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International Disputes

CountryDisputes
Iceland
  • Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area) remains dormant
  • dispute with Denmark over the Faroe Islands' fisheries median line boundary within 200 nm; disputes with Denmark, the UK, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 nm
  • India
  • Kashmir remains the world's most highly militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas), but recent discussions and confidence-building measures among parties are beginning to defuse tensions
  • India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding lands to China in the 1965 boundary agreement
  • disputes with Pakistan over Indus River water sharing and the terminus of the Sir Creek Estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch, which prevents maritime boundary delimitation
  • Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State
  • India-China Border - most of the rugged, militarized boundary with China is in dispute, but sides have committed to begin resolution with discussions on the least disputed Middle Sector
  • Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to work on resolution of minor disputed boundary sections
  • ">India-Bangladesh Border - discussions with Bangladesh remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange territory for 51 Bangladeshi enclaves in India and 111 Indian exclaves in Bangladesh, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border
  • Indian Oceansome maritime disputes (see littoral states)
    Indonesia
  • Natuna Islands, some 400 miles northeast of Sumatra, have been a subject of dispute since 1993, when Beijing published a map showing Chinese "historic claims" on a gas field northeast of the islands.
  • East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey and delimit land boundary, but several sections of the boundary remain unresolved; Indonesia and East Timor contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which hinders a decision on a southern maritime boundary
  • scores of East Timor refugees in Indonesia refuse repatriation
  • the Australia-East Timor 1999 maritime delimitation establishes partial maritime boundaries over part of the Timor Gap, but temporary resource-sharing agreements over an unreconciled area hamper creation of a shared maritime boundary with Indonesia
  • ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands
  • Indonesian secessionists, squatters and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea
  • Iran
  • Iran threatens to close the Strait of Hormuz in response to American or other threats.
  • Iran protests Afghanistan's limiting flow of dammed waters on Helmand River tributaries in periods of drought
  • thousands of Afghan refugees still reside in Iran
  • creation of a maritime boundary with Iraq remains in hiatus until full sovereignty is restored in Iraq
  • Iran and UAE engage in direct talks and solicit Arab League support to resolve disputes over Iran's occupation of Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island
  • Prior to 2018 settlement, Iran stood alone among littoral states in insisting upon a division of the Caspian Sea into five equal sectors
  • Iraq
  • coalition forces assist Iraqis in monitoring boundary security, but resolution of disputes and creation of maritime boundaries with neighboring states will remain in hiatus until full sovereignty is restored in Iraq
  • Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq
  • Ireland
  • disputes with Iceland, Denmark, and the UK over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 nm
  • Israel
  • West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005
  • Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights)
  • Italy
  • Ferdinandea volcanic island, appeared briefly in 1831, disputed with the UK


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