Taiwan's self-made army armored vehicles are all numbered with "CMXX", "C" stands for Made in China, and "M" follows the US military's practice of armored vehicles. The first number after that is the classification code, "1" represents the tank, "2" is the tracked armored vehicle, and "3" is the wheeled armored vehicle; and the second number is the order of development. Take the CM11 as an example, which represents "the first Chinese-made tank", and then the M48A3, which was improved with CM11 technology, came in behind to become the CM12; the CM21 imitated the American M113, "China's first self-made tracked armored personnel carrier." As for the CM31 6X6 wheeled armored vehicle that has not been put into mass production, it is "China's first self-made wheeled armored vehicle."
"Starlight Exercise". Since 1975, Singapore’s "Starlight Forces" have been sent to Taiwan for training. ????:https://kknews.cc/military/5l32nrk.html
XT-69 155mm 45-caliber towed gun
The XT-69 155mm 45-caliber prototype gun made in 1979 by the Lianqin Factory 202 imitating the South African G-5. In the late 1970s, South Africa’s Dinel LIW developed a new type of G-5 155 45mm howitzer, which was the world’s largest 155mm artillery at the time (the latest NATO FH-70 155mm howitzer had a 39-caliber barrel at the time), using extended range The maximum range of the cannonball is nearly 40km, and it has an auxiliary power system. It has a high degree of automation. The placement and retraction of the gun mounts are all carried out by the hydraulic system (only 3 minutes each). There was no need to rely on manpower to dig and shovel pits, and no vehicle towing is required. It can change positions by itself, and the overall design was very advanced.
At that time, the Republic of China, which still had diplomatic relations with South Africa, was quite enthusiastic about the G-5. However, because the price was too expensive to buy directly, the idea of ??imitation was raised. On March 27, 1979, the National Army sent a group of experts from the Joint Logistics Factory 202 to South Africa. On the surface, they were investigating and deciding whether to purchase G-5. In fact, they were trying to understand the various designs of G-5 without the original technology transfer and provide design drawings, just imitate.
Due to the limited steel manufacturing technology in Taiwan at that time, it was impossible to directly manufacture the 7m long 155mm 45-diameter gun body, so designers changed to use two T-65 gun barrels to be combined into a long gun barrel by hot sleeve jointing. The G-5's breech block was further improved, and the barrel smoke evacuator was added, which was not available in the G-5. Since the G-5's muzzle brake cannot be directly imitated, the 202 factory directly used the M109 on hand. The brakes of the guns were replaced.
Using this method of overcoming difficulties, the first imitation new gun took only five months and was completed on September 17, 1979 (Republic of China 68). The model of XT-69 was given according to the year. The second prototype gun was completed on March 27 in 1981 (the 70th year of the Republic of China). After that, the 202 factory produced four more prototype guns. In addition to the use of hot-sleeve joining technology to complete the 45-diameter barrel, since the previous 202 factory purchased a batch of 155mm 45-diameter barrels (integrated) from Germany through Singapore, a total of 40 pieces were also used on the XT-69 test.
the G-5's bearing system design has the problem of being prone to overheating, and the actual towing speed must be limited to 40km/hr or less; therefore, the design of XT-69 is changed from G-5 with two axles and four wheels to single axle and two wheels ( The auxiliary power system is still maintained), and the towing rate is increased to 90km/hr; in addition, the XT-69 also modified the hydraulic drive of the gun mount and housed it in a large frame to prevent collision damage.
However, the results of the XT-69's test firing were not satisfactory. The maximum range of the first test firing was only 25 kilometers, which was different from the original target of 30 kilometers. This was because the joint logistics related technology of extended range ammunition was not perfect. Full-caliber extended-range projectiles are quite different from standard projectiles. Not only does the projectile itself have a more streamlined and slender appearance, but the projectile body must be equipped with stabilizer wings and sealing rubber rings, and the three-base propellant required for extended-range munitions was not available in standard ammunition.
Subsequently, the joint logistics factory 202 installed the XT-69 body on the tracked chassis of the existing M108 self-propelled gun (using an open turret, and the body is directly fixed on the chassis), and it was exhibited at the National Day parade in 1981. Out. At that time, the South African personnel attending the National Day were surprised when they saw the G-5-like artillery, and they immediately protested; however, because the design of XT-69 has been modified according to Taiwan’s national conditions and technological level, South Africa was unable to find direct evidence of counterfeiting G-5.
