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Military


Indian Weapons

A country that successfully launched a mission to Mars,
has so far failed to produce an ordinary assault rifle.

  • Laser Weapons

  • AIRCRAFT
    Fighter Transport
    Ajeet
    HF-24 Marut
    LCA Tejas
    AMCA
    MWF
    TEDBF

    Jaguar - Shamsher
    MiG-21 - Vikram
    Mig-27 - Bahadur
    MiG-29 - Baaz
    Su-30MKI
    An-178
    Do-228
    MTA
    Saras LTA


    CIVIL AVIATION
    VT Hansa
    LTA Saras
    MTA
    RTA-70
    Rotary Other
    ALH Dhruv
    Chetak
    Cheetah
    Chetan
    Lancer
    LCH
    LOH
    MLH
    AJT
    HJT-16 Kiran
    HJT-36
    HPT-32
    HT-2
    HTT-40
    TS-11 Iskra
    VT Hansa

    ASP
    737 SIGINT

    UAV
    ADA Ghatak
    ADE Gagan
    ADE Pawan
    DRDO Abhyas
    DRDO AURA
    DRDO Fluffy
    DRDO Imperial Eagle
    DRDO Kapothaka
    DRDO Lakshya
    DRDO Netra
    DRDO Nishant
    DRDO Rustom
    DRDO Ulka
    IAI-HAL NRUAV
    NAL Slybird
    NAL / ADE Black Kite
    NAL / ADE Golden Hawk


    excludes Micro/Mini UAV
    MISSILES
    Surface-to-Air Air-to-Air
    Akash
    LLQRM
    LRSAM Barak
    MRSAM
    QRSAM
    Trishul
    XR-SAM

    Missile Defense
    AAD Ashwin
    PAD Prithvi
    PDV Prithvi
    AD-1
    AD-2

    Astra-1
    Astra-2
    SFDR
    Air-to-Surface Surface-to-Surface
    BrahMos
    Khagantak
    NASM-SR
    NGARM
    PJ-10
    Rudram 1
    SAAW
    Varunastra
    Vel
    Waghnak
    BrahMos
    HSTDV
    Pragati
    Prahaar
    SMART
    STAR



    ANTI-TANK
    Amogha
    Dhruvastra
    HeliNa
    MPATGM
    Nag
    Prospina
    SANT

    STRATEGIC MISSILES

    GROUND COMBAT
    Tanks Armored Vehicles
    Ajeya [T-72M1]
    Arjun
    BMP Tank
    FMBT
    FRCV
    Light Tank
    T-55 Gulmohar
    Tank-Ex
    Vijayanta

    Abhay
    Aditya 4x4 MPV
    BMP Sarath
    FICV
    FRCV
    Hunky
    MPV 6x6 Mahindra
    MPV 6x6 Ashok Leyland
    MPV 4x4 Aditya / Yuktirath
    MPV 4x4 Ashok Leyland
    MPV 4x4 Tata
    Muntra ROV UGV
    Tarmour
    Tuffy
    Yuktirath 4x4 MPV
    Artillery Anti-Aircraft
    TOWED
    IFG 105mm
    LFG 105mm
    ATAGS 155mm/52-cal
    Bharat 52 155mm/52-cal
    Dhanush 155mm/45-cal
    Sharang 155mm/45-cal


    SELF-PROPELLED
    M-46 130mm Catapult
    Bhim 155mm/52-cal T-6 SPH
    Garuda 105
    K9 VAJRA-T 155mm SPG
    OFB 105mm MGS
    OFB 155mm MGS
    Tata/Denel 155mm MGS


    ROCKET
    Pinaka MRL


    AWADGS

    Project Probable Date of Completion (PDC)
    as of February 2014
    Cost
    Original RevisedOriginal Revised
    Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), Phase-II December 2008 December 2015 Rs.3301.75 Cr Rs.5777.53 Cr
    Naval Light Combat Aircraft (LCA, Navy), Phase-I March 2010 December 2014 Rs.948.90 Cr Rs.1714.98 Cr
    Aero-engine Kaveri December 1996 December 2009 # Rs.383.81 Cr Rs.2839.00 Cr
    Airborne Early Warning & Control (AEW&C) System October 2011 March 2014 Rs.1800.00 Cr Rs.2157.00 Cr
    Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LR-SAM) May 2011 December 2015 Rs.2606.02 Cr No revision.
    Air-to-Air Missile, Astra August 2012 December 2016
    # PDC was further extended within the sanctioned cost and scope.

    On 06 February 2020, Indias Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) announced the completion of the Nirbhay cruise missile development project and revealed several cruise and antiship missiles under development. The first, dubbed the Long Range Land Attack Cruise Missile (LRLACM) will reportedly possess a range of 1,000 km; developmental flights are expected to begin in 2023. The second, titled the Indigenous Technology Cruise Missile (ITCM), is envisioned as a successor to the Nirbhay, featuring an indigenously-produced turbofan engine and terminal seeker.

    Naval Anti-Ship Missile Short Range (NASM-SR)

    DRDO also is developing Naval AntiShipping Missile Short Range (NASM-SR) with a 55 km range for use from Sea King helicopters and eventually equip the MH-60R helicopters. The existence of the Naval Anti-Ship Missile NASM SR was revealed in 2018 in the Lok Sabha. Raksha Mantri Nirmala Sitharaman named this in the list of DRDO developments and those at other Indian institutions over the past three years (January 2016-December 2018). Initial details were unveiled at the DefExpo 2020. This project is possibly being developed for a number of platforms, having different ranges. SR, or Short Range, means that development of other longer range versions is expected as well.

    According to DRDO, the NASM-SR will be a 380 kg projectile with a maximum range of 55 km and used initially with Indian Navy Sea King helicopters, replacing the earlier Sea Eagle missiles. As the Sea King itself is approaching the end of its service life, it may be expected that the new indigenous missile will be in service with future helicopters of the Navy.

    The Indian Navy is currently procuring MH-60R helicopters for multi-role purposes and these will be equipped with Kongsberg Naval Strike Missile. Further, for the Indian Navys IMRH acquisition, MBDA pitched its Sea Venom which has a range of 25 km and also the Marte ER which can reach more than 100 km.

    The NASM SR could certainly be considered for these potent platforms. The long range version of the NASM may have a range excess of 150 km, enabling engagement of hostile targets from stand-off distances. At the DRDO exhibit at Aero India 2019 were several posters of a one-tonne class medium range air launched cruise missile, though little was revealed about this unnamed stealth missile.

    target ships & patrol boats
    Weight 375 + 5 kg
    warhead weight 100 kg
    launch Platform Sea King Helicopter
    Length 3600 mm
    Diameter 300 mm
    propulsion solid rocket motor
    Booster motor 3.5T [in-line ejectable] 3.25 seconds
    Sustainer Motor 120Kgf thrust 125 seconds
    Navigation Midcourse INS & Altimeter; Terminal IIR-Seeker
    Range 5 - 55 km
    launch altitude 91 meters to 3 km
    Cruise Altitutde 15 meters midcourse, 5 meters terminal
    time of flight 130 second to 35 km
    200 seconds to 55 km
    average cruise speed 0.8 Mach
    Control aerodynamic + JVC [boost phase]
    impact point materline

    Naval Anti-Ship Missile Short Range (NASM-SR) Naval Anti-Ship Missile Short Range (NASM-SR)

    BEL - Waghnak / Vel / Khagantak [Varunastra]

    Indian state-owned defence enterprise, Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with JSR Dynamics Pvt Ltd (JSR), a Nagpur-based start-up Company, at Aero India 2019 in Bengaluru on 20 February 2019. The MoU aims at leveraging the individual design and manufacturing capabilities of BEL and JSR to develop weapons and light weight cruise missiles, which have business potential in both the domestic and international markets. Anandi Ramalingam, Director (Mktg) at BEL, and Air Marshal (Retd) S.B.Deo, Managing Director of JSR Dynamics Pvt Ltd, signed the MoU in the presence of M.V.Gowtama, CMD of BEL, Directors and other senior officers of BEL.

    BEL has, as part of the Government of Indias Start-up India Initiative, been extending its support to start-up Companies. BEL, Indias leading Defence electronics Company, is engaged in the design, manufacture and supply of state-of-the-art Radars, Missile Systems, Military Communications, Naval Systems, Electronic Warfare & Avionics, C4I Systems, Electro Optics, Tank Electronics & Gun / Weapon System Upgrades, Solar Systems, Electronic Components and civilian products like Electronic Voting Machine and Point of Sale device.

    JSR is engaged in the design of ground-based and air-based weapons. Among its many products are Glide Weapons, Light Weight Cruise Missiles and allied sub-assemblies and components. The collaborative Indian industry team led by state owned defence firm Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) unveiled an array of new air-launched precision-guided weapons and lightweight cruise missiles in March 2019 at the Aero India show in Bengaluru. The team disclosed the development of a trio of airborne weapon systems, designated Waghnak, Khagantak, and Vel, which are envisioned as low-cost, state-of-the-art, penetration weapons for domestic and export customers. Their unusual development path, fully away from the traditional route has evoked justifiable interest.

    The weapons were initially concepts, given that they had no official sanction and arent routed through the established DRDO-DPSU route to service entry. These indigenous missiles are under current development and could take some time to mature, but once they enter service, India will be self-reliant in the field of anti-ship missiles. BEL will supply all electronics and guidance subsystems, while the body and control systems are supplied by JSR Dynamics. Air Marshal (Retd) S B Deo designed and developed the missiles.

