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International Disputes

CountryDisputes
Pacific Oceansome maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Pakistan
  • Various talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949
  • India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region
  • Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries
  • to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea
  • Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State
  • by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing
  • Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities
  • Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps
  • Palau
  • Maritime delineation negotiations continue with Philippines, Indonesia
  • Palmyra Atollnone
    Panama
  • Organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia operate within the remote border region with Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Seeks assistance from Australia to control illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including smuggling, drug trafficking, and Indonesian squatters and secessionists
  • Paracel Islands
  • Occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam
  • Paraguay
  • Unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations
  • Peru
  • Bolivia has reanimated its claim to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile and adjoining Peru in 1884 to secure sovereign maritime assess for Bolivian natural gas
  • Ecuador-Peru Border Dispute By October 1995, Guarantor military observers (MOMEP) had organized the withdrawal of some 5,000 troops from the disputed Cenepa Valley and supervised demobilization of 140,000 troops on both sides. On 18 January 1999, Peruvian President Fujimori and Ecuadorian President Mahuad presided over a ceremony to celebrate completion of the demarcation of the Lagartococha-Guepi region.
  • Philippines
  • Philippines claims sovereignty over Scarborough Reef (also claimed by both China and Taiwan) and over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
  • in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands
  • Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf
  • maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau
  • Pitcairn Islandsnone
    Poland
  • As a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine
  • Portugal
  • Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
  • Puerto Riconone



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