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Surface-to-Air Missiles

Surface-to-air missiles are missile weapons launched from the ground to attack enemy aircraft, missiles and other aerial targets. They are an important part of modern air defense weapon systems. Compared with antiaircraft artillery, it has a long range, high shooting height, and high single shot hit rate; compared with interceptors , it has fast response speed, fierce firepower, and great power. It is not limited by target speed and height. The low altitude and the far, medium and short ranges form a tight air defense firepower network.

The Hongqi [Red Flag] series air defense missiles constitute the main body of my country's surface-to-air air defense missiles. From the original Hongqi No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3, to the later Hongqi 61 and Hongqi 7, and then to the new Hongqi 15, Hongqi 17, and Hongqi 18 reported by foreign journals, the Hongqi series air defense missiles have formed a huge The family is responsible for Chinas air defense.

From the original Hongqi No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3, to the later Hongqi No. 6 and Hongqi No. 7, the Hongqi 9, Hongqi 12, and Hongqi 16 that have been in service, and then the new Hongqi 15, Hongqi 17, and Hongqi reported by foreign journals. 18 and other red flag, red flag series of anti-aircraft missiles has become a huge family, charged with the task of air defense of China's No. 1 red flag in the high-altitude anti-aircraft missiles , anti-aircraft missiles constitutes a red flag series of air-ground air defense missile body.

From the original Hongqi No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3, to the later Hongqi 61 and Hongqi 7, and then to the new Hongqi 15, Hongqi 17, and Hongqi 18 reported by foreign journals, the Hongqi series air defense missiles have formed a huge family responsible for Chinas air defense.

The Red Flag No. 1 air defense missile is semi-permanent high-altitude Chinese imitation of the former Soviet Union, according to C-75 type (SA-2) surface to air missile weapons systems, short-range surface to air missile weapon system. The imitation started in June 1958, and the model was finalized in December 1964. On January 10, 1965, the 1st battalion of ground-to-air missiles used the Hongqi-1 to shoot down a U-2 aircraft for the first time. The system consists of missiles, launchers, guidance stations, etc. The missile is guided by radio commands. It has a length of 10.90 meters, a diameter of 0.65 meters, a wingspan of 2.56 meters, a launch weight of 2160 kg, a maximum speed of Mach 3, a range of 13-29 kilometers, and a shooting height of 3-22 kilometers. The warhead is High-energy fragmentation type with a single shot hit rate of 68%. Due to the poor mobility of the system, the low hit rate, and the susceptibility to electronic interference, the system will not be produced soon.

On October 8, 1959, China's surface-to-air missile force shot down the Taiwan Air Force reconnaissance aircraft RB-57D, which was flying over Beijing with SA-2 missiles. This became the world's first case of shooting down an aircraft with surface-to-air missiles. After the RB-57D was shot down for the first time, five U-2 reconnaissance planes were shot down one after another.

The Hongqi No. 1 air defense missile is a semi-fixed medium-high altitude, medium- and short-range surface-to-air missile weapon system imitated by China based on the former Soviet Unions C-75 (SA-2) surface-to-air missile weapon system. The imitation started in June 1958, and the model was finalized in December 1964. On January 10, 1965, the 1st battalion of ground-to-air missiles used the Hongqi-1 to shoot down a U-2 aircraft for the first time. The system consists of missiles, launchers, guidance stations, etc. The missile is guided by radio commands . It has a length of 10.90 meters, a diameter of 0.65 meters, a wingspan of 2.56 meters, a launch weight of 2160 kg, a maximum speed of Mach 3, a range of 13-29 kilometers, and a height of 3-22 kilometers. The warhead is High-energy fragmentation type, with a single shot hit rate of 68%.