Later, around 1990, Lianqin Factory 202 once again moved out the XT-69 as a "new domestic artillery"; at the same time, Lianqin also developed another XT-86 155mm howitzer. The barrel was produced in Taiwan, but only 39. Times diameter. The XT-86's artillery also developed poorly, failed in performance and quality, and never entered the service stage. In 1994 (Republic of China 1983), Joint Logistics moved the XT-69 out to participate in the Hanguang 11 exercise and made its debut under the name of "new self-made artillery."
The XT-86 howitzer is a 155 mm howitzer developed by the ROC Army in the 1970s and 1990s, but it was never mass-produced. Because the range of the M114A1 155mm howitzer or T-65 155mm howitzer generally deployed by the ROC Army at that time was generally too short ( the maximum range of the M114A1 155mm howitzer was only 15,000 meters), an effort was made to counter the numerous of artillery guns of the same caliber of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. Taiwan's Ministry of National Defense joint service command 202 factory (now under the aegis of Ministry of National Defense DGA manufacturing center) to M114A1 155 mm howitzer modeled on developing a new generation of 155 mm howitzer, that is, XT-86 howitzer.
The most important research and development focus of XT-86 was a 39-caliber barrel produced by the 202 Plant of the Joint Service Command of the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of China (using self-tightening design, length 6,04.5 cm, winding degree 20 times diameter/ revolution) with an enlarged combustion chamber (volume 18,845 cubic centimeters) to extend the maximum range. The muzzle was equipped with a three-plate closed muzzle brake to effectively reduce the recoil force generated when the gun is fired, and increase the shooting stability and hit accuracy. The range of high and low shooting angles was from minus 2 degrees to plus 63 degrees, and the directional shooting ranged from minus 24 degrees to plus 25 degrees.
The gun mount was equipped with a pneumatic balancer, which provided better axial support of the barrel and stability of the whole gun than the M114A1 155mm howitzer. The gun mount was equipped with auxiliary devices and a hydraulic control system to make the artillery faster and more labor-saving when setting up positions and withdrawing equipment. The deployment time was 3 minutes, and the artillery crew was also reduced to 7 people.
The gun has a total length of 10 meters, a total height of 2.3 meters, and a weight of 7.3 tons. The maximum range when shooting M107 high-explosive shell was 18.1 kilometers, and when shooting M549A1 rocket-assisted high-explosive shell, the maximum range was 30.1 kilometers. The maximum range when blowing (ERFB-BB) high explosive shell was 32.4 kilometers.
XT-86A1 is an improved version of XT-86. The main focus is on the reactivity of the artillery during maneuvering and the reduction of the deployment/ retraction time. There is no difference in appearance between the gun and the XT-86, but a small gasoline engine is installed in the front of the turret to provide power to drive the auxiliary casters located at the rear of the turret and controlled by hydraulics to expand or close the turret. In addition, jacks, high-low machines and steering machines can also be operated fully automatically by the hydraulic system. The gun mount is also equipped with a rotating turntable, which can be rotated 360 degrees, so that the barrel can be easily fixed to the marching lock, reducing the length and height of the whole gun during the march.
Due to the above improvements, the number of personnel for each artillery squad remains at 7, but in fact only 4 people are required. When towing, the XT-86A1 has a total length of 6.5 meters, a total height of 2.1 meters, and a weight of 10 tons. The shell type and maximum range are the same as XT-86.
Taiwan Armament Bureau 155mm self-propelled gun
The artillery of the National Army is the backbone of the anti-landing operations. But can bring it out the rapid and precise blazing fire at the right time? The artillery’s traditional manual firing command method has been unable to cope with the modernThe complicated and cumbersome operating procedures of chemical warfare should be executed by computer programs to transform traditional operations into "Digital" type.
Concentrated application is the highest principle of field artillery application, and firepower maneuvering depends on timely target acquisition and flexible firing command. Military field artillery troops currently used by the various types of artillery troops do not have the positioning and orientation (including GPS-assisted) and automatic driving control capabilities.
