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Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus ("TRNC")

The self proclaimed "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," is only recognized by Turkey and controls about one-third of the island's area and around a fifth of the population. Up to 30,000 mainland Turkish soldiers are based in the north. Following the 1974 hostilities, the Turkish Cypriots set up their own institutions in the area they administered with an elected "president" and a "prime minister" responsible to the "National Assembly" exercising joint executive powers. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriots declared an independent "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"). The United States does not recognize the "TRNC," nor does any country other than Turkey.

Many Turkish Cypriots have been alienated by efforts of Turkey’s ruling AK Party to impose religious schools and press the largely secular, liberal Turkish Cypriot community to become devout and adopt conservative social practices.

Northern Cyprus - Politics

Mehmet Ali Talat was elected in April 2005 as leader of the Turkish Cypriot community (as the so-called "President of the TRNC"), replacing long-time nationalist leader Rauf Denktash. Talat's political allies in the Republican Turkish Party (CTP) suffered defeat in "parliamentary" elections contested on April 19, 2009 with the formerly opposition National Unity Party (UBP), led by long-time former "Prime Minister" Dervish Eroglu, obtaining 44% of the popular vote and 26 of 50 seats in the "TRNC National Assembly." UBP announced its "governance" program on May 11 and won an initial confidence vote on May 18, 2009.

Dervis Eroglu was elected in April 2010 as leader of the Turkish Cypriot community, replacing Mehmet Ali Talat. The National Unity Party (UBP), previously led by Eroglu, held a majority in the 50-seat “TRNC National Assembly.”

Turkish Cypriot independent Mustafa Akinci swept to victory in presidential elections on 26 April 2015, clinching 60.5 percent of the vote over incumbent conservative Dervis Eroglu. Akinci had pledged to push for a peace deal with Greek Cypriots.

The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus went to polls on Jan. 7, 2018 to elect members of the 50-seat unicameral Republican Assembly. The legislative elections, which produce the ‘assembly’ and the ‘cabinet’ of the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, had been originally set for April 2018, but the ruling parties were forced to relent amid mounting pressure from the opposition and accusations that the ‘government’ no longer enjoyed popular support.

Parliamentary hopefuls were abundant. Elections have become even more important because of the anticipation that once parliamentary elections in the north and presidential elections in Greek Cypriot Southern Cyprus are over there will be a new push for a Cyprus settlement.

The eight parties running in the election are the National Unity Party (UBP) and the Democrat Party (DP), who make up the current coalition government, plus the Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Communal Democracy Party (TDP), Peoples' Party (HP), Communal Liberation Party-New Forces (TKP-YG), Nationalist Democracy Party (MDP), and Renaissance Party (YDP).

The Cyprus problem always played a role in election campaigns of North Cyprus. This time it appeared that the whole election campaign would be dominated by the conundrum. Accused by conservative groups of “surrendering” to Turkey and the federalists, the Democrat Party (DP) of Serdar Denktas was at risk of falling under the five percent parliamentary threshold. Though it started to pick up, the socialist Republican Turks’ Party (CTP) t is still suffering from the gross mismanagement it engaged in while in government. It has also been going through pains of restructuring around a new leader, Tufan Ergürman. The Peoples’ Party (HP) of Kudret Özersay, a former negotiator under the presidencies of Dervis Eroglu and Mehmet Ali Talat, had been coming in strong in the center-right lane.

Turkish Cypriots voted narrowly for the status quo in the snap parliamentary election, giving the ruling National Union Party 21 seats of 50 in the assembly, enabling it to form a right-wing coalition with the Democratic Party with three seats, and the Rebirth Party, representing mainland settlers, with two seats.

But the 24 seats held by the leftist opposition, the Republican Turkish Party, the People’s Party and the Communal Democracy Party, could undermine coalition policies, rendering a right-wing government unstable and precipitating a fresh election.