    The Vel is a low RCS platform being developed for launch from a Su-30MKI. It is a light cruise missile which weighs 198 kg and a conventional warhead with a mass of 72 kg. It can achieve range of 297 km for employment against surface targets. The VEL cruise missile is proposed to have a IN/GPS guidance or IN/GPS with Digital Scene Matching and Area Co-Relation (DISMAC). The new weapon will have a passive RF seeker and will be powered by a gas turbine engine generating 90 kg of thrust. A service life of 10 years is envisaged.

    The Vel is an instrument to destroy the Ego, which is camouflaged and ultimately the soul is liberated from all its ignorance, achieving Moksha. Tamil Hindus have a very popular God call Lord Murugan the patron God of the Tamilians. The warrior son of Shiva and Parvati, born to kill a demon. His symbols are weapons of war, like the Vel, the Lance or the divine spear which he is always found carrying in his popular avatar, a top a peacock. This Vel was given to him by his mother Goddess Parvati to vanquish the asuras, which embodies her power and energy. This mystic device also symbolizes the Absolute Wisdom which destroys the inner demons of illiteracy, bad karma and sets the soul free. This Vel is also interpreted as a divine protective power to safeguard the world from adversities. This weapon is worshipped independently in some of the temples of Murugan. Just chanting the word Vel, one invokes the blessings of Lord Murugan. The shining Vel of Lord Murugan signifies the power of wisdom and the blessing of his mother Parvati who wanted her son to be victorious over the demon led by Surapadma. This instrument has exceptional strength and the divine power and is also known by the names of Vira Vel or Sakti Vel. It serves as a protection against cruelty and atrocity in any form. It is believed to dominate over chaos and bring about order, peace and prosperity. It also signifies that Lord Murugan would come to the aid of any devotee who has beckoned him in distress. Khagantak Long range stand off weapon developed by state-owned BEL ( Bharat Electronics Limited ). The low cost weapon system is able to strike 180 km away with accuracy. The standoff weapon is equipped with both passive & active seeker in terminal stage. The long-range stand-off Khagantak-225-LW concept weapon is expected to have a range of 180 km and weigh 243 kg. The missile will carry a 108 kg warhead and will feature advanced guidance systems and low RCS for greater stealth. It can be used as a guide weapon, which also has artificial intelligence (AI) to recognise the targets. Such indigenous missiles are expected to be a boost to the Make in India initiative and reduce dependence on foreign defence manufacturers. JSR Dynamics Managing Director Air Marshal SB Deo said, "The Khagantak missile is a guide weapon with excellent aerodynamic performance and a seeker in the front which has got artificial intelligence to recognise targets."

    JSR Dynamics, a private firm based in India, has displayed an indigenous missile called 'Khagantak' in DefExpo 2020. In this four-day event, the Indian defense industry will get a chance to showcase its potential, it will also boost exports. DefExpo India - 2020 theme is "India - emerging hub of defense manufacturing". The focus of this exhibition is the digital transformation of the defense sector. In this exhibition, Uttar Pradesh will be presented as a suitable place for investment in defense sector. With this DefExpo, foreign equipment manufacturers will get an opportunity to work with the Indian defense industry, thereby promoting Make in India.

    The name "Khagantak" is a Sanscrit phrase, khagAntaka, composed on "kaH", an Eagle, a hawk, or falcon, and "antaka", meaning destroyer, thus, possibly also meaning a destroyer of birds` or "enemy of birds".

    The Waghnak is an Indian copy/variant of AGM-158 Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile) but with a different design approach. The Waghnak is a long-range unpowered stand-off glide weapon concept. It is much heavier than the other BEL projects, at 450 kg and includes a 225 kg warhead, in addition to a 225 kg shape charge. The weapon has a streamlined lightweight carbon composite body with fold-out mid-body glide wings and five aft control surfaces to deliver a range of 150 km at a launch altitude of 12,000 m, with a maximum engagement speed of 272 m/s. BEL claims that the composite material helps reduce the Waghnak's radar cross section (RCS) signature and improves operational range.

    This weapon will feature IN/GPS guidance with long wave IR. A range of seeker options will be made available. BEL is offering a basic option of Waghnak featuring a multi-band passive RF seeker (1-3, 3-6, 6-12 GHz) with an inertial navigation system (INS)/GPS with long-wave infrared (IR) sensor for terminal guidance, and a tandem warhead (primary: 225 kg penetration warhead; secondary: 45 kg shaped charge) for hard-surface attack. The munition can be configured with only an INS/GPS, semi-active laser (SAL), or medium-wave IR seeker as required. This seems to be a re-named Varunastra [Storm], which was described as a long range anti-ship missile with cruising speed of 850 kmph. This low cost relatively light weight missile is being developed for neutralising smaller ships as a cost effective solution. The missile weighs 225 kg, has a 108 kg penetrator and blast fragmentation warhead. The missile has very low RCS and a designed range in excess of 270 km.

    Confusingly, India;'s first indigenously-built heavyweight anti-submarine torpedo is also called Varunastra. Varunastra weighs around 1.25 tonnes and can carry about 250 kg of explosives at a speed of around 40 nautical miles an hour. They have conformal array transducer which can look at wider angles than other torpedos. Varunastra can be fired from the Rajput class destroyers, Delhi class and all future Anti-Submarine Warfare ships capable of firing heavy weight torpedoes and is capable of targeting quiet and stealthy submarines both in deep and littoral waters even in intense countermeasure atmosphere. The first batch was delivered to the Navy in 2020 and was fitted onto Sindhu class submarines and other navy ships. This will make India one of the eight countries to have such indigenously-designed and built system.

    Long Range Land Attack Cruise Missile (LRLACM)

    The Long Range Land Attack Cruise Missile (LRLACM) was unveiled at the recent DefExpo 2020. According to Onmanorama reports, this new system will have a range of 1000 km launched from a UVLM (Universal Vertical Launcher Module) and some 20 development flight trials are planned.

    In 2020 the Indian Ministry of Defence cleared the proposed development of Long-Range Land Attack Cruise Missile (LRLACM) for Ship launched cruise missile for Land-based strikes for the Indian Navy which will also be adopted later for the Air force and Army variant with a range of 1000 km, just like Nirbhay Cruise missile with a hint of BrahMos speed.

    Nirbhay Cruise missile program waas been officially closed but the technology of seeker and booster propulsion would be carried on the LRLACM program too which includes Small Turbofan Engines (STFE) or the Manik turbofan engine for the second stage propulsion which is near identical to what now scrapped Nirbhay Cruise missile had to offer but this is what separates Nirbhay from LRLACM. LRLACM will fly most of its flight at subsonic speeds but it will perform a supersonic sprint in the terminal approach to the target which considerably will reduce the reaction time for the targets defense systems to react.

    LRLACM will have a booster with thrust vectoring capability at the initial launch stage, once its jettisoned, Turbofan will kick in and maintain at subsonic speed while its flying at Tree-top levels cover for the 1000 km at approximately 20 minutes then it does its supersonic sprint in the terminal approach to the target. DRDO and Russia already have been developing similar missiles in the Anti-Ship version role and LRLACM will be a land attack based version of the same missile with changes in seeker technology for land attack roles for the air force and Army.

    ADE is a Bengaluru-based Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) lab working on unmanned platforms and subsonic cruise missiles. Rustom-II, when inducted into the armed forces, will undertake surveillance and reconnaissance missions. The major surveillance payloads that are now being flown are electronic intelligence (ELINT ), communications intelligence (COMINT), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and long\medium range electro optical (EO) systems. Indian Army is the major stakeholder in the Rustom-II mission with a requirement for 60 platforms, followed by the Indian Air Force (12) and the Indian Navy (four). An upgraded version of Rustom-II (Tapas) - the medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) - being developed by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), was ready to take to the skies in early 2020. The new platform (AF-6A) being readied for its first flight will be seventh one from Rustom-II flight line. The sixth prototype (AF-6) of Rustom-II had crashed near the Aeronautical Test Range (ATR) in Chalakere (Chitradurga district, Karnataka) on September 17, 2019. (AF stands for air frame.). It is now confirmed that the crash was due to the momentary and simultaneous link loss that prompted the UAV to enter into the return home mode. The platform also had to encounter a rough patch of turbulence beyond the capacity of control law, resulting in the crash. The behaviour of the UAV is being claimed to have been on the expected lines and as per the design parameters. The sensor data was available for the ground station almost till its touchdown\crash. The seventh platform (AF-6A) from Rustom-II flight line set to undertake its maiden flight carries many new features. From AF-5 prototype onwards (February 2018), Rustom-II is being powered by a 180 HP Austro engine, replacing the 115 HP Rotax engine. Among the new features embedded into the system are: a solid state relay-based low weight power distribution unit; an indigenous inertial navigation system (INS) developed by RCI, Hyderabad; Lithium ion batteries and satellite communication (SATCOM) link.

    Pranash - Close Range Ballistic Miasile

    AD-1/AD-2 - Ballistic Missile Defence (Programme AD)

    The Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defence system to protect from ballistic missile attacks. Interceptor missiles have been developed by DRDO as a strategic weapon against ballistic missile attacks. Successful trials of endo interceptor missile (AAD) and exo interceptor missile (PDV) were carried out in August 2018 and September 2018 respectively. Phase-I of the system will enable interception of missiles up to a 2,000-km range, which will be extended to 5,000-km range in Phase-II.

    By maturing the PDV/AAD combination in Phase 1, India would be able to create capabilities against only missiles which have ranges not exceeding 2,000 km. While this will cater to the Pakistani threat until the near future, it would be rather inadequate against the full spectrum of Chinese MIRV threats. The DRDO is aware of these ground realities and in Phase 2 of the program, plans to develop two new anti-ballistic missiles. These Hypersonic missiles will be able to intercept threats with a range of around 5,000 km.

