Kaishan 1 / KS-1 / HQ-12
The Kaishan 1 KS-1 [Red Mountain 1] is a high-altitude medium-range air defense missile system. The KS-1 was initiated in 1967 to replace the Red Flag-2 [HQ-2] ground-to-air missile system. China Jiangnan Space Industry Group developed this system with multi-target interception and tracking capabilities. China's military leadership decided to replace theh HQ-2 (developed from the former Soviet Union's SA-75) air defense missile system. It is reported that, KS-1 conducted its first test in 1989, and China for the first time publicly demonstrated the new air defense system at the 1991 Paris Air Show.
The system appeared in the Anti-Japanese War Victory Day parade, though there were very few in this parade, and it had appeared in 2009 National Day parade equipment. Compared with other anti-aircraft missiles, thje HQ-12 structure seemed to be rather primitive equipment, compared with other Chinese army equipment, a bit out of tune. Although China's R & D personnel and equipment spend a lot of effort in research and development of domestic air defense missiles to, almost all of the domestic anti-aircraft missiles have significant traces of imitation.
It was successfully tested in 1989, and the tests were completed in 1994. It was developed in the 1980s as a replacement for the HQ-61 SAM system. Due to reasons which have not been publicly disclosed, the KS-1 did not enter military service in China when development was completed in 1994. A likely reason was the poor manuvering capability of the missile. It could only engage targets with a 5g manoeuvring capability, making the KS-1 largely ineffective for defending against new-generation combat aircraft. In 1998 the Zhuhai Airshow saw the first public display.
KS-1 initially using the traditional dual-mounted fixed transmitters and launchers very similar to the old-fashioned HQ-2. At the same time, the KS-1 system used the missiles developed from the HQ-2 missile's second-stage, but the new missile was equipped with a single-chamber solid fuel engines. A typical HQ-12 air defense missile consists of the following components: air target detection radar, a target tracking and missile guidance station, four double launchers (with a total of eight reasdy to fire missiles) and 18 reserve missiles.
The radar-guided missile HQ-12 is mainly used to deal with fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. The HQ-12 uses a solid propellant, dual-mounted missile detachment weight 886 kg, capable of striking flying targets at 0.5 to 25 km altitude, horizontal range of 7 to 42 km (KS-1A type up to 50 km), the maximum flight speed of 1200 m / sec. The anti-aircraft missile is 5.6 meters long, 0.4 meter in diameter, and weighs 900 kilograms. The missile launching weight is 900 kilograms, the peak velocity 1,200 meters/seconds, can cope with highly 500 ~ 25,000 meter, the speed for 750 meters/seconds, most greatly mobile overload the 4.5g goal.
The KS-1 system uses the SJ-202 acquisition radar and a phased-array engagement radar system, similar to the HQ-2. KS-1 system is equipped with China's first self-developed 3D Phased Array Radar -- SJ-202, which can track six targets and guide six missiles on one of three attacks from time to time. The maximum search distance of 115 kilometers, the maximum tracking distance of 80 kilometers. It is said that the work of the band SJ-202 is G-band, not only with target selection system, but also has strong anti-jamming capability. In addition, the radar can also be used to guide the old-fashioned HQ-2 system. The KS-1 with radio guidance system could effectively track and lock aircraft and helicopter class goal, but as for the goal of intercepting ballistic class, missiles and guided bombs, it had very limited capacity.
When the first model KS-1 missiles appeared at the 1991 Paris Air Show, people wondered why the Chinese wanted to develop this vintage missile on the basis of already obsolete HQ-2. The KS-1 had an integrated system update in the H200 phased array radar, which could simultaneously guide 6 missiles to attack three targets. But there was a certain gap in the missile performance compared with contemporary equipment, such as the HQ-2 or the "Hawk" missile in the United States.