HQ-2 is a medium- and high-altitude surface-to-air missile weapon system developed by China in 1964. After passing the launch test in June 1965, it entered full-scale production and was subsequently equipped with troops. In the late 1960s, the Chinese People's Liberation Army used HQ-2 surface-to-air missiles to shoot down five Taiwan-made U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance planes. In the 1985 Iran-Iraq War, it was used by Iran against the US SR-71 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. North Korea not only purchased the HQ-2 missile, but also introduced technology to maintain its own complete weapon system. In the following 25 years, China made several improvements to it, and successively developed HQ-2B, HQ-2F, HQ-2J and HQ-2P. The HQ-2B missile is similar to the basic HQ-2 missile. The main improvements are: equipped with a high-energy fragmentation warhead with a larger flying angle, an anti-jamming coded radio command guidance system, an integrated circuit autopilot, and a frequency modulation ratio. Similar to bomb fuze. The HQ-2B surface-to-air missile can attack the oncoming and side flying targets, and can also chase after the target. The single shot kill probability against a target with a speed less than 565 m/s is 92%. The single shot kill rate of the m/s target is 73%, and it can also deal with the target with a maximum speed of 1000 m/s.

In the mid-1960s, a US-made high-performance reconnaissance aircraft appeared with a flying altitude of 27-30 kilometers and a speed of 1,000 meters per second. In dealing with such aerial targets, the Hongqi-2 missile has been unable to do so. In order to strengthen the ability to attack such high-altitude and high-speed targets, in August 1965, the Central Military Commission decided to accelerate the development of the high-altitude, high-speed "Hongqi" No. 3 air defense missile.

In August 1965, the Central Military Commission decided to accelerate the development of the high-altitude, high-speed "Hongqi"-3 air defense missile. From July to September 1970, the Hongqi 3 missile conducted a design finalized flight test at the ground-to-air missile test base. In May and June 1974, the Hongqi 3 missile intercepted the Tuqiang No. 1 high-altitude and high-speed target missile test at the ground-to-air missile test base to test the possibility of the missile intercepting high-altitude, high-speed aircraft and air-to-surface missiles. The performance of the target bomb. The test designed two temporary launch positions 176 kilometers apart. In the test, one target missile was launched, and the guidance station quickly captured the target and tracked steadily. Two salvos of the "Hongqi" No. 3 missiles were shot down with the first shot. The test proved that the "Hongqi" No. 3 missile weapon system has the ability to intercept high-altitude and high-speed aircraft; the performance of the "Tuqiang" No. 1 target bomb meets the requirements of high-altitude and high-speed targets. So far, the entire process of the development and testing of the "Hongqi" 3 has been completed, indicating that the Chinese scientific and technological team has the ability to design, manufacture, and test air defense missile weapon systems. Hongqi-3 missile has a length of 5.95 meters and a launch weight of nearly 1 ton. It can attack ground targets and is suitable for air defense and field air defense. The warhead weighs 84 kilograms and can produce fragments after explosion. More than 3600 pieces, with a killing radius of 50 meters.

The Red Flag -61 low-altitude air defense missile was developed by China itself. The design started in September 1965 and was originally named Hongqi-41. In January 1966, it was renamed Hongqi-61. Due to the urgent need for air defense missiles by the navy, it was changed to ship-to-air missile system design in 1967, and the sea-based type was Hongqi-61B. After the Hongqi-61 air defense missile was equipped with the Navy, the response was good. In 1976, the ground-to-air missile system continued to be developed on this basis, and the model was finalized in 1986, and the production model was Hongqi-61A. The Hongqi-61A surface-to-air missile weapon system is composed of a missile, a 2-gang launcher, a 6X6 off-road vehicle chassis, a tracking radiation radar, and a command and control station. The missile adopts semi-active continuous wave radar homing guidance, with a projectile length of 3.99 meters, a projectile diameter of 0.286 meters, a wingspan of 1.166 meters, a launch weight of 310 kg, a maximum speed of Mach 3, a maximum range of 10 kilometers, and a maximum firing height of 8 kilometers. The unit is a continuous thin shot killer, with a single shot hit rate of 64%-80%. Hongqi-61 has experienced a development process from land to sea, and then from sea to air. It is our army's first general-purpose missile for the three services. It has accumulated experience and laid a foundation for the development of basic air defense missiles for the three services. The outside world (especially the US intelligence agencies) generally believes that the "Hongqi"-61 series missiles were developed based on the Italian "Aspide" surface-to-air missiles.