    Two new anti ballistic missiles that can intercept IRBMs are being developed. These high speed missiles (AD-1 and AD-2) are being developed to intercept ballistic missiles with a range of around 5,000 km (3,100 mi). The new missile will be similar to the THAAD missile deployed by the US. These missiles will travel at hypersonic speeds and will require radars with scan capability of over 1,500 km (930 mi) to successfully intercept the target. On 6 May 2012, Dr V K Saraswat while confirming the completion of Phase-I added that Phase-II would be completed by 2016 to protect against missiles having range up to 5000 km. The new missiles (AD-1 and AD-2) will be similar to THAAD missiles deployed by the US and will require radars with scan capability of over 1,500 km to successfully intercept the target.

    The AD-1 can intercept MRBM (Medium-range Ballistic Missile) targets with a range between 1000 to 3000 kilometers, while the AD-2 can intercept IRBM (Intermediate-range Ballistic Missile) targets with a range between 3000 to 5500 kilometers. Phase 2 interceptors will be hypersonic with speeds of Mach 6 to 7 hence they will take less times to intercept. These interceptors will be capable of intercepting missiles, with ranges greater than 5,000 km, which follow a distinctly different trajectory than a missile with a range of 2000 km or less. During their final phase, ICBMs rush towards their targets at speeds twice to that of IRBMs.

    AD-1/AD-2 - Ballistic Missile Defence (Programme AD) AD-1/AD-2 - Ballistic Missile Defence (Programme AD)
  • HSTDV
  • Hypersonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV)

    The air-breathing Hypersonic technology demonstrator vehicle can cruise at a speed of Mach 6. The Scramjet technology program was one of the most ambitious programs of advanced countries like USA, Russia, China, France, Australia and Japan. Worldwide it is a closely guarded technology and the detailed information including fabrication technology is not available in the open literature. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has worked on the development of the technology and has successfully tested a system in 2016.

    Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) conducted a test of this system 12 June 2019. India has successfully conducted the maiden flight test of its indigenously developed fired Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV) off Odisha Coast. The HSTDV was developed by DRDO. Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) carried out the trials from Dr Abdul Kalam Island in the Bay of Bengal. While it can be used to launch small satellites at a much lower cost, it will be used for launching long-range cruise missiles. It will help in the development of a hypersonic cruise missile system.

    DRDO successfully demonstrated the hypersonic air-breathing scramjet technology with the flight test of Hypersonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV) at 1103 hours from Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Launch Complex at Wheeler Island, off the coast of Odisha 07 September 2020.

    The hypersonic cruise vehicle was launched using a proven Agni solid rocket motor, which took it to an altitude of 30 kilometres (km), where the aerodynamic heat shields were separated at hypersonic Mach number. The cruise vehicle separated from the launch vehicle and the air intake opened as planned. The hypersonic combustion sustained and the cruise vehicle continued on its desired flight path at a velocity of six times the speed of sound i.e., nearly 02 km/second for more than 20 seconds. The critical events like fuel injection and auto ignition of scramjet demonstrated technological maturity. The scramjet engine performed in a text book manner.

    The parameters of launch and cruise vehicle, including scramjet engine was monitored by multiple tracking radars, electro-optical systems and Telemetry Stations. The scramjet engine worked at high dynamic pressure and at very high temperature. A Ship was also deployed in the Bay of Bengal to monitor the performance during the cruise phase of hypersonic vehicle. All the performance parameters have indicated a resounding success of the mission.

    With this successful demonstration, many critical technologies such as aerodynamic configuration for hypersonic manoeuvers, use of scramjet propulsion for ignition and sustained combustion at hypersonic flow, thermo-structural characterisation of high temperature materials, separation mechanism at hypersonic velocities etc. were proven.

    Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh congratulated DRDO on this landmark achievement towards realising Prime Minister Narendra Modis vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat. He also spoke to the scientists associated with the project and congratulated them on this great achievement. India is proud of them, he added.

    Secretary Department of Defence R&D and Chairman DRDO Dr G Satheesh Reddy congratulated all the Scientists, Researchers and other personnel related with HSTDV mission for their resolute and unwavering efforts towards strengthening Nations defence capabilities. On this successful demonstration, the country enters into the hypersonic regime paving way for advanced hypersonic Vehicles.

    Defence minister Rajnath Singh congratulated the DRDO immediately after the test and praised their efforts to indigenously build a scramjet engine. He said that it is a landmark achievement towards realising the vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat (self-reliant India). The DRDO, in its statement, called it significant milestone towards a Sashakt Bharat (Empowered India) and Atmanirbhar Bharat (Self-reliant India).

    Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu called 27 August 2020 for the nurturing of entrepreneurial talent among the youth of the nation to make India Atmanirbhar in the time to come. He said that we must tap into the entrepreneurial talent and technological skill of every citizen of the nation and harness our local resources to attain self-reliance and to serve the humanity at large. Calling for the creation of a Sashakt Bharat, a Swabhimani Bharat, and an Atmanirbhar Bharat that Vinoba ji and Gandhi ji had envisioned, the Vice President said that Indias concept of self-reliance is not about being ultra-nationalist and protectionist but to become a more significant partner in global welfare.

    Hypersonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV) Hypersonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV) Hypersonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV) Hypersonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV) Hypersonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV) Hypersonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV) Hypersonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV)

    Airbreathing propulsion engines have several advantages over expendable rockets, namely, they do not require stored oxidixer, which results in smaller and less costly launch vehicles. In addition, airbreathing engines don't have to rely strictly on engine thrust but can utilize available aerodynamic forces, thus resulting in far greater maneuverability. This can also manifest itself in greater vehicle safety since missions can be aborted much easier.

    Alternatives to rocket propulsion systems include a combination of gas turbine jet engines, ramjets, scramjets and rockets that can be integrated into a combined cycle airbreathing propulsion system. Advanced turbojet engines, such as found in fighter aircraft, rely on compressing the air, injecting the fuel into it, burning the mixture, and expanding the combustion products through the nozzle to provide thrust at much higher specific impulses (Isp) than rocket engines. Turbojets are used to power conventional airplanes and cruise missiles, but are currently materials limited to Mach 2-3 so as to prevent overheating and damage to the turbine blades.

    At this point another form of propulsion engine, called a ramjet, takes over. This is in lieu of undertaking an expensive development of high-temperature gas turbine blade materials technology to increase the maximum upper limit to approximately Mach 3-4. The ramjet engine operates by using a specially designed inlet to scoop up the ram air, slow it down and then compress it while the vehicle is flying through the atmosphere. Fuel is injected into the air, mixed with it, combusted and then expanded through the nozzle to provide thrust in a similar fashion to the turbojet. Ramjet engines operate most efficiently at vehicle speeds beyond Mach 2-3. A ramjet can be readily integrated into a turbojet engine. The turbojet by itself would operate from take-off to ramjet takeover, and the ramjet would then power the vehicle to its velocity limit of about Mach 6. Above this limit the combustion chamber temperature becomes very high, causing the combustion products to dissociate, which in turn reduces vehicle thrust.

    To operate at still higher vehicle speeds, supersonic combustion ramjets, or scramjets as they are called, would be employed. Again, fuel is injected, mixed and combusted with the air, but at supersonic speeds, thus necessitating a different fuel injection scheme than that used by the ramjet. As the vehicle continues to accelerate into the upper atmosphere, rocket engines may be required to supplement the scramjet engine(s) for Mach numbers above 10-12.

    Such hypersonic vehicles are, of course, subject to extreme temperature fluctuations within the vehicle's envelope of performance. Specifically, the leading edges, flight control surfaces and a substantial portion of the external surfaces of such vehicle support structures, or frames, as well as the internal construction associated with engines necessary to power the vehicle require that thermal design parameters incorporate means for ensuring structural survivability during short periods of high heat flux.

    However, existing insulative systems are limited in the maximum allowable temperature (or heat flux) at the outer surface (mostly below about 1600 deg. C.). There exists a need to provide adequate thermal protection to hypersonic vehicles in the event of a high heat load event that combines the most desirable attributes of the insulative thermal protection systems. Such a system ideally also realizes other positive attributes such as cost and weight reduction.

    A Technology Demonstration Project was sanctioned by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in March 2001 for Design and Development of Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV) by Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL). DRDL undertook a feasibility study in September 2003, which included a study on design and development of scramjet engine. The study found that the temperature encountered in the scramjet engine combustor was of the range equivalent to 2227-2527C.

    DRDL therefore identified two high temperature resistant materials viz Nimonic C-263 and Niobium C-103, for possible use in the development of the engine. DRDL found that C-263 was the suitable material which could sustain for 20 seconds flight duration. The maximum temperature resistance capability for C-103 material was found to be 1200C, which could be enhanced only up to 1370C through coating technique.

    Initially, the preliminary design of Scramjet engine was carried out considering two approaches Single Wall & Double Wall type construction. For achieving the required design with single wall type construction resulted into heavy weight penalty. Hence, double wall type construction was considered and it was found that double wall construction for weight optimum design with stringent constraints of deflection and allowable stress is a feasible solution (Report no.DRDL/DOFS/ASD/HSTDV-01/18 dated 13th July 2004). Subsequently, a single module double wall configuration of size 550 mm width X 250 mm height X 2885 mm length with C-103 Niobium based alloy and C-263 Nimonic alloy as outer wall was analysed and design finalised. Among all refractory materials, Niobium alloys (C-103 is one of the Niobium alloys) were found to be ductile, lighter weight, possessing good fabricability. C-103 material for the combustor chamber of the scramjet engine is a reliable material for high temperature application.