Modern warfare must achieve "rapid mobile deployment", "long-range efficient damage", and "improvement of self-protection"The goal is to rely on the assistance of automated systems to give full play to the effectiveness of artillery fire support. The transformation of digital warfare depends on the research and development of automation systems and the structure of the general capital network management architecture.However, the relationship between general capital equipment and automation systems is complementary, just like the military’s guidanceThe mechanism is the same. Without a stable communication network link, the functions of the automation system must be relatively limited; therefore,The current launching post and the platoon (company) shooting command post are linked to use the covered line (network route) to complete the line arrangement andBuried, seriously causing the artillery force communication to be blunt and heavy, it is recommended to consider the use of "National Military Secret Wireless Network Card" installed on a military computer to enable it to implement long-distance wireless data transmission to effectively reduce the artillery force’s burden.
Nowadays, all countries have developed new positioning, orientation and navigation systems. As far as artillery is concerned, it has become indispensable.The lack of necessities, equipped with advanced navigation and positioning, will expand the effectiveness of weapons, based on the army’s existingFor the M109A2 and A5 self-propelled guns, by upgrading (or buying new American guns) to have a positioning systemIt’s a top priority to reduce the preparation time for shooting with integrated and automatic fire control systems.
In the early 2000s, Lianqin Factory 202 began to develop self-propelled guns with trucks as the chassis at its own expense. Compared with the regular tracked chassis and closed turret self-propelled gun, the truck chassis self-propelled gun has a simple structure, lighter weight, and lower fuel consumption. The cost of purchase and daily operation and maintenance is greatly reduced, while wheeled trucks operate on ordinary roads. Operational adaptability and economy are also far better than tracked chassis. In addition, wheeled truck self-propelled guns are also more conducive to tactical air transport due to their light weight, and it is not a problem to load them by transport aircraft such as C-130. Although in terms of performance, the traditional tracked chassis self-propelled gun has high off-road capability, the choice of gun position is more flexible, the shooting stability is higher, and the armor protection benefit is better.
The turret can be rotated 360 degrees freely (most of the gun bodies of truck self-propelled guns) It can only turn ten degrees left and right), which makes the shooting operation more convenient, and also allows a greater degree of automation (a fully automatic shell feeding system can be easily installed in the turret, and most truck self-propelled guns require the shells to be driven by manpower. The shell bay at the rear of the cabin is raised to the rear of the vehicle); however, after comprehensive consideration, the new truck self-propelled gun is equipped with a 155mm 52-caliber barrel, a semi-automatic loading system, a stabilizing aid for automatic placement, advanced information transmission/firing control, and automatic aiming guns and other devices, the overall combat power is already quite strong, enough to meet the needs of most modern artillery, and its low price and excellent cost-effectiveness are even more commendable. Therefore, in the 2000s, several countries competed to develop self-propelled guns with trucks as the chassis. Among them, the French Caesar (Caesar) was the most typical design, and it was also the most successful in the export market.
Type 63 120-mm mortar
Type 63 120-mm mortar is the Republic of China imitation of the Israeli Soltam type K5 120 mm mortar. There were a number of design improvements for the current Republic of China Army battalion level units and marines. The joint logistics factory 202 T63 120 mm Mortar is modeled after the Israeli Soltam K5 mortar, which is the largest caliber of the national army in active service. The mortar has a caliber of 120 mm, a total weight of 121.68 kg, and a rate of fire of 5 to 10 per minute. It has a maximum range of 6100 meters and a minimum range of 400 meters. It is the most important fire element in the infantry battalion.
These 120 mm mortars were designed to provide infantry with a mortar capable of very effective 120 mm ammunition fire but sufficiently light to enable it to be moved by Jeep-type vehicles, transported by a mule, carried by a detachment of three soldiers, moved in a helicopter or dropped by parachute.The K6 (maximum range 7,200 m) is an updated version of the older K5 light mortar (maximum range 6,200 m) and has been adopted by the US Army as the M120/121 (see separate entry for details). Both types can fire any type of qualified 120 mm shell in use worldwide. The Iranian Hadid 120 mm HM16 mortar appears to be a very close copy of the K6.
The barrel is a high-quality alloy steel tube with a honed interior. The lower end is externally screw-threaded to take the breech piece. The breech piece holds the fixed firing pin. To ensure safety while dealing with a misfire, there is a safety catch which, when rotated, draws the pin back into the interior of the breech piece. The lower end of the breech piece is shaped into a ball which enters a socket in the baseplate. The K6 model has a reinforced barrel, and it is this barrel that the manufacturer recommends when firing long-range M57 ammunition to a maximum range of 7,200 m.The bipod legs have spikes at the bottom and are joined at the elevation gear housing. The distance between the legs is controlled by an adjustable length of chain.
