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International Disputes

CountryDisputes
Afghanistan
  • despite largely successful UN efforts at voluntary repatriation, thousands of Afghan refugees continue to reside in Iran and Pakistan
  • Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to control the border and stem organized terrorist and other illegal cross-border activites
  • regular meetings between Pakistani and coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments
  • occasional conflicts over water-sharing arrangements with Amu Darya and Helmand River states
  • Albanianone
    Algeria
  • Libya claims about 32,000 sq km in a dormant dispute still reflected on its maps in southeastern Algeria
  • Algeria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who destabilize southern Algerian towns
  • Border with Morocco remains closed over mutual claims of harboring militants, arms smuggling
  • Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara
  • Algerian FLN asserts claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco
  • American Samoa
  • Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island (Olohega) in its 2006 draft independence constitution
  • Andorranone
    Angola
  • DROC accuses Angola of shifting monuments
  • continues to give shelter to refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo while many Angolan refugees and Cabinda exclave secessionists reside in neighboring states
  • Anguillanone
    Antarctica
  • Antarctic Treaty freezes sections claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK
  • The US and most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west
  • Several states with land claims in Antarctica have expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges
  • Antigua and Barbudanone
    Arctic Oceansome maritime disputes (see littoral states)
    Argentina
  • UK continues to reject sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, whose constitution still claims UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, but in 1995 ceded the right to settle the dispute by force
  • Beagle Channel islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984, but armed incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery
  • territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes)
  • unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations
  • uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question
  • Armenia
  • Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute
  • border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute
  • traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the new Georgian Government
  • Arubanone
    Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  • Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef
  • Australia has closed the surrounding waters to Indonesian traditional fishing and has created a national park in the region while continuing to prospect for hydrocarbons in the vicinity
  • Atlantic Oceansome maritime disputes (see littoral states)
    Australia
  • Timor Sea Dispute involves the 1999 maritime delimitation which established partial maritime boundaries with East Timor over part of the Timor Gap but temporary resource-sharing agreements over an unreconciled area grant Australia 90% share of exploited gas reserves and hamper creation of a southern maritime boundary with Indonesia
  • Australia asserts a territorial claim to Antarctica and to its continental shelf (see Antarctica)
  • Austrianone
    Azerbaijan
  • Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute
  • Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian Sea seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continued to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenged Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; talks resumed with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed in 2004 as both sides await an ICJ decision on contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian. Issues resolved in 2018 Convention.
  • Azerbaijan protests Georgian constructions at the Red Bridge crossing and several other small segments of boundary, which remain unresolved until delimitation


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