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HQ-18 [China]

The S-300V (SA-12) low-to-high Altitude, tactical surface to air missile system also has anti-ballistic missile capabilities. Soviet military specialists in the late 1970's and early 1980's assumed that the likely opponent in the hostilities conducted by them in the European operations of the theater would able to launche up to four hundred tactical ballistic missiles of the "Lance" type, and up to three hundred ballistic missiles such as the "Pershing-2". Therefore, the desire to provide cover for ground forces the most important objects of the enemy strikes BR demanded the creation of a mobile anti-aircraft missile systems (AAMS), capable of hitting these challenging goals.

Difficulties detecting and defeat missiles, having the ability to reflect a cross section two orders of magnitude lower than the plane, and with a very high flight speed, demanded the creation of new high-power radars and interceptors with approximately twice the speed than the speed of conventional missiles. Key elements of the system were to be placed on self-propelled chassis with high cross with a total weight of about 45 tonnes (the ultimate load capacity of most bridges and overpasses).

In carrying out the research work in 1963-1964, it was determined that to protect objects it was more advisable to make the joint implementation of promising anti-aircraft missile complexes of 3 types. From their "A" and "B" would constitute a versatile, able to solve the puzzles as well as the common anti-aircraft defense, and the last anti-aircraft. With all this the best combat abilities, among which the ability to hit warheads of missiles "Pershing" should have been available at the complex "A". It was assumed that the anti-aircraft missile system "A" will be developed rocket, close in size and weight to the anti-aircraft guided missile complex "circle", but has twice as great an average flight speed and able to do this because of the interception of missile warhead "Pershing" at altitudes above 12 thousand square meters with an expected time of detection and capture of ballistic goals for support. With all of this even in the case of detonating a nuclear charge capacity of 1.5 Mt of loss of live unsheltered forces were limited at 10 percent, and with the finding of the majority of people in different shelters and armored vehicles a much lower value.

Particular difficulties were associated with the detection of ballistic targets and guidance on their missiles (SAMs). They needed to make high-power radars of the latest generation. Increasing the growth potential of radar stations installed power led to a substantial increase in the weight and dimensions of the radar, which limited her mobility and portability. The increase in receiver sensitivity radar became a prerequisite for improving noise rejection. It was necessary to compromise the applicable receiver sensitivity radar warning and control and power of the transmitter.

Based on the expected rate of strikes in the first wave of a potential enemy attack on the important front-line objects, the anti-aircraft missile complexes of the type "A" should be invoked immediately with at least 3 channels of defense. So it was better to have multi-functional station and missile guidance, which provide high-capability self-contained search and detection of ballistic missiles in the sector likely to occur, tracking and severasl interceptor missiles fired. All the elements of anti-aircraft missile complex (radar of early detection and targeting, a multi-station homing missile launchers with missiles) should be highly mobile (self-propelled, having a means of navigation, guidance and topographic reference, data and communications, with built-in self-contained power supply).

The new S-300B was received by the Soviet Army in 1988. This system is the front-line air defense systems and is designed to destroy ballistic missiles, ground-based (such as "Lance", "Pershing"), and air-based (such as "SRAM"), as well as cruise missiles, strategic aviation planes and jammers under their massive use. All means of the combat air defense missile systems are deployed on the basis of uniform tracked chassis MT-T, which has high trafficability, equipped with navigation systems, life support, protection against weapons of mass destruction and has a stand-alone power supply unit on the basis of a gas turbine engine (GTAP).

The new air defense missile systems used two types of missiles: 9M82 - to destroy warheads BR "Pershing", BR Aviation "SRAM" and aircraft at long range and 9M83 - to defeat missiles such as "Lance" and cruise missiles. The composition of combat assets of S-300B includes: a) point 9S457 command and control (command system point); b) circular scan radar (radar KOs) "Review 3" (9S15); c) program review radars (radar software) "Ginger" (9S19); g) up to four SAM, each of which includes a multi-missile guidance station (LRMS) 9S32; four launchers (PU) with 9A83 9M83 missiles and two 9A82 9M82 missile, puskozaryazhayuschie installation (ROM) 9A85 - 9A84 and four - two. SAM 9M82 and 9M83 are operated in sealed launching transporting containers. The combat weight of tracked vehicles with elements of the system ranges from 39 to 47 tons. RAS is designed for automated fire control four SAM according to their target designation radar or from the command post.

