Burkina Faso - Persistent State Failure
What is a failed state? The Fund for Peace considers a failed state to meet all of these qualifications: loss of control of its territory, or of the monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force therein; erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions; an inability to provide public services; and an inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community.
Burkina Faso is a parliamentary republic with a population of approximately 15.7 million. Burkina Faso is a land-locked country in the center of West Africa with one of the highest poverty rates in the world.
Burkina Faso, formerly known as Upper Volta, achieved self-government in 1958, and full independence from France in 1960. Burkina Faso's high population density and limited natural resources haved resulted in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Recent unrest in Cote d'Ivoire and northern Ghana hindered the ability of several hundred thousand seasonal Burkinabe farm workers to find employment in neighboring countries.
Anti-government demonstrations are not uncommon and can turn violent. Spontaneous, unannounced demonstrations tend to be the most likely to result in violence and/or looting. Demonstrations by university students and merchants have included rock throwing, burning tires and cars, blocking roads, and looting. These incidents have, on occasion, spilled outside of the university campus and downtown areas into residential neighborhoods where expatriates reside. Normally, local police respond aggressively to unauthorized demonstrations, using night sticks and riot control agents.
Burkina Faso has had an extremely unstable history since its independence and multiple coups have been staged. The first military coup occurred in 1966, but then succumbed to another coup in 1978, which deposed the then President Yaméogo, suspended the constitution, dissolved the National Assembly, and placed Lt. Col. Sangoulé Lamizana at the head of a government, which was composed of senior army officers.
Lamizana's government faced problems with the country's traditionally powerful trade unions, and on November 25, 1980, Col. Saye Zerbo overthrew President Lamizana in a bloodless coup. Colonel Zerbo established the Military Committee of Recovery for National Progress as the supreme governmental authority, which invalidated the 1977 constitution.
Another coup, led by Saye Zerbo, occurred in 1980, but encountered resistance from the trade unions as well and was overthrown on November 7, 1982, by Maj. Dr. Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo and the Council of Popular Salvation (CSP). The CSP continued to ban political parties and organizations, yet promised a transition to civilian rule and a new constitution. Factional infighting developed between moderates in the CSP and the radicals, led by Capt. Thomas Sankara, who was appointed prime minister in January 1983 in a counter-coup.
The internal political struggle and Sankara's leftist rhetoric led to his arrest and subsequent efforts to bring about his release, directed by Capt. Blaise Compaoré. This release effort resulted in yet another military coup d'etat on August 4, 1983.
Under Thomas Sankara, a populist president who had risen to power through a coup in 1983, a longstanding dispute with bordering Mali over the mineral-rich Agacher Strip culminated in an inter-state conflict in December 1985. Sankara renewed the claim that the Agacher Strip belonged to his country and sent troops into the area. The Burkinabe claim relied on the frontiers drawn in the colonial era, while the Malian claim rested on ethnic grounds. After a few days of fighting in December 1985, the two sides agreed on a truce and brought the dispute before the International Court of Justice. To the satisfaction of both Mali and Burkina Faso, the court ruled that the strip would be split equally between the two states.
In 1984, Upper Volta changed its name to Burkina Faso, meaning "the country of honorable people." But many of the strict security and austerity measures taken by Sankara provoked resistance. Despite his initial popularity and personal charisma, In 1987 Sankara was ousted by army captain Blaise Compaore; Sankara and several of his supporters were killed. Sankara, the pan-African visionary nicknamed "Africa’s Ché Guevara," was shot and killed in Burkina Faso’s presidential palace. Many suspect Compaoré’s overthrow of Sankara was influenced by Muammar al-Qaddafi, Compaoré’s mentor.
In spring 2011, Burkina Faso faced a combination of fast-breaking and largely unexpected civilian protests and rank-and-file military looting--some linked and some not--reflecting a long-simmering malaise and a deep-seated resentment of what many Burkinabe perceived as an entrenched and increasingly sclerotic “old guard.” In the aftermath, the government re-opened all educational institutions (which remained overcrowded, underfunded, and strike-prone), dormitories, and support services and met with representatives of student and military groups to hear their grievances and find solutions. President Compaore also replaced the Prime Minister, Chief of Defense, and security service chiefs and appointed new governors (mostly career civil servants) in all 13 states. On July 12, the government detained 217 ringleaders of several March-May mutinies and dismissed 566 participating soldiers, to public acclaim.
On 31 October 2014, President Compaore, who had been in power since 1987, resigned and fled the country with members of his family, the National Assembly president, and others. Lieutenant Colonel Yacouba Isaac Zida, deputy commander of the Presidential Security Regiment (Regiment Securite Presidentielle - RSP), declared himself head of state on November 2, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the National Assembly. On November 17, members representing different sectors of society signed a charter to guide the transitional government through preparations for elections.
Michel Kafando was chosen as interim president in accordance with the charter. A 90-member National Transitional Council, holding legislative powers and including 25 members of the armed forces, was selected in accordance with the charter. A 26-member transitional government was appointed, including Zida as prime minister and minister of defense. Other armed forces officers were appointed to serve as minister of mines and minister of territorial administration, decentralization, and security administration. The transitional government dissolved municipal and regional councils, and special delegations were responsible for managing local governments until the next legislative and municipal elections.
The charter adopted to guide the transitional government required the organization of presidential and legislative elections within one year of adoption. Under the charter the interim president, interim prime minister, and members of the interim government were not allowed to run in the presidential and legislative elections.
Before the coup, Burkina Faso was planning to hold elections on 11 October 2015, marking a return to democracy a year after Compaore's ouster. Transitional authorities in the CAR had warned of an election delay even before a new wave of violence began. ECOWAS leaders suggested a November 22 election date and recommended that Compaore's allies be allowed to field candidates.
Transitional authorities together with 12,000 UN peacekeepers and 1,000 French troops struggled to calm tensions over 2015.
Voters in Burkina Faso voted 29 November 2015 for a new president and parliament in what was called the country's most open election in its history. Five million registered voters were eligible to select from among a slate of 14 presidential candidates, including two women. The two frontrunners are the longtime opposition leader Zephirin Diabre and former prime minister Roch Marc Christian Kabore. If no single presidential candidate garnered more than 50 percent of the vote, a second round of voting would be held.
On November 30, 2015 election officials said former prime minister Roch Marc Christian Kabore has won the country's presidential election, becoming the West African nation's first new president in decades. Authorities said Kabore, prime minister under former strongman Blaise Compaore before splitting with that regime, won the presidency in the first round with more than 53 percent of the vote. Provisional results showed his closest rival, Zephirin Diabre, with just under 30 percent.
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