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HQ-3 Hongqi-3

In mid-60s, the American SR-71 high performance reconnaissance plane covered China, flying at an altitude of 27-30 km, and a speed of lOOOm/s. In order to strengthen the attacking capability to this high altitude high speed target, the CSC decided in August 1965 to speed up the development of high altitude high speed Hongqi-3 missile. On the 29th October 1965, the COSTND held a concept disscussion meeting, at which the development concept and tactic-technical settings of Hongqi-3 missile were determined and the No.2 RA of the 7th Ministry of Machine Building was assigned to undertake this development work. Wu Zhan and Chen Huaijin were appointed Chief Designers consecutively and Wu Beisheng was appointed Deputy Chief Designer.

In order to meet the tactic-technical requirements of Hongqi-3 missile, the No.2 RA of the 7th Ministry of Machine Building adopted 79 items of new technologies during the development, among which 33 items were for the missile, aimed at enlarging the air zone, improving high altitude manoeuvrability, strengthening anti-jamming capability and increasing killing and damaging effectiveness; 39 items were for the guidance station, aimed at improving anti-jamming performance of the weapon system, increasing operational distance and measuring accuracy and, seven items were for the ground equipment, aimed at improving application and operation performance.

Hongqi-3 missile weapon system had incorporated a lot of newly developed items. 28 organizations which participated the work were from the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th Ministries of Machine Building and Air Force. Actually the country wide cooperation was organized for it.

No.2 RA had listed Hongqi-3 as its key development task and the 2nd Department concentrated most of its technical forces on the system design of Hongqi-3 missile. During the concept design of the missile, they mainly solved the problems of improving missile^ manoeuvrability at high altitude and the matching effectiveness of fuse and warhead against the high speed target. In the control system design, in order to solve the technical problem caused by the increased operational altitude, anti-saturation measures were adopted in the autopilot loop to strengthen the anti-jamming capability to side angle undulation; fairly large corrections were carried out on dynamic compensation, so that the compensation accuracy was increased and the missile reached a high accuracy of shooting. The emulation test with semi-actual object was completed, which was actually quite difficult, and it included coordinate cabinet of the guidance station, instruction calculation facility and the missile-borne autopilot.

Institute No.23 undertook the development of guidance station, which consisted of guidance radar and interception radar. The guidance radar was modified on the basis of Hongqi-2 guidance radar by adopting more than 20 items of technical measures, which included enlarging illuminating antenna, adding reference data magnifier and reconnaissance display. The interception radar was based on Song-9A radar and updated by such measures as increasing the diameter of antenna and transmission power, adopting automatic ranging, route data auto-calculation and the synchronized rotation with the guidance radar, by which the operation distance and measuring accuracy of the guidance station were raised, anti-jamming capability of target wave guide and missile wave guide were strengthened. During the development, the technical management was strengthened, the responsible persons at each level were appointed and the initiatives of the scientific personnel were brought to full play. Zhang Tong, Lu Guochun and Cui Ying had made effective achievements on general system test and antenna design. By the second quarter of 1966, sample joining test of guidance radar and calibration flight test of interception radar were completed, which showed that all technical parameters had met design requirement and functional distance was more than 100 km.

Five Institutes of Np.20, N0.21, No.22, No.24 and No.27 of No.2 RA undertook the development of missile and missile-borne equipment. Later these Institutes were moved to Shanghai, where the development work was continued.

In the development of Hongqi-3 missile, because the development procedures had not been followed, omitting the stage of independent loop remote measuring missile, the flight test of closed loop remote measuring was conducted directly in May 1966 and the test failed due to the fact that the missile broken up in the flight. The reason of this failure was that the missile was flying under the overload condition after its rudder surface had been increased. This lesson was beneficial for people to realize that developing the ground-to-air missile should follow the development procedures.