The S-300V consists of:

  • 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missile
  • 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR missile
  • 9A82 SA-12b GIANT TELAR
  • 9A84 GIANT Launcher/Loader Vehicle (LLV)
  • 9A85 GLADIATOR Launcher/Loader Vehicle (LLV)
  • 9S15 BILL BOARD Surveillance Radar system
  • 9S19 HIGH SCREEN Sector Radar system
  • 9S32 GRILL PAN Guidance Radar system
  • 9S457 Command Station

The 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR is a dual-role anti-missile and anti-aircraft missile with a maximum range between 75 and 90 km.

The 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missile, configured primarily for the ATBM role, is a longer range system [maximum range between 100 and 200 km] with a longer fuselage with larger solid-fuel motor.

The 9A82 SA-12b GIANT and 9A93 SA-12a GLADIATOR TELAR vehicles are similar, though the 9A83-1 carries four 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR missiles, whereas the 9A82 carries only two 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missiles. The configuration of the vehicles command radar is also different. On the 9A83-1 the radar is mounted on a folding mast providing 360 coverage in azimuth and full hemispheric coverage in elevation. The radar on the 9M82 TELAR is mounted in a semi-fixed position over the cab, providing 90 coverage on either side in azimuth and 110 in elevation. The TELARs are not capable of autonomous engagements, requiring the support of the GRILL PAN radar.

The 9S457-1 Command Post Vehicle is the command and control vehicle for the SA-12 system, which is supported by the BILL BOARD A surveillance radar and the HIGH SCREEN sector radar. The CPV and its associated radars can detect up to 200 targets, track as many as 70 targets and designate 24 of the targets to the brigade's four GRILL PAN radar systems for engagement by the SA-12a and SA-12b TELARs.

The LLVs (9A85 GLADIATOR and 9A83 GLADIATOR) resemble normal TELARs, but with a loading crane rather than command radars. While the primary role of the LLV is to replenish the TELARs, they can also erecting and launch missiles if needed, though they are dependent on the use of command radars from neighboring TELARs.

The HQ-18 is reportedly the designation of a Chinese copy of the Russian S300V, though the details of this program remain rather conjectural. In early 1996 Russia astounded the United States Army by marketing the Russian SA-12 surface-to-air missile system in the UAE in direct competition with the United States Army's Patriot system. Rosvooruzheniye offered the UAE the highest-quality Russian strategic air defense system, the SA-12 Gladiator, as an alternative to the Patriot at half the cost. The offer also included forgiveness of some of Russia's debt to the UAE.

Russian Defense Ministry spokesman Major General Igor Konashenkov said 04 Octber 2016 that a battery of the S-300 systems were sent to Syria as a defensive move to protect Russian navy ships off the Mediterranean coast and a Russian facility in the Syrian port of Tartus. Russia already deployed the S-400 air defense missile system to Syria in November 2016. Moscow had said it was part of a security boost after Turkey shot down a Russian jet that Turkey said was in its air space. Pentagon Press Secretary Peter Cook called on Russia to "explain" why it would deploy S-300 surface-to-air missile systems to Syria. The weapons were developed to defend against aircraft and cruise missiles. "ISIL doesn't have an air force and neither does Nusra [Front], which are the two groups the Russians have said they're most concerned about," Cook said. Cook told reporters at the Pentagon that the U.S. will do everything to ensure the safety of coalition air crews. "Those air crews as well, I should point out, have the inherent right to self-defense," Cook said. Russia already deployed the S-400 air defense missile system to Syria last November 2015.

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Page last modified: 04-08-2019 18:53:57 ZULU