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9K331 Tor

The Tor-M1 is the successor to the Osa (NATO: SA-8 Gecko) surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. The 9K331 Tor [SA-15 GAUNTLET land-based, SA-N-9 naval version] low-to-medium altitude SAM system is capable of engaging not only aircraft and helicopters but also RPVs, precision-guided weapons and various types of guided missiles.

The Tor system is a low- to medium-altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system designed for intercepting aircraft, cruise missiles, precision-guided munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles and ballistic targets.

The Kupol factory produces the unique short-range Tor air defense systems. It was developed as a successor to the Osa (SA-8 Gecko). The Tor air defense system, which some experts say is named in honor of the Norse god of thunder and lightning Thor is designed to destroy enemy weapons at short rangeas they fly towards their target at a radius of 15 kilometers (9.3 miles).

Surface-to-air missile systems Tor-M2E, Tor-M2K and Tor-M2KM are intended for day and night air defense of the important public and state, military and industrial facilities, military forces and vital military against attacks of high precision weapon, aircrafts, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles in an adverse weather and jamming environment. The main performance feature of SAM systems Tor is to attack up-to-date high precision weapon, such as anti-radar missiles (HARM and others), cruise missiles and guided aerial bombs. That particular weapon will present the most threat for the countries exposed to aerial attack.

Combat vehicles of these surface-to-air missile systems provide synchronous processing of 144 marks from aerial objects, build up the tracks of targets, analyze them and select 10 the most dangerous ones, track them and simultaneous destruct up to four air targets by four guided missiles launched from one combat vehicle. The surface-to-air guided missiles of the system are designed specially for effective interception of high precision weapon to provide essential advantage over foreign baseline designs.

SAM systems Tor-M2E, Tor-M2K and Tor-M2KM are easy to be integrated into modern air defense systems of any country, maintaining the capability to operate independently. As a member of new generation of short range air defense facilities, the systems feature high efficiency against modern air threats mass attacks in counter-fire and high-precision weapon in the first place.

The principal advantages of Tor-M1 is its ability to simultaneously destroy two targets in any weather or at any time of day and night; the use of both the powerful and jamming-resistant radar with electronic beam control and vertically launched missiles able to maintain high speed and manoeuvrability inside an entire engagement envelope; the high degree of automation of combat operation provided by the electronic equipment suite. Tor detects targets at a distance of 25 kilometers and kills them at a distance of 12 kilometers. In combating manned aviation, Tor is thrice and 1.5 times more efficient than foreign systems of the same class - France's Crotale and Britain's Rapier, respectively.

The HQ-17 is a copy of Tor-M1, that China will use it to replace the aging HQ-61 SAMs, will enter service around the year 2005.

Although it is an autonomous system it can be interfaced into an integrated air defense network. SA-15b is designed to be a completely autonomous air defense system (at division level), capable of surveillance, command and control, missile launch and guidance functions from a single vehicle. The basic combat formation is the firing battery consisting of four TLARs and the Rangir battery command post. The TLAR carries eight ready missiles stored in two containers holding four missiles each. The SA-15b has the capability to automatically track and destroy 2 targets simultaneously in any weather and at any time of the day.

The single stage solid propellant missile has a maximum speed of 850 m/s and is fitted with a 15 kg HE-fragmentation warhead detonated by a proximity fusing system. The missile is approximately 3.5 meters long with a diameter of 0.735 meters and a launch weight 170 kilograms. The cold launch ejection system propels the missile upwards to a height of 18-20 meters, whereupon thruster jets ignite and turn the weapon to the target bearing. The main sustainer rocket motor then ignites and the missile is command guided to the intercept point where the proximity fuse is triggered.

Effective range limits are from 1500 to 12000 m with target altitude limits being between 10 and 6000 m. The maximum maneuvering load factor limit on the weapon is 30 g.

The missile launcher consists of a box container extending down below the level of the hull top, holding two groups of four ready to fire missiles in the vertical position. Each missile is in a maintenance-free factory-sealed container-launcher box. The system is reloaded by a dedicated transportation/loader vehicle.

The Tor is not amphibious although it is airportable. An NBC system is fitted as standard as is a built-in training system. The chassis of the vehicle is almost identical to that used for the 2S6 self-propelled hybrid air defense system and is based on the GM-569 tracked vehicle. The three man crew consists of the vehicle commander, system operator and vehicle driver, seated at the front of the vehicle with the large box-like unmanned turret in the center and the engine compartment at the rear. This arrangement is similar to that of the Kub (SA-6) and Shilka (ZSU-23-4) vehicles. The vehicle suspension consists of six dual rubber tired roadwheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers.

An auxiliary gas turbine powers a 75 kW generator, allowing the main diesel engine to be shut down when the system is deployed to conserve fuel.

