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International Disputes

CountryDisputes
Reunionnone
Romania
  • The ICJ gave Ukraine until December 2006 to reply, and Romania until June 2007 to issue a rejoinder, in their dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation
  • Romania also opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
  • Russia
  • Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries
  • China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes
  • Kuril - The sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities
  • Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia
  • Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian Sea seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continued until 2018 to insist on a one-fifth slice of the "lake"
  • Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010
  • various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following the Second World War but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
  • in May 2005, Russia recalled its signatures to the 1996 border agreements with Estonia (1996) and Latvia (1997), when the two Baltic states announced issuance of unilateral declarations referencing Soviet occupation and ensuing territorial losses
  • Russia demands better treatment of ethnic Russians in Estonia and Latvia
  • Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia
  • Russia-Estonia Border treaty, signed on May 18th 2005, in Moscow, prescribed the borderline in details, but has not been ratified. Russia continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint December 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia.
  • Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999
  • Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced
  • Kerch / Sea of Azov Dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and expert-level discussions
  • Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation commenced in 2007
  • Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US
  • Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission
  • Rwanda
  • Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965
  • fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies
  • 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres
  • the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place


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