In the Jan. 7 snap election, no party won enough votes to rule single-handedly, but Huseyin Ozgurgun's National Unity Party (UBP) got the most votes at 35.6 percent. The UBP won 21 seats in parliament, while the CTP got 12 seats with 17 percent of the vote. In addition, the People's Party (HP) got nine seats, the Communal Democracy Party (TDP) and Democratic Party (DP) three seats each, and the Rebirth Party (YDP) two seats. Twenty-six out of parliament’s 50 seats are needed to form a coalition.

Four Turkish Cypriot political parties on signed a protocol on 01 February 2018 to form a coalition government. The move came two days after Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) President Mustafa Akinci passed on the mandate to form a government to Republican Turkish Party (CTP) leader Tufan Erhurman, who came second in the Jan. 7 election.

Northern Cyprus - Economy

Implementation of the EU acquis communautaire has been suspended in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots until political conditions permit the reunification of the island. In the four years between 2003 and 2006, the Turkish Cypriot economy recorded growth rates averaging around 13.4 percent per annum. This growth was fuelled by the relative stability of the Turkish Lira, a large construction boom, the expansion of Turkish Cypriot universities -- which cater mainly to Turkish and other international students -- and the employment of more than 4,000 Turkish Cypriots in the government-controlled area.

However, since 2007, the economy in the north ground to a halt and went into recession, with real growth rates of 1.5 percent in 2007 and minus 1.9 percent in 2008. Construction activity, which boomed in 2005 and 2006, came to a bust in 2007 and 2008, while tourism and agriculture went reverse. The Turkish Lira is the main currency, although Pounds Sterling and Euros are widely used.

Most businesses in the north are family-run and tend to be very small. Manufacturing is limited mainly to food and beverages, furniture and fixtures, construction materials, metal and non-metal products, textiles and clothing. Unemployment in 2009 was estimated at 9.8% and the total workforce was reported at 92,000 people. The minimum wage is currently USD 800 (1237 TL) per month. With hundreds of miles of coastline, medieval castles and antiquities, tourism is a major potential growth industry. Tertiary education is also one of the strongest sectors in the north. There are currently six universities attended primarily by students from Turkey. According to the "State Planning Organization," over 40,000 students, of which over 80 percent are foreign, registered for the 2007-2008 academic year.

The absence of a political settlement and the lack of international recognition for the "TRNC" pose an inherent risk for the foreign investor interested in buying or leasing property in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots. The economy operates on a free-market basis, although it continues to be handicapped by the political isolation of Turkish Cypriots, the lack of private and public investment, high freight costs, and shortages of skilled labor. Despite these constraints, the Turkish Cypriot economy turned in an impressive performance from 2003 to 2006, with estimated growth rates of 13.2% in 2006, 13.5% in 2005, 15.4% in 2004, and 11.4% in 2003. This growth was fueled largely by a construction boom, which ended abruptly amid renewed controversy over the legitimacy of property titles in the north, following a much-publicized court case in which the United Kingdom Court of Appeal on January 19, 2010 affirmed an earlier ruling by the European Court of Justice.

Turkey remains, by far, the main trading partner of the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, supplying 68% of imports and absorbing around 58% of exports (2007 figures). In another landmark case, the European Court of Justice ruled in 1994 against the British practice of importing produce from the area based on certificates of origin and phytosanitary certificates granted by "TRNC" authorities. This decision resulted in a considerable decrease of Turkish Cypriot exports to the EU--from $36.4 million (or 66.7% of total Turkish Cypriot exports) in 1993 to $12.9 million in 2006 (or 19% of total exports).

In August 2004, new EU rules allowed goods produced or substantially transformed in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots to be sold duty-free to consumers in the government-controlled area and through that area to the rest of the EU. To qualify, goods must also meet EU sanitary/phytosanitary requirements. Animal products are excluded from this arrangement. In 2005, Turkish Cypriot authorities adopted a new regulation "mirroring" the EU rules and allowing certain goods produced in the government-controlled areas to be sold in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots. (However, suppliers cannot legally transport imported products over the green line in either direction.) Despite these efforts, direct trade between the two communities remains limited (comprising only 0.09% of the Greek Cypriot community's trade, and 11.8% of the Turkish Cypriot community's trade in February 2009).