The Russian company Antei which produces anti-aircraft missile systems has developed a new efficient system Tor M1. A number of countries have precision weapons and a reliable shield is necessary against these weapons. The new Russian anti-aircraft missile system Tor is such a shield. The system consists of a special vehicle and two radars to detect targets and to accompany flying targets and missiles, a computer, and equipment for launch and navigation. The missile unit is a transportation and launch container with four missiles. A anti-aircraft guided missile is a one-stage missile with a solid fuel engine. The system is operated by 3 or 4 people. The Tor system ensures reliable protection for government, industrial and military sites and ground troops from all types of missiles, unpiloted aircraft, aircraft bombs, aircraft and helicopters with stealth capabilities. The Tor system is the only system in the world which can detect and identify various targets. It can detect targets at a height ranging from 10 meters to 6 kilometers. The Tor system is autonomous and has short reaction time. The latest technologies of Russia's defense industry are used in it.

Scrum Half - target engagement/missile tracking radar ensemble

The phased-array target engagement/missile tracking radar used by the Tor-M1 carries the NATO reporting name “Scrum Half” (i.e. Tor-M1’s target acquisition, and target engagement/missile tracking radars bear collective NATO designation). A rugby scrum-half is the vital link between forwards and backs but does much more. The General on the pitch, a scrum half is the boss of the Forwards and is clear and confident in demands for the type and speed of ball wanted to pass on to the Backs. The General on the pitch, a scrum half is the boss of the Forwards and is clear and confident in demands for the type and speed of ball wanted to pass on to the Backs.

Scrum Half Scrum Half
The 3D pulse Doppler electronically beam steered E/F-band surveillance radar provides range, azimuth, elevation and automatic threat evaluation data on up to 48 targets for the digital fire control computer processing system. Automatic track initiation can be performed on the 10 most dangerous targets, which are categorized and prioritized in order of threat for engagement. The operator reconfirms the highest priority target choice and tracks this target before firing the missile. The maximum radar range is stated as 25 kilometers, but the rapid five to eight second reaction time [including fire control target prioritization] suggests a somewhat greater range. The radar antenna, on top of the turret, is swung through 90º to the horizontal position for travel. Target radar surveillance is carried out on the move but the vehicle would normally come to a halt for missile launch.

The phased-array pulse Doppler G/H-band tracking radar is located at the front of the turret. This electronically steered radar is capable of simultaneously tracking two targets traveling at speeds of up to 700 km/h in all weather conditions, and countering threat ECM operations. The antenna assembly can be folded down for travel.

Mounted on the top left of this radar is a small vertical pointing antenna which serves to initially acquire the missile after launch before it is handed over to the main tracking/guidance system. On the lower right side of the tracking radar is an automatic TV tracking system with a range of 20000 m that complements the tracking radar and enables the system to operate in a heavy ECM environment.

TypeScrum Half Radar
Altitude Max 7620 m
Range Max 22.2 km
Altitude Min 0 m
Range Max 22.2 km
Range Min 0.2 km
Generation Late 1980s
Properties Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability),
Weapon FCR (No CW Illumination)
Scrum Half is a Pulse-Doppler electronically steered radar with an average power output of 0.6 kW, providing a maximum tracking range of 20 km. The target engagement radar, located at the front of the TLAR’s turret, is capable of determining 4 coordinates of the selected target. The coherent-pulse radar station of the all- round view solves the problem of detecting air targets and gives out their coordinates. The station is equipped with a friend-or-foe identification system. It works in the centimeter wave range with frequency control by the elevation angle of the beam. Simultaneously, a survey of the elevation angle at once by three rays can be carried out, the order is established using a computer. Each beam has a width of 4 ° in elevation and 1.5 ° in azimuth. One beam is able to overlap a sector at 32 ° in elevation. In the main mode, the scanning speed of the detection zone is three seconds, while the lower part of the zone is scanned twice. Additionally, there is a three-beam viewing mode with a pace of 1 second. Marks with the coordinates of the detected targets are tied to the tracks. In total, the target detection station can tie 10 tracks on 24 detected targets.

Targets with velocity vectors, track numbers, degree of danger and the number of the beam in which the target is located are displayed on the indicator of the combat vehicle commander. In the presence of strong passive interference, it is possible to blank the problem area of ??the survey and enter the target coordinates in the computer using manual marker overlay and manual coordinate acquisition. The maximum errors in determining the coordinates do not exceed half the resolution of the target detection station. Resolution: no worse than 1.5–2 ° in azimuth, 4 ° in elevation and 200 meters in range. F-15 Type Aircraft Detection Probabilityat an altitude of 30 to 6,000 meters and a range of 25–27 km is 80%. Unmanned aerial vehicles are detected at a range of 9 to 15 km with a probability of 70%. Helicopters located on the ground, with propellers turned on at a distance of 6–7 km, can be detected with a probability of 40–70%, hovering in the air at a distance of 13–20 km — 60–80%, when jumping to a height of 20 m at a distance of 12 km - not less than 60%.

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Page last modified: 13-09-2021 17:24:34 ZULU