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International Disputes

Bahamas, The
  • Have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary with the US
  • is concerned about refugees fleeing Haiti's deteriorated economic and political conditions
  • Bahrainnone
    Baker Islandnone
  • ">India-Bangladesh Border - Discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves in both countries, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, and violence
  • ">India-Bangladesh Border - Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary
  • Dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation
  • Burmese Muslim refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources
  • Barbados
  • Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone
  • Joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
  • Bassas da Indiaclaimed by Madagascar
  • 1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and diminishing border security; boundaries with Latvia and Lithuania remain undemarcated despite European Union financial support
  • Poland seeks enhanced demarcation and security along the Schengen border
  • Belgiumnone
  • Guatemalan squatters continue to settle in Belize border region
  • Belize-Guatemala Border Dispute - Guatemala continues to claim the southern half of Belize. An OAS-brokered Differendum in 2002 created a small adjustment to the land boundary, a large Guatemalan maritime corridor in Caribbean, a joint ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and a substantial US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought to popular referendum.
  • Benin
  • Two villages remain in dispute along the border with Burkina Faso; accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemarcated, and ICJ ad hoc judges have been selected to rule on disputed Niger and Mekrou River islands
  • several villages along the Okpara River are in dispute with Nigeria
  • A joint boundary commission continues to resurvey the boundary with Togo to verify Benin's claim that Togo moved boundary stones; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
  • Bermudanone
  • approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees camps, place decades-long strains on Nepal
  • India seeks cooperation from Bhutan to keep out Indian Nagaland insurgents.
  • Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary line to resolve territorial disputes arising from significant cartographic discrepencies
  • Bolivia
  • Bolivia-Chile disputes Bolivia reactivated its claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, to secure sovereign maritime access for Bolivian natural gas. Chile seeks an ICJ ruling in the decades-old dispute over whether Chile has the right to use a river that crosses their shared border.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
  • discussions continue with Croatia on problem sections around Kostajnica on the Una River and villages at the base of Mount Pljesevica
  • Botswananone
    Bouvet Islandnone
  • Unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations
  • Uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina
  • British Indian Ocean Territory
  • Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago and its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly in Mauritius, but in 2001 were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation since eviction in 1965
  • the UK resists the Chagossians' demand for an immediate return to the islands; repatriation is complicated by the exclusive US military lease of Diego Garcia that restricted access to the largest island in the chain
  • British Virgin Islandsnone
  • Limbang - Per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei
  • Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef
  • The 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
  • Bulgarianone
    Burkina Faso
  • Persistent State Failure - Burkina Faso has had an extremely unstable history since its independence and multiple coups have been staged. Burkina Faso's high population density and limited natural resources haved resulted in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. On 28 October 2014, more than 200,000 persons peacefully protested President Compaore’s effort to change the constitutionally mandated presidential term limit. On October 30, the day of the scheduled National Assembly vote, rioters burned the National Assembly and other buildings. On 31 October 2014, Compaore, who had been in power since 1987, resigned and fled the country with members of his family, the National Assembly president, and others.
  • two villages are in dispute along the border with Benin; Benin accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars
  • Burkina Faso border regions have become a staging area for Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire rebels and an asylum for refugees caught in regional fighting
  • the Ivoirian Government accuses Burkina Faso of supporting Ivoirian rebels
  • demarcation is currently underway with Mali
  • the dispute with Niger was referred to the ICJ in 2010
  • Burma
  • despite continuing border committee talks, significant differences remain with Thailand over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities
  • groups in Burma and Thailand express concern over China's construction of 13 hydroelectric dams on the Salween River in Yunnan Province
  • India seeks cooperation from Burma to keep out Indian Nagaland Insurgents
  • Burundi
  • Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated and natural resource areas
  • government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts; Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq. km of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in Rukurazi Valley

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