Hongqi-7 (FM-90/FM-80) low-altitude air defense missile resulated from a March 1979, General Staff Headquarters proposal to develop new low-altitude and ultra-low-altitude surface-to-air missiles to strengthen field air defense and key air defense capabilities. In June of the same year, the State Council and the Central Military Commission formally issued a development task, named "Hongqi" No. 7 missile (export number "Flying Midge" 80/FM-80). The Hongqi-7 is an all-weather, low-altitude, ultra-low-altitude air defense missile based on the legal "Sidewinder" missile. The design was finalized in 1988 and is now equipped with field troops to replace the Hongqi-61 A surface-to-air missile. The missile has two types of vehicles: mobile transfer square warehouse and electric off-road vehicle. Each system is equipped with 4 tube-mounted missiles; it is equipped with S-band pulse Doppler search radar; the launch guidance system includes KU-band monopulse radar and TV tracking system , Infrared markers, etc.; using infrared, TV, radar composite guidance system, full radio command guidance, has a strong anti-interference ability; can attack a variety of high-speed aircraft, helicopters, air-to-surface missiles, cruise missiles.

The FM-90 air defense missile is the latest improved model of the FM-80 series. Because of the great improvement, China Precision Import and Export Corporation assigned it a new model. The guidance mode uses a semi-automatic radar commanded infrared image guidance system. The radar has a search distance of 25 kilometers and a tracking distance of 20 kilometers. The target information is continuously updated with the data link. The effective firing height of the missile is between 15 and 6000 meters, the effective range is between 0.7 and 15 kilometers, and the maximum speed of the missile is Mach 2.3. This missile has all-weather combat capabilities and can effectively deal with multiple types of air targets such as fighter planes, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles, air-to-surface tactical missiles and anti-radiation missiles. Its standard firing unit consists of a search control vehicle and 2 to 3 firing guided vehicles. The complete firing unit has 8 to 12 spare missiles. The preparation time is reduced from 10 seconds to 6 seconds, and a single shot hits. at a rate of about 80%.

Hongqi-9 is China's first regional air defense missile. The central government has always attached great importance to this cross-century national key project. Even if it decided to introduce S-300PMU1, it did not stop the development of HQ-9, which shows its special status. HQ-9 is a product under the green light of the central leadership, and its investment has not been interrupted. The attitude of the high-level is often related to the fate of weapons and equipment. This is why Hongqi-9 has never been dismounted after generations of leaders.

Hongqi-9 is China's first regional air defense missile. The central government had always attached great importance to this cross-century national key project. Even if it decided to introduce S-300PMU1, it did not stop the development of HQ-9, which showed its special status. HQ-9 is a product under the green light of the central leadership, and its investment has not been interrupted. The attitude of the high-level is often related to the fate of weapons and equipment. This is why Hongqi-9 has never been dismounted after generations of leaders.

The Hongqi-9 project code is actually Project No. 10, which is the product of the auxiliary introduction of S-300PMU1 (Project 15/Hongqi 15). Therefore, HQ-9 and J-10 are the pride of China in the cutting-edge field of national defense. The performance of HQ-9 is roughly as follows: the projectile length is greater than 9 meters, the projectile diameter is 0.7 meters; the aspect ratio is about 12.9, which is close to the Patriot's 12.6, and its high-speed performance is slightly less than the volume but it also has a booster. The S-300V (9M82) is better. The projectile weighs about 2 tons, the warhead is heavier than 180 kg, and the load factor is 11, which is better than S-300V and PAC-2+, but inferior to S-300PMU1. Like other missiles, the warhead is a prefabricated fragment high-explosive type triggered by a radio proximity fuze. The minimum range of HQ-9 is estimated to be 6 kilometers, the maximum range is 200 kilometers, the minimum range is 0.5 kilometers, and the maximum range is 30 kilometers. The minimum range and height are slightly larger. The maximum range of ballistic missile interception is less than 30 kilometers, which is worse than the 40 kilometers of the S-300 series. The single-engine kill rate of the aircraft is 0.7 to 0.9; limited by insufficient maximum speed and small flight envelope range, when intercepting ballistic targets such as M-9, a non-head-on T-shaped approach is adopted. fan interception, single-shot kill probability is not likely to more than 30%. The Red Flag-15 was developed by China to introduce missile with Russia S-300PMU1 imitation products. The medium-high-altitude, medium- and long-range surface-to-air missile system with anti-tactical ballistic missile capability developed by Russia is called the c-300 type in Russia and the sa-10 (Sam-10) by NATO. The development of this type of missile began in 1970, and five types have been developed. Beginning in 1992, China successively introduced the s-300pmu and s-30 0pmu1 types, and began to produce the s-300pmu1 type in 1996, named Hongqi-15. The s-300pmu1 surface-to-air missile system is composed of a command center, a target search radar, a guidance station, a 48n6e missile and a 4-gang launch vehicle, etc. It is based on a battalion, including 12 launch vehicles, 48 ??missiles and 1 guidance Station, can intercept 6 targets at the same time. The 48n6e missile adopts inertial guidance + active radar terminal guidance. The launch method is vertical launch. The projectile is 7.8 meters long, 0.5 meters in diameter, 1500 kilograms of take-off weight, maximum range of 90 kilometers, height of 25 meters to 30 kilometers, and maximum speed. Mach 6, using fragmented kill warheads, can intercept tactical ballistic missiles with a speed of 2.7 km/m and a range of 1,500 km. The maximum interception distance is 40 kilometers and the maximum interception height is 25 kilometers.