    In September 2005, Ministry of Defence sanctioned a project for Development of Scramjet Engine and Engine Integrated Airframe at an estimated cost of Rs. 48.65 crore as part of the HSTDV project, to be taken up by DRDL, Hyderabad. The aim of the project was to design, fabricate and carryout testing of scramjet engine. Scramjet engine is subjected to very high temperature. DRDL identified C-103 material as High Temperature Resistant Material (HTRM) for inner layer of the engine and C-263 for the outer layer. Requirement of C-103 material, which has a shelf life of 10 years, was accordingly projected for development of five scramjet engines. However, keeping in view the anticipated design changes and high cost involved, the Special Purchase Committee (SPC) held in May 2006 recommended procurement of C-103 material for development of only three scramjet engines. In July 2007, DRDL accordingly procured a quantity of 1329 Kg of HTRM worth Rs. 4.83 crore which was received between October 2007 and October 2008. A quantity of 3660 Kg of C-263 material was also procured between December 2007 and February 2008 at a cost of Rs. 1.76 crore, for use in the project.

    DRDO stated "C-103 material procured was intended to be used for fabrication of single module-double wall Scramjet engine. The material was procured after the recommendations of two experts committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. AR Acharya, Group Director, VSSC and Dr. Baldev Raj, Director, IGCAR, Kalpakkam during scramjet engine design and fabrication reviews. The committees had cleared the design and fabrication methodology using C-103 materials. C-103 is a strategic material being widely used in the international scenario for high temperature and high speed engine development programmes for which the lead time in procurement is high. Hence, conscious decision was taken to procure C-103 material."

    It was observed in March 2012 that the feasibility study carried out in 2003 had specifically brought out that C-103 material can resist temperature only up to 1370C whereas the temperature generated in the scramjet engine combustor would range up to 2527C. Despite this known limitations, DRDL procured 1329 Kg of C-103 material. During the process of development, DRDL used only 107 Kg of the C-103 material and found that it could not withstand the high temperature beyond five seconds and therefore, the balance material was not further used. When enquired about the justification for procurement of the material, DRDO HQ stated that due to severe oxidation problem/change in engine combustor design, C-103 material could not be used and C-263 material alone has been used for the scramjet engine development, although usage of C-103 material had limitation as the temperature experienced is more than 2300C, yet considering the ground test data it was expected that the same had potential for longer duration tests of the order of 100 seconds and 200 seconds with suitable anti-oxidation coating techniques.

    The temperature in the engine is of the order of 2,500 degrees because the hot flame is actually coming out of the engine. But even though the gas temperature is 2,500 degrees, the metal temperature will be around 1,000 degrees for the 20 second duration. It takes time for the metal to heat up. So, it was not a wrong decision to select this material. Even now the temperature predicted will be 1,000 degrees and this material will withstand. But after procuring the material, when DRDO attempted to use this material for fabrication, it got into a number of fabrication issues. The original design was to have an external structural layer of C-263 with C-103 inside which is exposed to the heat. The combination of these two materials faced some welding problem. This had never been done earlier. This material had to be given silicide coating without which the properties were going to drop. This coating application process was not readily available for this configuration.

    The 2,500 degrees is the gas temperature. Maybe some people were unable to clarify the technical point. The gas temperature is 2,500 degrees, but the material which is holding that gas is not crossing 1,000 or 1,100 degree centigrade. So this material is still valid and even in the world nowhere there is a material which can withstand this kind of 2,500 degree centigrade temperature.

    Welding trials such as TIG welding, Electron Beam Welding were carried out. As these two materials are dissimilar it resulted in the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds in the weld joints. Hence, this scheme did not meet the requirement. As an alternate approach, the diffusion and explosive bonding were carried out to bond C-103 & C-263. Out of this, explosive bonding was found to be suitable at coupon level. Several complexities were encountered to manufacture full scale Scramjet engine because of large shape and size (rectangular cross section, length 2.8m, width 550mm), joining complexities, requirement of large size vacuum heat treatment facility, inadequate manufacturing facilities. Hence, fabrication of full scale engine using C-103 and C-263 was found to be complex and difficult.

    Mid-course technical design changes are very much a part of design and development process. This modified design reduced the stresses and deflections as the width of engine is reduced from 550mm to less than 225mm. The two module engine configuration using C-263 also met the design requirements, in spite of C-263 being inferior to C-103 in terms of thermal properties. It may be noted that C-263 has been considered for limited short duration of 20 seconds for present HSTDV mission, however for long duration flight (about 600 sec), C-103 along with regenerative cooling will be a better option. For present HSTDV mission, based on this modified design, the Scramjet engine has been fabricated using C-263 alone and more than 60 ground tests have been conducted successfully. The flight worthy Scramjet engine has been realized (weight=330kg) and thermo-structurally qualified.

    https://issuu.com/home/publisher

  • Is Russian Meddling as Dangerous as We Think? By Joshua Yaffa - September 14, 2020 Issue
  • Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun

    The Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) has delivered a cost-effective solution for 155mm artillery gun requirement by upgrading the existing Russian 130 mm M46 to 155mm 45 calibre gun Sharang (Vishnus bow) to the Indian Army. The first gun system was handed over to Army Chief General Manoj Naravane at the just concluded DefExpo 2020 held in Lucknow. Sharang is the 130mm artillery gun up-gunned to all-terrain 155mm, 45 calibre up-gunning based on the Armys requirement to have better range, accuracy and consistency, said Gagan Chaturvedi, DDG, OFB.

    Lord Vishnu, the Inconceivable Ultimate, is the Supreme God. He is the preserver and upholder of dharma and part of the Hindu Trinity. In Vaishnavism, he is the Supreme Self and the Lord of the universe, who manifests variously as part of His obligatory duty. Bhagwan Vishnu is usually shown with light blue skin and four arms holding a lotus, mace (gada), conch Shankha and disc (chakra) in each of four hands. In the Vishnu Sahasranama, he is called Paramatman or Parameshwara and is periodically reborn as an Avatar upon the earth in order to destroy evil and bring deliverance to the pious. He is also the refuge of the Devas in their battles against Asuras. He is also considered to be the first God, Adideva. He is beyond birth, death, time. He is beyond all.

    Vishnu is usually depicted with four arms, though sometimes he is shown with eight or even sixteen. In his hands, he holds the Shankha (conch), chakra (disc), Gada (club), Padma (lotus) and, occasionally, the Khadga (sword) and the Sharanga bow that was crafted by Lord Vishwakarma. The Celestial bow which Vishnu gave it to the sage Richika, who gave it to his son Jamadagni, who gave it to his son Parashurama, another incarnation of Vishnu. Now, when Parashurama found out that Rama had broken the Pinaka bow, he confronted Rama and demanded that he string the Sharanga bow. Rama was successful, and afterward, Rama gave the Sharanga bow to Varuna the ocean god, as described in a later chapter of the Bala Kanda of the Ramayana.

    The Army had issued the Request For Proposal (RFP) in 2013 for both OFB and private industry. The Sharang is the result of a collaboration between three OFB sites in Kanpur, Ishapore, and Jabalpur. The OFB offer emerged as the lesat expensive option, comparted with contenders from two foreign competitors, a consortium of Punj Lloyd and Yugo Import and Bharat Forge and Soltam. The OFB fully indigenous Sharang field howitzer surpassed competitors in various performance parameters during Field Evaluation Trials at the Pokhran range. The parameters include maximum range, direct fire, rate of fire, accuracy and consistency. Sharang emerged as the only compliant gun after completing trials. The gun repeated its performance in the second round of re-confirmatory trials at Pokharan in January 2018. Indigenous production of Sharang Guns is carried out at Gun Carriage Factory (GCF) and Vehicle Factory Jabalpur (VFJ).

    The completely indigenous Sharang 155mm/45calibre Gun system was indigenously developed with modification of Soltam 130 mm imported Russian Gun System at Gun Carriage Factory. Notable improvements with Sharang are the 45 caliber gun barrel chambered for 155mm ammunition. The breech loading mechanism was altered [although the OFBs media wasnt too specific as to how]. The wheels supporting the carriage were changed and the trailsthe twin legs for stabilizing the weapons recoilwere redesigned as well and made sturdier. The 155 mm shell has 8 kg of TNT while a 130 mm shell that has only 3.4 kg of TNT. This cannon has special ability to destroy enemies hiding in the mountains. It can be elevated up to 70 degrees.

    The guns range has now gone from 27km to over 36km with the upgrade. The OFB claims the Sharang can strike targets up to 36 kilometers away without specifying if these mean firing conventional ammunition or rocket assisted projectiles. Other sourcers report it has a striking range of 39 kilometres. It also has the more explosive capability and hence and more damage potential, the official stated. The weapon system is simple to operate and maintain. The SharangTowed gun is designed for worldwide service under all climatic conditions and can fire all existing standard 155-mm ammunition. This step will reduce the logistic trail of the Army as it does away with the need to carry 130mm shells and support equipment as the mainstay of the Armys long range artillery is 155mm guns.

    Gun Carriage Factory (GCF) in Jabalpur had won the global contract to upgrade the Sharang artillery gun. The upgradation work was carried out by the GCF with the help of the state-owned ordnance factories, and teams from the Army and DRDO. The Made in India artillery guns will be supplied to the Indian Army from Gun Carriage Factory, Jabalpur and the Ordnance Factory, Kanpur. Its commercial production is likely to begin soon. The Vehicle Factory Jabalpur (VFJ) has been tasked to assemble 12 Sharang gun systems. Sharang gun systems will also be equipped with night vision sensors which would allow the armed forces to target the enemy at night.