The system development work was completed in 1994. However, because of its performance was not perfect, and reliability is not high, neither foreign or Chinese military customers expressed wishes to order. Although the Chinese army continued to test KS-1 anti-aircraft missile systems, by some accounts entry into service was repeatedly delayed, indicating that Chinese troops were not satisfied with their performance.
In the late 1990s an improved KS-1A model came out with a new target detection / tracking radar maneuvering. It uses a towable phased-array radar, similar to the US Patriot AN/MPQ-53 radar. It is said obtained some technology from overseas China, possibly from Israel. The new radar system can let KS-1A simultaneously attack 3 targets. The missile has also made the improvement, uses the double thrust force solid propellant engine, the maximum range is 50 kilometers, versus the original 27 kilometers.
The HT-233 radar, operating in the 300MHz bandwidth, has a detection range of 120km and tracking range of 90km. The radar antenna has 4,000 ferrite phase shifters. It can detect targets in azimuth (360°) and elevation (0° to 65°). It can track some 100 airborne targets and can simultaneously engage more than 50 targets when used in conjunction with a Brigade-level ECC (which can handle automatic command-and-control of three subordinate HQ-12/KS-1A Regiments). In some cases a KS-1A Fire Unit receives early warning of enemy ballistic missile launch, along with direction and time-of-arrival data. Some news reports said that the new search-track radar is in fact a synthesis of the American AN/MPQ-53 and the Russian S-300 system radar.
Some accounts relate that the KS-1A was presently operational with both the PLA Army and PLAAF as the HQ-12 MR-SAM. In a recent show, the KS-1A name was changed to "Red Flag -12" (HQ-12). This change indicates that the missile was likely to have equipped with People's Liberation Army and began mass production. By 2015 China was equipped with two kind of KS-1, one kind of stationary type, one kind of tractor type. In the towable KS-1 system, the missile truck uses 6×6 the wheeled all-terrain vehicle to make the chassis, behind the chassis revolves on the discharger to install two due-out balls. A typical missile battery including the radar and 4 pair of associations installs the launching trolley, the entire battery altogether has 8 due-out rounds, 18 backups rounds.
The KS-1A is different, useing a self-propelled launchers, but also with the ability to more effectively detect and track targets of the new radar station. The new KS-1A a two-mounted launcher, the vehicle is made in China 6 × 6 wheeled high-mobility vehicles. Published photos from the latest judgment, KS-1A has been switched to launch box, so you can protect the missile from outside environmental impact, and can reduce the workload of maintenance and loading. In addition, the maximum oblique distance of the system is up to 50 kilometers.
The KS-1A new tracking and guidance radar is called H-200. And before the same with the SJ-202, H-200 it is a kind of phased array radar, which can guide six missiles hit three targets. On the 80th anniversary of the arms exhibition held in 2007, the radar has been installed on one kind of four-axis tractor trailer, but later photo display, H-200 has been installed in the two 6 × 6 wheeled truck. This needed to be pointed out that, SJ-202 and H-200 is the performance of the more common generic products - are modeled on the 36D6 radar guidance and tracking system Russian-made S-300PMU equipment (China bought in 1993).
The latest version of the system is known as the KS-1C, which features cannister-encased missile rounds, rather than the paired rail-mounted missiles of the earlier variants.
There are unconfirmed reports that several HQ-12 missile have been deployed to the Taiwan Strait region.
In 2001, China Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation demonstrated the KS-1A system to foreign customers for the first time. In 2005, Malaysia's military leaders agreed in principle to purchase a number of "KS-1A". Soon after, the two sides signed a preliminary Malaysia memorandum, while Malaysia said it planned to purchase a number of "KS-1A" system over the next nine years.
Myanmar’s Tatmadaw (armed forces) in early November 2013 inked a contract with CPMIEC of China under which the latter will, starting June 2014, begin delivering a regiment of KS-1A medium-range surface-to-air missile (MR-SAM) system. This is China’s first export order for the KS-1A MR-SAM, which had been on offer for export worldwide since the late 1990s.
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