Navy Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), which is now the ASN - 206 UAV system. Beginning of the design, the positioning of the kind, is the new UAV system with the international advanced level, involving mechanical, electrical sub, optical and other multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral. As the competent authorities on the product requirements of the high demand, the lack of domestic development experience, foreign and technical blockade, it can be said that the development of the machine is very difficult.
With the development of the North-no investigation - 5 , in difficult conditions, the workers of the West to maximize the participation of the subjective initiative to the master Zhang Yuzhuo as a representative of a large number of experts with a sub-difficult Hard work, plum wear month, day and night work. From 1987 to 1994 , seven years from the overall design of the UAV system, to the sub-system design and trial production, flight test, etc., they overcome one after another technical difficulties. 1994 Nian 12 Yue, ASN - 206 UAV finally completed the design finalized, and began production. In 1996 the machine to participate in Zhuhai International Air Show, attracted the attention of all parties.
ASN - 206 UAV was born, realized from the air on the ground target real - time reconnaissance, surveillance, search, identification, aerial photography and other functions, advanced technology, the main indicators of contemporary international advanced level, shortening China and The gap between the world's advanced level, to promote the cause of China's small unmanned aerial vehicles in all directions. The aircraft of the stereotypes of production, for our army to provide a new type of information technology combat equipment. The results in 1996 by the National Science and Technology Progress Award.
ASN - 206 is also China 's UAV technology foreign exchange, seeking export representatives, the machine involved in the Turkish short - range unmanned aerial vehicle program competition. The Turkish Ministry of Defense plans to buy 10 sets of remote and 8 sets of short-range UAV systems. There are 3 companies involved in the purchase of unmanned aerial vehicles in Turkey plans to vote standard. The other two companies are Israel Aircraft Industries Ltd., which provides " searchers " and " hunters " unmanned aerial vehicles, the United States of America San Diego, California, General Atomic Aviation Systems offers " Predator " , I - GNAT and " Prowler " II Three unmanned aerial vehicles, with the United States and Israel, these unmanned aerial vehicles advanced technology on the same stage of competition, fully demonstrated the strength of China's UAV technology and the development of the cause of determination.
Chinese name : no detective -5 ("Changhong" 1)
English name : BUAA DR-5
Model Overview :
No detective type 5 UAV, also known as "Changhong" No. 1, is developed by the North high-altitude multi-purpose unmanned aircraft, code DR-5. Mainly used for military reconnaissance, aerial photography, target or geological survey, atmospheric sampling.
The machine was based on the instructions approved by the Central Military Commission by the Central Military Commission in September 1969, and was dismantled by Beihang reference to the United States BQM-147H high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft wreck, through mapping and further development. In 1970 the first use of American aircraft wreckage, repair three machines. In September the same year, the first flight test, after 33 minutes of flight, a high degree of 13000 meters, range of 306 km, the speed of 700 km / h, UAV and ground control station work all normal, in the land parachute recovery success. And then carried out a test flight test. From 1971 to 1976, four aircraft were developed. In October 1972, 05 through the whole machine static test, 04 through the whole machine vibration test. The machine was successful in the first flight on November 28, 1972, and then in October 1973, in April 1975 has carried out two scientific test flight, the results are good. In order to ensure safe and reliable, the automatic control system for a number of physical dynamic simulation test. To ensure the accuracy of navigation, with the "Trident", Figure -4 aircraft on the Doppler system for more than 80 hours of flight test. In order to ensure reliable remote control, self-designed and developed ground control station in addition to participate in nuclear-free, ground control station flight test nearly 120 sorties. According to the approval of the relevant documents of the Air Navigation Commission, the technical appraisal team selected 07 to carry out the design qualification test flight on December 25, 1977. However, due to internal failure of the low-pressure pump motor, resulting in engine parking, UAV due to under voltage, then automatically open the umbrella landing. Although the test flight did not succeed, but verified the emergency umbrella recovery system work well, recycling umbrella has undergone the test of super load. After the three machine organization, by the North, 125 factory on the motor to take the appropriate improvement measures. The technical identification team decided to use the 06 aircraft on May 11, 1978 for the second design qualification test flight. The results of the test flight by the design of the leading group test and technical appraisal team on May 16, 1978 meeting confirmed: UAV design stereotypes successful flight test. July 5 to 12, 1980, no investigation -5 design stereotypes technical appraisal group commissioned by the Air Navigation Commission, in the Beihang through the design of UAV design stereotypes identification, completed the design of the type of machine. To October 1986, the machine produced a total of six, and equipped with Air Force forces, the effect is good. It is worth mentioning that no detective -5 is China's only participated in the actual combat unmanned aerial vehicles. In 1986 against the more self-defense counterattack, no detective 5 outbound reconnaissance for 10 minutes, found the Vietnamese military commander of the West more than 200 military targets, for the victory of the war to provide a strong guarantee. In the next 20 years, the aircraft was changed to high-speed drone. So far, this type of machine in China officially UAV models equipped with the maximum ceiling also holds the record and the fastest flying speed.
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