    Homegrown innovation got a boost with the success of the Dhanush 155mm howitzer, which features a small motor in its carriage for steering the piece toward its desired position. Dhanush looked set to win the Indian army away from its many aging tube artillery systems. But the US-made M777 won over the defense ministry for its weight class and India is listed among the select few operators of the type, and just 144 Dhanush will be delivered in the next few years. Kalyani Group has upgraded their ULH's from 155/39 Calibre to 155/52 Calibre, which can even outmatch heavier Dhanush's 155/45 Calibre) capacity and range.

    The Indian Army has several hundred Soviet D-30 122mm howitzers and perhaps 2,400 locally made 105mm light field guns that need to be replaced or upgraded. The reliance on towed artillery over self-propelled guns results from the geography of the Indian military mission. In the remote high altitude areas where it confronts China, for example, it is rather difficult to deploy heavy tracked self-propelled howitzers.

    Sharang it represents a breakthrough for the OFB, whose reputation had suffered after successive high profile contracts between the armed forces and foreign suppliers damaged the reputation of Indian-made military equipment. Its also an innovative approach to reviving older artillery weapons. The Soviet vintage M-46, with production shared with Egypt and North Korea, had been recognized as one of the deadliest field guns in the world until NATOs 155mm howitzers took the lead. The Serbian M46/10 155 mm / 45 cal. converted gun have been based on the famous Soviet 130mm M-46 gun, where the barrel has been replaced with new 155 mm with 45 caliber length.

    Fifteen regiments comprising 300 towed artillery pieces will be upgraded to the 155/45 mm calibre in the contract signed between the state-owned Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) and MoD in South Block on October 25. All upgraded guns will be supplied to the Indian Army by 2022. The Sharang upgrade kit costs less than Rs 70 lakh per gun, less than one-fifth the cost of a brand new towed field artillery piece. The Army had close to 1000 of the 130 mm guns that were acquired from the former Soviet Union beginning in 1968. The Army also had around 180 upgraded 155 mm field guns that were upgraded by Israeli firm Soltam under Project Karan in 2008. OFB officials said the contract opened an avenue for them to explore the guns export potential. It is the first time when any indigenised gun system was given green signal for bulk production within a record time due to indigenisation and proof trials of guns in the same city.

    The Sharang cannon, designed for the army by ordnance factory in the city, has been liked by 10 countries in the world. These countries have shown interest in the purchase of Sharang. In addition to UAE, Saudi Arabia, Oman, 10 countries including Thailand, Myanmar will soon start talks on the purchase process of the cannon. Apart from UAE, Saudi Arabia, Muscat, Oman, military and other representatives from three other Gulf countries have liked this cannon. According to sources, representatives from two Asian countries of Myanmar and Thailand have also shown keenness on the cannon.

    The reason behind this is that the armies of these countries use the guns of the Caliber of Sharang. This cannon is very useful for these countries. Sharung is friendly every season. It also works in cold places besides deserts. The value of the Sharang cannon is quite competitive. It can open up large avenues for export of this cannon. The government wants to export defence-immune products from across the country on a large scale.

    SystemSharang
    Country of Origin India
    Contractors
  • Gun Carriage Factory (GCF) in Jabalpur
  • Ordnance Factory, Kanpur
  • weight 8450 kg
    caliber 155mm
    barrel length 7700mm
    Rate of Fire Intense: 3 rds / 1 min
    Sustained: 42 rds / 60 min
    muzzle brake single baffle
    breech block wedge horizontal
    ramming system pneumatic
    Type of Ammo
  • HE BT
  • HE BB
  • HE M107
  • ILL
  • SMK
  • charge system BMCS
    maximum range 36 km
    prime mover Tatra 6x6 with crane
    crew
    Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun Sharang 155mm 45 calibre gun

    STAR - Supersonic TARget

    DRDO has been carrying out Research and Development to develop missile based on LFRJ (Liquid Fuel Ramjet) Engine. STAR stands for Supersonic TARget. This will be surface launched (with a booster) and will serve as a supersonic target for A2A and S2A missiles capable to hit Mach 2.4 speed.

    LFRJ motors more efficient when range and endurance are primary criterion rather than acceleration and storage. Thats why Brahmos and now STAR-cruise-missile adapt the liquid fuel based ramjet motors. Both will use a booster to accelerate to the ramjet operating speed beyond which booster is ejected and the missile will carry on. The LFRJ design will allow us to reach smaller scale missiles than Brahmos, and more importantly autonomy in this crucial technology.

    The STAR is designed to help Navy ship crews learn to defend themselves against modern anti-ship missiles like the French Exocet and Chinese Anti-ship missiles and also help in research in ship-defense systems and fleet training.

    STAR has been going through wind tunnel testing by DRDO and design changes have been made accordingly and it is expected that it will be ready by 2023-24 for demonstration trials and speculation is also that once STAR Target drone is developed as a spin-off program an Anti-Ship Missile based on STAR Technology will also be developed for Aircraft and Ship-based platform.

    A subsonic combustion ramjet operates best at supersonic flight speeds and, therefore, must be boosted to ramjet ignition speed by a first stage, usually a solid rocket. Practical upper flight limits for a subsonic combustion ramjet are usually between 500 and 8000 feet per second. If higher flight speeds are desired with ramjet propulsion, it is necessary to change from a subsonic combustion ramjet to a supersonic combustion ramjet. However, using the same basic ramjet requires effective geometry changes to the engine. Past and current efforts to develop dual-mode (i.e., subsonic-supersonic combustion) ramjets have required complicated mechanical geometry changes and/or complicated fuel injection location control with compromised performance. The major problem is to convert the geometry of the engine from a double-throat to a single-throat configuration. In practically all the studies, the conventional ramjet has been found to be the most promising propulsion option in the Mach 2-6 range. Beyond Mach 6, the supersonic combustion ramjet is an obvious choice.

    Air-breathing propulsion, in the form of Liquid Fuel Ramjet (LFRJ) or Solid Fuel Ramjet (SFRJ) systems, is a highly competitive solution to tactical systems requiring long range and/or high speeds. While significant development has occurred, including development of several operational systems using traditional LFRJ technology and ducted rocket systems, few resources have been devoted to SFRJs despite the significant potential demonstrated in the programs that have been completed. SFRJ systems have a clear advantage over rocket-based systems due to their inherent high specific impulse values which greatly improve the range and kinematic performance of the system.

    The use of high-speed air-breathing propulsion for tactical applications has a long history in the U.S. dating back to the Navaho, Bomarc, and Talos systems of the late 1950s and early 1960s. All variants of the Ramjet, e.g. SFRJ, Ducted Rocket, LFRJ, etc., allow significantly higher effective specific impulse (Isp>1200 seconds in the case of LFRJ and SFRJ cycles) compared with rocket propelled systems and can also possess design simplicity and safety advantages. For this reason, a large number of strategic and target development programs utilizing air-breathing propulsion have been conducted over the last 40 years including the Advanced Low Volume Ramjet (ALVRJ), Advanced Strategic Air Launched Missile (ASALM), Advanced Common Intercept Missile Demonstrator (ACIMD), Variable Flow Ducted Rocket (VFDR), and most recently, the Navy"s GQM-163A"Coyote"Supersonic Sea-Skimming Target (SSST) ducted rocket target drone.

    The liquid fuel ramjet system employing a subsonic side-dump combustor was simulated, and the predictions are compared with the available experimental data. The complex combustion phenomenon in a ramjet combustor has been carried out at DRDO using probability density function (PDF) approach. The complexity arises because of the mixing of fuel and airstreams, and the burning of the resultant mixture, within the confined space of the combustion chamber. The predicted numerical results have been validated with the results available in open literature for a two-dimensional case and with in-house experimental data for a three-dimensional case. The methodology allows different designs to be evaluated quantitatively based on the performance metrics such as combustion efficiency, flame stability, etc.

    The liquid fuel ramjet consists of an inlet, combustor and an exhaust nozzle. The inlet/diffuser admits free stream air to the engine, reduces the air velocity and thereby develops ram pressure. This air is mixed with fuel, burned in the combustor and the hot gases expelled through the nozzle to produce thrust. The heat release in the combustor should be carefully tailored to the flight speed and the appropriate nozzle opening or else it may lead to poor combustor or inlet performance, and in the extreme, lead even to an inlet unstart. Dump combustors are usually employed in volume limited ramjets. In addition to co-axial dump combustors, in some cases, the flight vehicle configuration would require that side dump combustors be employed. The free steam air would enter the combustor from the side through multiple inlets. The impingement of jets is an important feature of side dump combustor flow fields. Jet-on-jet impingement can sustain flow instabilities and this could in turn create a mechanism for unsteady heat release. The flow field in a dump combustor is extremely complex.

    Complex vortex structures will exist between the dome head and the plane of the air inlets to the combustor. On entry to the combustor the air flow will follow a complex trajectory before finally turning in an axial direction. Control of flame stabilisation and flame propogation in such a complex turbulent flowfield represents a key element in combustion chamber design. Combustor configuration and the geometry of the fuel injector/flameholder and its location relative to the air entry points are basic design parameters that govern the performance of a particular combustor. A four-inlet side dump combustor configuration is frequently used. Clean aerodynamics is a characteristic feature of all high performance combustors and this is a definite goal to strive for.