A two-tiered banking system exists within the Turkish Cypriot administered area of Cyprus, including a group of offshore banks that can effectively opt out of many rules and regulations governing their operating conditions, including anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) requirements. While the Turkish Cypriot "Central Bank" is not an internationally recognized banking supervisor, it does impose some level of regulatory scrutiny on its onshore banks. The offshore banks, however, are almost entirely exempt from supervision. In addition to deficiencies present in the banking sector, casinos operating in the Turkish Cypriot administered area have been noted as being conduits for money laundering.

Northern Cyprus - Peace

Peace would bring hundreds of millions in investment and economic growth. Turkish Cypriots would no longer depend on the military and financial support of Turkey. Turkey kept more than 30,000 troops in the internationally isolated north. A peaceful and unified Cyprus would strengthen regional stability, promote cooperation on the region’s offshore gas deposits and help Turkey in its aspiration to join the European Union.

The United Nations works through the good offices of the Secretary-General to assist the sides in the search for a comprehensive and mutually acceptable settlement to the Cyprus problem. The Department of Political Affairs provides backstopping support and guidance to the Secretary-General’s Special Adviser, to facilitate the intensive negotiations that resumed in September 2008 between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot leaders. While efforts to reunify Cyprus continue, UN peacekeepers exert a stabilizing presence. A United Nations peacekeeping mission, UNFICYP, has been deployed on the Island since 1964.

In February 2014, after a hiatus of nearly two years, the leaders of the two communities resumed formal discussions under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island. The talks are ongoing. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under the internationally recognized government, and is suspended in the areas administered by Turkish Cypriots. However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of European Union states.

On 14 January 2015 the United Nations Special Adviser on Cyprus, Espen Barth Eide, voiced concern that, despite some recent openings in the talks, it has been impossible to get negotiations back on track. “We were not able together to stack the package in the right order, so now we’re back in an impasse,” Eide said following a meeting with Turkish Cypriot leader Dervis Eroglu.

Leaders of ethnically divided Cyprus began a week of intensive peace talks 09 January 2017 intended to reach a deal in the context of the U.N.-led negotiations for reunifying the island. The talks between Cyprus President Nicos Anastasiades and Turkish Cypriot leader Mustafa Akinci and their aids will be held for three days. Starting 12 January 2017, a Conference on Cyprus will take place at the United Nations' European headquarters in Geneva with the participation of other nations. Recently elected U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, who is expected to attend the conference, described the talks as a "historic opportunity" for a breakthrough.

The 2nd Conference on Cyprus, which convened on 28 June 2017 in Crans-Montana, Switzerland, concluded after two weeks with no result. On the third day of the Conference, UNSG Guterres came to Crans-Montana and proposed a “package approach” on five headings (territory, political equality, property, equivalent treatment, security and guarantees). In this framework, the two sides presented their proposals on the five headings, while the guarantors prepared and presented their proposals solely on the chapter of security and guarantees. Despite all of this, as well as the fact that the UNSG returned to Crans-Montana on 6 July with a view to finalizing the process, the UNSG Guterres declared that the Conference had failed. UNSG Guterres emphasized that there was no single reason for the failure of the Conference and that it failed due to the inability to agree on all of the chapters.

Cypriot President Nicos Anastasiades, after Crans-Montana, in order to prove that he was ready to accept the plan, went to see the Secretary General in September 2017 and told him that our side is ready to accept the six parameters of his proposals as a package and not a la carte. Greek Cypriot government spokesman Nicos Christodoulides said that there was no time frame set for the resumption of the talks.

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