In July 1966, the 7th Ministry of Machine Building organized overall checking on development concept of Hongqi-3 missile system, control loop data was adjusted, flying speed at end phase was increased by using dual thrust liquid engine, killing probability was raised and anti-jamming performance was improved by adopting bigger power double-frequency responder. At the sametime, the sharing of development work was further adjusted. It was clarified that Facotry No.786 was responsible for the transmission and receiving vehicle of the guidance station with participation of No.2 RA; Shanghai Wiring Factory was responsible for the display and command launching vehicles; Shanghai Broadcasting Equipment Factory was responsible for the coordinate vehicle; Xinxin Machinery Factory and Institute No.21 were responsible for the solid rocket engine; Institute No.20 was responsible for solving the problem about elastic vibration of the missile .body and the No.2 Division and Institute No.20 were responsible for general system design of the target missile. It was also decided that a management team was formed by Zhang Yu, Wu Zhongying, Chen Huaijin and Liu Congjun for the development work of Hongqi-3 missile.

During the period of developing Hongqi-3 missile, altogether 9 flight tests had been conducted in Northwest Comprehensive Missile Testing Base from Jan. 1966 to the end of 1969. Totally 23 missiles were launched, including 1 dummy missile, 5 independent loop missiles and 17 closed loop missiles. Test results showed that successes were gained for the Hongqi-3 missile on the aspects of enlarged air zone, improving guidance accuracy and the matching between fuse and warhead. But some problems had also been discovered and needed to be solved.

The ground-to-air missile test division of the Northwest Comprehensive Missile Testing Base, preparing seriously and organizing carefully, had solved a lot of difficult problems concerning test technology and, guaranteed the completion of Hongqi-3 missile test. For example, in view of the progress of developing guidance station lagging behind the progress of the missile development, they had put forward the concept of modifying Hongqi-2 guidance station for Hongqi-3 missile test, adopted 21 items of technical measures and completed the modification.

The flight test showed that the guidance process was fine and the encountering data met the requirement, which not only reached the purpose of conducting test ahead of schedule, but also opened a road for the commonality of the guidance station. As for the problem about counter-control of missile rudder, which had been discovered in the test of independent loop missile, they conducted the emulation test on the site, successfully adjusted the rudder shaft position and solved the counter-control problem. Liu Yuanhui had discovered the rolling problem at high altitude during the test, and confirmed that the rolling was caused by uneven distribution of missile longitudinal load after analysis and certifying by test. This result provided reference for successive design. Wu Shunhe created the method for filling 15 powder charges. The solving of these problems had quickened the progress of the test of Hongqi-3 missile.

According to the decision made by the State Council and CMC, the complete development work for Hongqi-3 missile had been transferred to Shanghai No.2 Bureau of Machinery and Electronics starting from August 1968 and Liu Congjun was appointed Chief of this project. The 2nd Division of No.2 RA and Institute No.23 had selected 140 technical personnel to join the development work in Shanghai.

From July to September 1970, the flight test of design certification for Hongqi-3 missile had been conducted at the ground-to-air missile testing base, for which eight missiles were launched, three of them had bigger missing distance. After adjusting data of the missile and the guidance station, five more missiles were launched continuously, two of which failed because of reliability and the other three missiles7 missing distance had met the requirement of guidance accuracy. During the period of May and June 1974, the interception test of Hongqi-3 missile against Tuqiang-1 high altitude-high speed target missile had been conducted at the ground-to-air missile testing base, in order to check the performance; of Tuqiang-1 high altitude-high speed target missile and the possibility of Hongqi-3 missile intercepting against high altitude-high speed aircraft and air-to-ground missile.

The test was carried out under the leadership of the Base Deputy Director Wang Zhanlin and Deputy Chief of Staff Qi Quanxin, the intense and good order pre-test preparations were carried out at the same time in two temporary launching sites which were separated by 176 km. On the 12th June, the interception test was conducted according to the plan. One target missile was launched on time, after acqusition, the guidance station held a stable track of the target. Two Hongqi-3 missile were launched at the suitable time continuously, the target missile was shot down by the first missile.

The test indicated that Hongqi-3 missile weapon system had the capacity of intercepting high altitude-high speed flying vehicle and the performance of Tuqiang-1 guided target had met (he requirement of high altitude-high speed target. Until then, the development and test of Hongqi-3 missile had gone through complete procedures, which marked that the science and technology force of the Chinese ground-to-air missile had possessed the capability of self design, manufacture and test of the first generation ground-to-air missile weapon system.



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