Red Flag 16 is a jointly developed with Russia's new air defense missile system. It has been defined as a medium/low air range surface-to-air missile, with an effective combat altitude between 100 and 20,000 meters, a response speed of 6 to 8 seconds, and a missile battery that can attack 8 air targets at the same time. The single-shot kill probability is 0.9, using the most advanced vertical launch technology and phased array radar; the warhead is a composite guided type, and the vehicle is self-propelled. The Russian side will replace the SA-17 currently in service. The Chinese side will use the pre-production Hongqi 17-the Chinese version of Tor-M1 tracked field air defense missile system to fully replace the "man to middle-aged" Hongqi 61A. Among them, the latter Since the function is close to the combat scope and "Red Flag 7," it is likely to pose a threat to its market share. At present, this missile program has entered the advanced development stage. If the current progress goes well, it is expected that Hongqi 16 will be put into service around 2005, equipped with Air Force Homeland Air Defense.

Hongqi-17 ground-to-air field crawler air defense missile system was introduced by China from Russia in the mid-1990s. More than 20 sets of these low-altitude field air defense missiles are equipped with the air defense brigade of the 38th Army. The localized model became Hongqi-17, an all-weather, mobile, vertical launch single-vehicle automated field surface-to-air missile weapon system. The system includes target search radar, guidance station, missile module and chassis. The antenna part of the target search radar and the guidance station, 2 missile modules (8 missiles), and the TV optical sighting equipment form a turret type. The entire turret can be rotated 360 degrees. Other display consoles and other equipment are located In the chassis. The Hongqi 17 air defense system integrates radar, missiles and guidance stations in the same armored vehicle and uses vertical cold bomb launches. It can deal with air targets with a speed of 700 m/s and an overload of 12g. Attack distance is 12km. Each vehicle is equipped with 2 missile modules, and each missile module consists of a transport launch box and 4 9m331 missiles. The missile's engine is a single-chamber two-stage thrust solid rocket motor; the missile uses radio command guidance. Hongqi 16 and Hongqi 17 together form a complete high and low altitude defensive fire net.

The Hongqi-18 air defense system is a multifunctional third-generation air defense missile system that can defend against bombers and stealth aircraft, as well as ballistic missiles and cruise missiles. It is an airspace anti-missile weapon system and has better performance than "Patriot" pvc-2 + missile. The Hongqi-18 multi-function air defense system (S-300V) resulted from the visit of Liu Huaqing, Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission of China, to Russia from August 26 to September 4, 1997. Liu Huaqing not only secretly visited Russias highly secretive new fighter prototype, but also discussed the technical details of the introduction of the s-300V (SA-12) production line with the Russian defense industry. If the technology transfer negotiations go smoothly, the first Chinese version of the s-300v can be shipped in 2001, and the production model should be designated as "Red Flag 18". By then, China will have the ability to produce anti-ballistic missiles for the first time. The maximum killing range of tactical ballistic missiles is 40 kilometers, the minimum killing range is 13 kilometers (9m82 missile) and 6-8 kilometers (9m83 missile), the maximum combat height is 25 kilometers, and the minimum combat height is 0.2 kilometers. The probability of a single kill is 60% at high altitude and 80%-90% at medium and low altitude. A s-30 0v brigade can shoot up to 24 targets at the same time. Up to 48 missiles can be guided simultaneously. The missile launch interval is 1.5 seconds, and the missile launch preparation time is 15 seconds. The Hongqi-19 is under research, the specific situation is unknown. It is said that the missile has a height of 40,000 meters and is mainly used to deal with the US Aurora-Aurora hypersonic stealth reconnaissance aircraft. The progress of Sino-Russian cooperative research and development is unknown (confidential and no picture).