    STAR - Supersonic TARget STAR - Supersonic TARget STAR - Supersonic TARget STAR - Supersonic TARget

    ADE Gagan UAV

    The name Gagan meaning is sky, heaven and the lucky number associated with is 3. It is a traditional name in the Sikh religion. Yhe name "Gagan" is clearly associated with a satellite based guidance system. It may also be used to designate a completely unrelated drone program, although this UAV is very poorly attested.

    Indian developers have been working with Israel Aerospace Industries to develop three UAVs, the Rustom MALE and the short-range Pawan and Gagan. In March 2016 Indian defense forces finalized a blueprint to procure more than 5,000 UAVs over the next 10 years for about US $3 billion, and tenders will be restricted to domestic companies that can tie up with foreign firms. The Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) of DRDO is developing a variety of UAVs for the services, including, Navy projects such as Gagan tactical UAVs at a cost of $55 million with help from Israel.

    Indias GAGAN system short for GPS And Geo-Augmented Navigation uses ISRO satellites to augment the GPS commercial signal, enhancing accuracy to close to military grade. The sensors Group has provided state of the art inertial and Global Navigation Satellite System sensors for the UAV flight control and guidance. The novel ATOL scheme, DGPS based on GAGAN (Indian SBAS) augmented with Radio altimeter has been evaluated on manned aircraft and RUSTOM II is the first to adapt this Scheme in India and it has been used successfully. This scheme will be used for all future project of ADE for ATOL.

    The GPS aided geo augmented navigation or GPS and geo-augmented navigation system (GAGAN) is a planned implementation of a regional satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) by the Indian government. It is a system to improve the accuracy of a GNSS receiver by providing reference signals.

    The project is being implemented in three phases through 2008 by the Airport Authority of India with the help of the Indian Space Research Organizations (ISRO) technology and space support. The goal is to provide navigation system for all phases of flight over the Indian airspace and in the adjoining area. It is applicable to safety-to-life operations, and meets the performance requirements of international civil aviation regulatory bodies.

    To begin implementing an SBAS over the Indian airspace, Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) codes for L1 frequency and L5 frequency were obtained from the United States Air Force and U.SDepartment of Defense on November 2001 and March 2005. The system will use eight reference stations located in Delhi, Guwahati, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Bangalore, Jammuand Port Blair, and a master control center at Bangalore.

    ADE Pawan UAV

    India works with Israel for its UAS needs. The state-owned Aeronautical Development Agency and IAI are working together to develop three new UAS for Indian military forces: the Rustam medium-altitude, long-endurance UAV, which features a domestically-developed EW system, the Pawan short-range drone and the Gagan tactical UAS, which also carries a domestically-developed EA system.

    Indian developers have been working with Israel Aerospace Industries to develop three UAVs, the Rustom MALE and the short-range Pawan and Gagan. In March 2016 Indian defense forces finalized a blueprint to procure more than 5,000 UAVs over the next 10 years for about US $3 billion, and tenders will be restricted to domestic companies that can tie up with foreign firms. The Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) of DRDO is developing a variety of UAVs for the services, including, Navy projects such as four Pawan mini-UAVs for $33.2 million; 50 air and shiplaunched Nirbhay UAVs.

    The Pawan is a short-range UAV developed at a cost of USD 33.2 million. Meant to equip Indian Army divisions, the craft will have the capability to engage in surveillance during the day and night, flying for around five hours with a range of 150 km. The Gagan, developed for some USD 55.5 million, is an advanced version of the Nishant, with a range of 250 km and an altitude capability of 6000 m.

    Meant to equip Indian army divisions, the Pawan will be comparable in size and capabilities to Israel?s Eye View, Hermes 180 and Silver Arrow drones. The 120-kilogram Pawan will have day-and-night surveillance capability, an endurance of five hours and a range of 150 kilometers. ADE plans to build four Pawan prototypes under this development program, with Israel Aircraft Industries electro-optic sensors for the payload and its own stabilizer platform. The engine will be purchased from outside India.

  • The new Rustom-II UAV is loaded with new features ready for the First Flight
  • DRDO Rustom UAV

    Indian developers have been working with Israel Aerospace Industries to develop three UAVs, the Rustom [warrior] MALE and the short-range Pawan and Gagan. The Rustom can fly at an altitude of 9000 metres or more for up to 24 hours. Its natural surveillance range of 250 km is extendable beyond 1000 km, given that it is capable of using satellite links to transmit data.

    In March 2016 Indian defense forces finalized a blueprint to procure more than 5,000 UAVs over the next 10 years for about US $3 billion, and tenders will be restricted to domestic companies that can tie up with foreign firms. The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is developing a variety of UAVs for the services, including Navy projects such as 10 MALE Rustoms at a cost of $225 million, while the Army is procuring three Rustom UCAVs and one ground station at a cost of $60 million and 12 more in the future; 10 Rustom2 UCAVs for $342.3 million, and the Air Force is acquiring three Rustom UCAVs and one ground station at a cost of $60 million.

    Having cost some USD 100 million in research and development, an improved version of the Rustom-II (Tapas) a medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), was ready to take to the skies in early 2020.

    The success of the maiden test flight of its Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV Rustom-1 on 16 October 2010 was ADEs achievement. It flew for 12 minutes after taking off despite inclement weather and landed successfully meeting all its objectives. Rustom-1 is an indigenous, all-weather UAV and is designed to operate at medium to long ranges and gather near real time, high quality imagery and signals intelligence from areas of interest. Rustom-1 is the first UAV to have conventional take-off and landing capability in India. Subsequently, five successful flights have taken place, two in May 2011 and three in November 2011. R1-3 aircraft with Electro-optic payload is being tested for flight. Latest reports indicate that development trials have been completed. The system originally planned to be developed, demonstrate and master certain key technologies required for such class of UAV was ready to be used as a product.

    Rustom-II project has been sanctioned along with aeronautics test range development. The RustomII will be capable of flying at 35000 ft altitude, having an endurance of above 24 hrs and a payload capacity of 350 kg. The new platform being readied for first flight (AF-6A) was the seventh from the Rustom-2 flight line. The sixth prototype (AF-6) of Rustom 2 crashed near the Aeronautical Test Range (ATR) at Chalakere (Chitradurga District, Karnataka) on 17 September 2019. It was later confirmed that the accident was caused by a transient and simultaneous link loss to the UAV. The platform was also confronted with a rough patch of turbulence beyond the capacity of the control law. The behavior of UAVs is claimed to be according to the expected lines and design parameters. Sensor data was available to the ground station almost until its touchdown \ crash.

    Aeronautical Development (ADE), DRDO, Bangalore, Karnataka, was responsible for the design and development of the Rustam-2 UAV. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was the lead integrator, while Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) developed the ground control station for the UAV. The fuselage of the drone was built by Taneja Aerospace & Aviation, an Indian-based manufacturer of aircraft structural assemblies. The wind tunnel test for Rustom-2 was done by Aarav Unmanned System, which is also based in India.

    The Rustom-II MALE drone is based on the Rustom-H unmanned combat air vehicle and features light airframes. It has a length of 9.5 meters and an empty weight of 1,800 kg. It is equipped with mid-set, high aspect ratio wings spanning 20.6 meters. The tail section is configured with a high-mounted horizontal tailplane with a traditional T-type vertical stabilizer. The UAVs tri-cycle landing gear allows it to perform safe take-off and landing maneuvers on safe surfaces. The center of gravity has a single front wheel and two single-wheel main gears.

    The Rustom-2 UAV includes a data link developed by Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) Defense Electronic Application Laboratory (DEL) that transmits ISR data, metaphors, and video collected by payload at its ground control station in a timely manner. It can fly in autonomous or manual mode. The onboard flight control system allows UAVs to execute missions autonomously using waypoint navigation. The manual mode of operation is performed by an operator of the ground control station.

    Rustom-II MALE Power for unmanned aerial vehicles comes from two NPO Saturn 36MT turboprop engines mounted under the wings. Each engine generates a thrust of 450 kg-forces (kg) and is mated to a three-blade propeller to provide increased maneuverability. The UAV can fly at a maximum speed of 225 km / h and can bear up to 24 hours. It has the capability to operate on the line of sight range of 250 km. The drone has a maximum flight of 35,000 feet above sea level.

    Though not touted as such, the Rustom can also function as a killer drone. All three defence services have shown interest in acquiring the Rustom, with the army keen to start using seven troops (six to eight UAVs each) of them. According to news reports, the Rustom has reached the governments Cabinet Committee on Security for final financial approval. Its first prototype crashed during a test flight last year, but another is said to be ready for tests by the end of this year.

    DRDO Abhyas Expendable Target

    Abhyas High-speed Expendable Aerial Target (HEAT) is a drone. It is designed to offer a realistic threat scenario for the practice of weapon systems. But it is much more than an aerial target. Besides for training purpose, it can be used for multiple things. It is country's first locally developed system.

    Designed and developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) of DRDO, Abhyas is capable of fully-autonomous flight and runs on a gas turbine engine. Its inertial navigation system is based on micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and it uses a flight control computer for guidance and control. With an endurance of 25-30 minutes, Abhyas will be fitted with sensors and is GPS-enabled. It will have onboard actuators, a flight control computer and a miss-distance indicator. The project was sanctioned with an initial DRDO funding of Rs 15 crore and ADE will roll out 15 Abhyas technology demonstrators (TDs) in the next two years.

    The Services have floated a combined global tender projecting the requirement of 225 HEAT drones and ADE says it will not be bidding for the same. The Indian Navy wants HEAT platforms so that it can do away with the post-launch recovery modes, which are time-consuming and difficult in a huge scenario like the sea. In addition to being a stable vehicle for weapon practice, Abhyas can be used as an effective jammer platform. Every bit of onboard systems come for Indian industries, which makes Project Abhyas special in many ways.

