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Military


International Disputes

CountryDisputes
Taiwan
  • Involved in complex dispute with Brunei, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam over the Spratly Islands, and with China and the Philippines over Scarborough Reef
  • the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
  • Paracel Islands are occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam
  • in 2003, China and Taiwan became more vocal in rejecting both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea where all parties engage in hydrocarbon prospecting
  • Tajikistan
  • In 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002
  • talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields
  • disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
  • Tanzania
  • Tanzania still hosts more than a half-million refugees, more than any other African country, mainly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, despite the international community's efforts at repatriation
  • disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
  • Thailand
  • Separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities
  • Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of Avian Influenza
  • talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River
  • despite continuing border committee talks, Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities, and as of 2006, over 116,000 Karen, Hmong, and other refugees and asylum seekers from Burma
  • Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary
  • in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site
  • Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Burma
  • in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through China, Burma, and Thailand
  • 140,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in remote camps in Thailand near the border
  • Togo
  • In 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary
  • in 2006, 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005
  • talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
  • Tokelau
  • Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island (Olohega) in its 2006 draft independence constitution
  • Tonganone
    Trinidad and Tobago
  • Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone
  • in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UNCLOS challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters
  • Guyana has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well
  • Tromelin Island
  • claimed by Mauritius
  • Tunisianone
    Turkey
  • Complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea
  • status of north Cyprus question remains
  • Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters
  • Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq
  • in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered
  • Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley
  • Turkmenistan
  • Cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states
  • field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005, but prior to 2018 Caspian Sea seabed delimitation stalled with Azerbaijan, Iran, and Kazakhstan due to Turkmenistan's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters and seabed
  • bilateral talks with Azerbaijan focused on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian Sea
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • Have received Haitians fleeing economic collapse and civil unrest
  • Tuvalunone