Feiteng-2000 (FT-2000) anti-radiation surface-to-air missile system is a vehicle-mounted 4-tube vertical-launched air defense missile, which can strike up to 20 The target of kilometers, the oblique killing distance is 12 kilometers to 100 kilometers. It is mainly used for anti-air radiation aircraft (air-warning aircraft and air control system aircraft. The detection range of the system is 2 gigahertz to 18 gigahertz (i.e. S-Ku band) ). The appearance is similar to the S-300 missile. Projectile length: 6.8 meters Projectile diameter: 466 mm Projectile weight: 1300 kg Firing height: 3-20 kilometers Combat slant range: 12-100 kilometers Conductor system: passive radar guidance typical target : Launching an air target of 2~18 GHz radio waves.

"Falcon 60" land-based, ship-based general air defense missile system can intercept various air and Sea-skimming targets, such as fighter-bombers, bombers, missiles and helicopters. With high automation procedures and strong anti-jamming capabilities, it can handle 40 targets, track 12 targets, and attack 3 targets at the same time. The latest version of the Falcon-60 system It is the "Falcon"-60n. The "Falcon"-60 is a medium-range surface-to-air missile system, which has the ability to automatically respond to active and passive electronic interference. The system uses a continuous wave semi-active homing guidance method, with Very high guidance accuracy. Because the Chinese Army was not satisfied with its performance, even the Russian-made buk (sa-11) failed to impress the military, so it cooperated with Russia to develop a more advanced Red Flag 16 (including a new vertical launch system and phased array radar).

Chinese-made Kay One (KS-1) anti-aircraft missile test-fired successfully in 1989, and the end of the trial in 1994. When the missile on display at the 1997 Zhuhai Air Show, which The advancement has aroused people's great attention.

The PL-9 (PL-9) is a surface-to-air and air-to-surface dual-purpose air defense missile system. The projectile has a diameter of 160 mm, a weight of 1230 grams, a maximum range of 8,000 meters, and a maximum height of 4,000 meters. When the missile is used for ground-launched air defense, the full weapon system consists of a missile and a missile launch vehicle that can search, track and launch. Each vehicle is equipped with 4 missiles. After the radar finds the target, it turns to optical capture and tracking of air targets and launch missiles reliably. The missile adopts infrared self-seeking tracking, proportional guidance and duck-like structure, with all-round attack capability.

With the introduction of new types of self-developed surface-to-air missiles in a new era of military training and combat readiness in recent years, China's Air Force (PLAAF) surface-to-air defense units are not only high, medium, and low altitude, but also long, medium, and short range. Formed a combat system with comprehensive capabilities to cover the. This systematic combat capability has been greatly improved through information technology support.

The ground air defense force, consisting of anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air missile units, has evolved since its inception. The ground air defense forces have successfully developed new self-developed air-to-air missiles, such as the HQ-9B and HQ-22 missiles. Currently, 3G equipment is the main focus, and 4G equipment is the future pivotal power. It is also accelerating the pace of development by transforming the air defense mode into an anti-missile and anti-missile capability.

In recent years, the Chinese Air Force's ground air defense forces have continuously updated the concept of combat and strengthened their ability to explore, discover, and strike targets under the ultimate conditions of weapon performance. Along with this, the joint defense training type was innovated with multiple models and multiple military types, and each unit's rapid maneuverability was strengthened.

During the Blue Shield training conducted by the Chinese Air Force, ground air defense units conducted joint air defense exercises with the Army, the Navy, and rocket forces, and integrated firepower operating in various armies, effectively combating systematic combat capabilities under the conditions of information warfare.

The Chinese Air Force's ground air defense force is now an important component of the Chinese air defense system. In the new era, the ground air defense unit will build a shield to defend the airspace safety of China by continuously improving air defense capabilities and anti-missile capabilities based on the network information system.




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