    Abhyas, a high-speed expendable aerial target (HEAT) drone, was taking definite shape in 2013 at the hangars of Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE). The scientists are now working on the propulsion and control systems to be fitted onboard Abyas, taking the project closer to it's final configuration. Kept under wraps till Aero India-2013, Abhyas is tipped as the younger brother of Lakshya, a pilot-less target aircraft (PTA), now being extensively used by the three wings of Services.

    Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) conducted successful flight test of ABHYAS- High-speed Expendable Aerial Target (HEAT) from ITR Balasore in Odisha on 22 September 2020. Two demonstrator vehicles were successfully test flown. The vehicle can be used as a target for evaluation of various missile systems. Defence Minister Rajnath Singh congratulated DRDO for conducting successful flight test of ABHYAS from Odisha test range. "The DRDO achieved a milestone today with the successful flight test of ABHYAS - High Speed Expandable Aerial Target from ITR Balasore. This can be used as a target for evaluation of various Missile systems. Congratulations to @DRDO_India & other stakeholders for this achievement," Singh tweeted.

    This is the second time that the target vehicle was flight-tested successfully. The first successful test was in May 2019. But during the recent tests, Abhyas cleared all the parameters that were being evaluated. According to DRDO, the test vehicle met the user requirement of 5 km flying altitude, vehicle speed of 0.5 mach [half the speed of sound], endurance of 30 minutes and 2G turn capability.

    ABHYAS is designed and developed by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), DRDO. The air vehicle is launched using twin underslung booster. It is powered by a small gas turbine engine and has MEMS based Inertial Navigation System (INS) for navigation along with the Flight Control Computer (FCC) for guidance and control. The vehicle is programmed for fully autonomous flight. The check out of air vehicle is done using laptop based Ground Control Station (GCS).

    Abhyas has multiple applications. Its Radar Cross Section is increased 50 times to imitate a fighter jet. It also has a potential to be converted into a high speed subsonic missile. It can act as a decoy and also function as a jammer platform,' a scientist explained while adding that, 'It is capable to carry warheads. But in its present form Abhyas is not meant for that. But in near future, it can be used depending upon your requirement.' The services can launch it with the help of a laptop anywhere. With GPS, it has become more accurate and can even hit a window of a building. It is an armed missile once you put a warhead. With development of Abhyas, India has become the only nation to have such high-end multiple use drone technology in the sub-continent.

    Abhyas  High-speed Expendable Aerial Target (HEAT) Abhyas  High-speed Expendable Aerial Target (HEAT) Abhyas  High-speed Expendable Aerial Target (HEAT) Abhyas  High-speed Expendable Aerial Target (HEAT)

    Amogha

    India's state-owned Bharat Dynamics Limited, besides the SACLOS Amogha-I & Amogha-II anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM), are also developing an imaging infrared seeker equipped 3rd generation fire and forget ATGM called Amogha-III. The lead taken by the Nation to develop indigenous, sophisticated and contemporary missiles through the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP), gave BDL an opportunity to be closely involved in the programme, wherein it was identified as the Prime Production Agency. This opened up a plethora of opportunities to assimilate advanced manufacturing and programme management technologies and skills.

    The name amogha means fearlessness, the not erring, the not failing, not vain, efficacious, succeeding, hitting the mark. Amogha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, and Marathi. Amogha is the God of fearlessness, confidence, will-power and concentration. Amogha's siddhi is the indestructible lightning bolt that purifies volition, dissolves karma, and liberates action. The a strangelooking herb called Amogha (Never Failing) is poisonous, as is his breath, and his touch and bite are poisonous as well. Nurtured by a pool of talented engineers drawn from DRDO and aerospace industries, BDL began its journey by producing the 1st Generation Anti -Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) - the French SS11B1. This product was a culmination of a Licence Agreement the Government of India entered into with Aerospatiale, French Republic.

    On successful completion of the SS11B1 project, BDL embarked on production of 2nd generation ATGMs the French MILAN-2 and Russian Konkurs. These projects were taken up under licence production with technical collaboration from M/s. Euromissile, France and M/s. KBP, Tula, Russia respectively. These products covered a broad spectrum of the requirements of the Indian Armys infantry and mechanized infantry forces.

    BDL has been working closely with the user as well as the OEM in the upgradation of ATGMs to the class of tandem warhead ATGMs. MILAN - 2 has been upgraded to MILAN - 2T with a tandem warhead to defeat the ERA fitted to modern battle tanks. Similarly, Konkurs ATGM has been upgraded to Konkurs - M ATGM with a tandem warhead, with a similar advantage. This has led to providing more teeth to the soldier on the battlefield and mechanized infantry forces.

    In October 2014 India opted to buy Israel's Spike anti-tank guided missile, rejecting a rival US offer of Javelin missiles that Washington had lobbied hard to win. India will buy at least 8,000 Spike missiles and more than 300 launchers in a deal worth ? 3200 crores ($525 million), it was decided at a meeting of the Defence Acquisition Council.

    Amogha-I Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Amogha-I Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Amogha-I Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Amogha-I Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Amogha-I Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM)

    Amogha-I is a Semi-Automatic Command to line of Sight (SACLOS) Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) for infantry. Missile design has been validated by conducting test firings. Amogha-1, an indigenously-developed second generation, Anti-Tank Guided Missile having a range of 2.8 km, was successfully test-fired at Babina Army in September 2015. This was the first-ever design and developmental effort in respect of missiles by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL), Hyderabad, according to BDL. Two missiles were fired on September 10 and both have hit the target placed at 2.6 km and 2.8 km respectively. Both the flights were without any deviation from the designed path profile and met all design parameters. "This is the first ever design and developmental effort in respect of missiles by BDL, Hyderabad. Amogha-I missiles will be offered to the army after due qualification and validation trials," BDL said. Missiles were being manufactured for further trials and qualification. BDL received Honble Raksha Mantris Award for Excellence for Amogha-I Anti- Tank Guided Missiles in Innovation category on 30 May 2017.

    Amogha-II is a Radio Frequency guidance, Semi-Automatic Command to line of Sight (SACLOS) ATGM for mechanized infantry [Air Launched ??}. The development of the missile was under progress as of 2019. Test firing of Amogha-II from Ground launcher was successful on 14 October 2017.

    Amogha-III is a 3rd generation fire and forget IIR seeker based ATGM. Prototypes of all the sub-assemblies of the missile are being developed as per in-house design. Pop-out test which is the first milestone of the project wassuccess fully conducted twice during the 2018-2019. System configuration has been finalized as of early 2019, when design of sub-systems was under progress.

    Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) launched its new product, the AmoghaIII, during Defexpo-2020. The first model was handed over 07 February 2020 by CMD, BDL, Cmde Siddharth Mishra (Retd) to Honble Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh in the presence of Honble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Shri Yogi Adityanath, Honble Raksha Rajya Mantri Shri Shripad Yesso Naik, Secretary(Defence), Dr Ajay Kumar, Dr G. Satheesh Reddy, Secretary, Dept of Defence R&D, Chairman, DRDO.

    AmoghaIII was designed and developed by BDL with the support of DRDO. It is a Third Generation fire and forget Anti-Tank Guided Missile with Dual mode IIR Seeker having a range of 200 to 2500 meters. Equipped with a Tandem warhead, Amogha-III has a Top/direct attack mode and is Man portable. Amogha-III has a conventional cylindrical body with eight mid-body foldable fins, and four relatively larger aft fins, for flight stabilisation. Amogha-III's comparatively simple configuration features a BDL-developed smokeless, signature free, dual-thrust solid rocket motor with thrust vector control (TVC) and a dual mode imaging infrared (IIR) and electro-optical (EO) seeker assembly for terminal homing. The missile is fired in lock-on-before launch (LOBL) mode. The Amogha-III's anti-armor tandem warhead is claimed to be able to penetrate in excess of 650 mm beyond Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA).

    The Amogha-III as displayed at the Defexpo show had a stated operational range of 200-2,500 m and weighed 18 kg. BDL noted that the production model will be lighter, and that the company intend to keep the missile weight between 15-16 kg. The company declined to disclose the other specifications. The complete missile system features an Amogha-III missile and a tripod, and a command launch unit (CLU) with remote operation capability.

    BDL described the status of the missile as under development. We have completed design and development of the missile within two years (began in 2017) and it is currently under [developmental] testing phase, but we have not yet completed the qualification of the missile. This is a completely internally funded project and after satisfactory test results, it will be offered to our (Indian Army) armed force, BDL officials, told Janes. It will be commercialized after successful completion of user trials.

    Amogha-III Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Amogha-III Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Amogha-III Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Amogha-III Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Amogha-III Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM)

    On Feb. 6, 2020 the Javelin Joint Venture, a partnership of Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) and Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT), signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) to explore co-production of the Javelin anti-tank missile system to fulfill potential future requirements of the Indian Ministry of Defence. We look forward to working with BDL, a leading guided weapon system manufacturer, to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing Javelin in India, said David Pantano, Javelin Joint Venture vice president. With BDLs 50 years of experience, combined with Javelins reliability and proven performance, we are excited to see how this partnership will support the needs of the Indian Ministry of Defence.

    Commodore Siddharth Mishra (Retd.), CMD, Bharat Dynamics Limited stated that BDLs thrust in the coming years will be to continue to invest in infrastructure, automate its production lines, adopt continual process improvement and exports. Javelin is a versatile one-man-portable and platform-employed anti-tank and multi-target precision weapon system. Using state-of the-art fire-and-forget technology capable of defeating targets up to 4 kilometers in most operational conditions, the weapon guides itself to the target without external commands, controls or target designation.

    Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL), a Government of India Enterprise under the Ministry of Defence was established in Hyderabad in the year 1970 to be a manufacturing base for guided missiles and allied defence equipment. Nurtured by a pool of talented engineers drawn from DRDO and aerospace industries, BDL began its journey by producing the 1st Generation Anti -Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) - the SS11B1. BDL has three manufacturing units, located at Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, T.S., Bhanur, Medak district, T.S. and Visakhapatnam, A.P. Two New Units are planned at Ibrahimpatnam, Ranga Reddy district, T.S. and Amravathi, Maharashtra.

    IAI-HAL NRUAV UAV

    IAI-HAL NRUAV UAVIAI's Malat Naval Rotary UAV (NRUAV) system replaces a manned helicopter's avionics with the flight control system from IAI's Heron UAV. The system is designed to carry a variety of ISR payloads including SAR, EO, and SIGINT. India began development of a NRUAV system for the Chetak (Alouette III) beginning in 2008. The system would be capable of missions 6 hours in duration at a range of 120 km from the launching ship.

    The IAI-HAL NRUAV project consists of a Malat-made Helicopter Modification Suite (HeMoS) fitted on HAL's Chetan, an upgraded Chetak with Turbomeca TM 333 2M2 engines. The helicopter is planned to be used for unmanned operations and advanced intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions from warship decks.

    The IAI Naval Rotary UAV (NRUAV) is a tactical unmanned rotorcraft designed to provide over the horizon targeting (OTHT), real-time battle damage assessment (BDA) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. It is based on IAI's Malat-made Helicopter Modification Suite (HeMoS) platform. The NRUAV features automatic take-off and landing (ATOL) from warships and fully redundant system. It is equipped with a line-of-sight data link and can accommodate a variety of payloads such as electro-optical sensors, multi-mode radars, electronic support measures (ESM) or Communications Intelligence (COMINT) payload.

    The NRUAV is capable of climbing to an altitude of 4600 meters, its range is 150 km, and the maximum flight duration is six hours. It has a maximum speed of 100 knots (185 km / h), a loitering speed of 60 knots (111 km / h) and can carry a load weighing up to 220 kg, consisting of a versatile multi-sensor kit with advanced capabilities. The kit includes day and night optoelectronics, which also provides automatic tracking and range measurement to the target, a multi-mode radar that provides sea surveillance and long-range observation, a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and an inverse synthetic aperture radar (Inverse SAR) with selection modes for moving ground and air targets, navigation and avoidance of adverse atmospheric phenomena. In addition, the drone can carry either a radio intelligence sensor, or an electronic warfare sensor. The system communicates with the ground control station via a data transmission channel within the line of sight.

    Israel's MALAT unveiled the Maritime Naval Rotary Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (NRUAV) being developed with under cooperation with India at at IMDEX 09 in May 2009. In fact, the platform for the first NRUAV was the Chetak (Alouette III), widely used by the Indian Navy. The helicopter could be deployed for mission of 6 hours, up to a distance of 120 km from the launching vessel.

    Employed as an elevated mast, NRUAV can extend the vessels coverage over a much larger area, providing early warning and detection of aircraft, and cruise missiles, surface vessels and even subsurface activity. For example, its radar could easily detect a patrol boat from 80 nautical miles, automatically detect and track surface targets and effectively handle 64 airborne targets. Being transformed into a pilotless platform, the helicopter will be equipped with multiple payloads, for multi-mission performance, enabling aerial shipborne resupply, maritime surveillance and other missions to continue regardless on weather conditions.

    NRUAV UAV is based on a set of transformation into a helicopter system HeMoS (Helicopter Modification Suite) developed by IAI Malat. HeMoS can automatically take off and land from ships, assess combat damage and round-the-clock, over-the-horizon target designation in adverse weather conditions. The naval UAV meets a wide range of operational needs, such as being invaluable in the fight against illegal fishing, piracy, insurgent activity and other activities aimed at undermining the country's sovereignty, Beechman continued. "This highly efficient system makes an important contribution to creating an integrated perception of the maritime environment without risking human lives."

    It has been demonstrated that automatic landing, relying on closely coordinating the helicopters flight controls in reference to the, ships landing deck rolling under high sea conditions is safer than a pilot controlled landing under such conditions. The NRUAV features automatic take-off and landing from aviation capable ships and from unprepared landing sites.

    Among the sensor suites that can be carried by the NRUAV are different Maritime Surveillance Radar systes, capable of surface and counter-submarine operation, resolution sharpening, synthetic apperture radar (SAR) and Inverse SAR modes. Electro-optical payloads are also carried. Airborne intelligence also accommodate electronic a SIGNIT/COMINT Suite that can be carried on UAVs, like the EL/K-7071 COMINT and EL/K-7071 SIGINT systems EL/L-8385 Electronic Support measures (ESM). Among the optronic payloads, stabilized Plug-In Optronic Payload (POP) Family on display includes POP300LR Observer, Mini-POP and Multi-Mission Optronic Stabilized Payload MOSP3000. The entire sensor suit is controlled from the ships command information center (CIC).

    http://fullafterburner.weebly.com/terrain-battle-machines/muntra-unmanned-ground-vehicles">MUNTRA Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Muntra ROV UGV

    Muntra ROV UGVDefence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed an unmanned, remotely operated tank which has three variants - surveillance, mine detection and reconnaissance in areas with nuclear and bio threats. It is called Muntra. Though developed and tested for the Army by Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) in Avadi, paramilitary has expressed interest to use them at Naxal-hit areas. That will require a few modifications. The two remotely operated vehicles designed like an armoured tank were on display at a July 2017 exhibition - Science for Soldiers - organised by DRDO as a tribute to former President APJ Abdul Kalam at CVRDe in Avadi.

    CVRDE took up the prestigious UGV project Conversion of BMP-II into Tele-operated and Autonomous Vehicle during 2007. The project was subsequently named as Mission UNmanned TRAcked (project MUNTRA). The objective of this project was to convert three BMPII classes of tracked amphibious vehicles into teleoperated/autonomous UGV platforms and to implement payloads for unmanned missions of surveillance, NBC reconnaissance and mine detection/marking missions.

    Muntra-S is the country's first tracked unmanned ground vehicle developed for unmanned surveillance missions while Muntra-M is for detecting mines and Muntra-N is for operation in areas where there is a nuclear radiation or bio weapon risk. The base vehicle is MUNTRA-B, from which the UGVs are teleoperated through wireless communication links.

    Scientists at the Combat Vehicle Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) at Avadi here have developed an unmanned surveillance ground vehicle that can zero-in on 99 moving objects simultaneously from a distance of 10 to 16 km and transmit information. Officials claimed the vehicle codenamed MUNTRA-S (Tracked Unmanned Group Vehicle for Surveillance) is the first unmanned vehicle from the DRDO stable conforming to military standards for both hardware and software designs. A range of technologies and systems are incorporated including electro-optics, sensor fusion, electro-mechanical actuators and communication systems, which enable it to detect targets from a crawling man to heavy vehicles.

    The vehicle has been tested and validated at Mahajan field firing range in Rajasthan under dusty desert conditions where temperatures touched 52 C. Army comfortably tele-operated the vehicle. It has surveillance radar, an integrated camera along with laser range finder which can be used to spy on ground target 15km away - may be a crawling men or heavy vehicles.

    Muntra ROV UGVReconnaissance and surveillance of hazardous areas or sites of interest are of value to civilian and government agencies alike. While by no means a complete list, hostage and survivor rescue missions, illicit drug raids, reconnaissance, and response to chemical or toxic waste spills are some of the operations that may benefit from a reconnaissance or surveillance component.

    Although various systems may satisfactorily provide this capability, one promising solution is provided by the use of small, remotely-operated (or autonomous/semi-autonomous), ground traversing robotic vehicles. Although such miniature robots may be advantageous for their ease of transport to a deployment location and their ability during operation to maneuver in tight spaces, they are generally limited in the terrain and obstacles over which they can navigate when compared to their larger counterparts.

    Improving the mobility of small robots is limited by a variety of factors. For instance, the small size of the platform imposes energy constraints by limiting the size of the robot's on-board energy source. Further for example, terrain over which the robot is intended to traverse may pose challenges (e.g., excessive undulations, obstacles, etc.) that are of little consequence to larger units.

    One significant challenge presented by unmanned, robotic vehicles is situational awareness. Situational awareness includes detection and identification of conditions in the surrounding environment. Robotic vehicles typically carry a variety of instruments to remotely sense the surrounding environment. Commonly used instruments include technologies such as: acoustic; infrared, such as short wave infrared (SWIR), long wavelength infrared (LWIR), and forward looking infrared (FLIR); optical, such as laser detection and ranging (LADAR). Typically, several different instruments are used to employ more than one of these technologies since each has advantages and disadvantages relative to the others.

    A common limitation for any of these technologies is the vantage point of the instrument. For instance, the height of the vantage point inherently limits the field of view for any sensor, which is particularly problematical for long-range sensors. The height of the vantage point also affects the perspective of the data collected. For instance, the perspective afforded by a higher vantage point facilitates identifying negative obstacles (e.g., ditches) and cul-de-sacs.

    One approach to this problem is to mount at least some of the sensors relatively high on the body of the vehicle. Sensors for which this limitation is particularly problematical are sometimes mounted to a mast extending upwardly from the vehicle. However, simply positioning the sensors high on the vehicle's body or on a sensor mast may offer only marginal improvement. Mounting sensors atop a mast may complicate maneuverability for the vehicle and or have other adverse consequences, such as increasing the vehicle's profile.



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