The lower end of the elevation column, which contains the elevation screw thread, is attached to the left leg of the bipod by a cylinder containing a screw thread. The rotation of the handle at the end of this thread moves the elevation column out of the vertical and so permits the mortar to be cross-levelled to allow for irregularities in the ground. At the top end of the elevating column is the yoke, which holds the sight at the left and the traversing handle at the right. The thread of the traversing gear, like all the threads in this mortar, is completely enclosed.
In 1975 (Republic of China 64), the Republic of China Lianqin 61 Arsenal (Arsenal Department of Armaments Bureau 202) was originally ordered to negotiate with Israel's Soltam Ltd. for the purchase of K-5 mortar related technology and authorized production, but the price was quoted at that time license fee of more than 3.6 million US dollars, and pay the extra production premium. Factory 61 thought it was too expensive and decided to imitate it. The Singapore Army, which was trained in Taiwan, used this type of weapon and it was hoped that the Joint Logistics Factory 61 would assist in maintenance.
The 61st factory took advantage of the assistance of the Singapore Forces to complete the detailed design survey and mapping. The design was finalized in March 1975 and the imitation prototype was completed in April 1975. The test firing effect was good; the 61st factory continued to modify the artillery design itself before the formal finalization.
The design prototype of the K-5 is the 120 KRH/40 mortar manufactured by Finland in the late 1930s based on the Soviet PM1938 mortar. Although the relevant technology is mature, the 61 factory uses the manufacturing technology of the 1970s to re-optimize; it uses steel and some adjustments have been made to the heat treatment process and the basic design to reduce weight and strengthen the structure. Heat dissipation groove for heat dissipation improves efficiency. After process modification, the total weight of Type 63 is slightly lighter than K-5 (121.68 kg, original 136 kg).
The 63-type design also imitated the K-5 trolley-type two-wheeled motorized tow frame, the model is called T76 120mm mortar tow frame . Type 63 was quickly finalized, entered mass production, and sold in small quantities to the international market.
Although the 61 factory completed the mass production task delivered by the superior at that time, this practice concealed the shortcomings of the 61 factory’s lack of research and development capabilities for the integration and improvement of other artillery systems. After Israel purchased technical data from Finland, it was improved according to national conditions. The original Israeli version the K-5 gradually developed into a heavy-duty and long-range range weapon. The Israelis improved the tripod and ammunition to become a heavier M65 and a more complete K-6, which not only improved the firing angle, but also increased the range to 9,500 meters. Over the 30 years of service, no significant improvement in the range and accuracy.
The deputy commander joint logistics of Leiying more bluntly in his memoirs, "the 63 generic factory-style allotment troops did not use a firing table, and simply didn't know how to shoot effectively." This practice of only engaging in a half set of exchanges prevented the Republic of China Army’s infantry heavy fire support from being able to fully replace the US-designed M30 4.2-inch mortar (type 62 4.2-inch mortar , or 4.2 heavy mortar). In addition to the lack of a firing table, the quality of domestically produced ammunition and the smooth bore design made it impossible for the 120 mortar to be as good as the American-made mortars with rifling in terms of shooting accuracy. It also made the ROC’s initial evaluation of the 120 mortar low. The final solution still has to go back to purchasing shells and related technical data from the original Israeli factory. As for how much money was spent on the bill, there is still no data released. The supporting defects made the early use of Type 63 troops only use Israeli shells.
Even though the Type 63 served in the national army for a long time, it took a long time to gradually solve the supporting problem. It was not until the early 1990s that the Army’s Type 62 4.2-inch mortar had many accidents, forcing the Army to accelerate the US-made heavy mortar. Until then, Type 63 remained the main weapon of infantry units.
XT-69 155/45mm towed howitzer
The XT-69 155mm 45-caliber prototype gun was made in 1979 by the Lianqin Factory 202 imitating the South African G-5. [X presumably for experimental, T for type [not Taiwan], and 69 for the 69th year of the Repubilc of China, corresponding to the Gregorian 1980] In the late 1970s, South Africa’s Dinel LIW developed a new type of G-5 155 45mm howitzer, which was the world’s largest 155mm artillery barrel at the time (the latest NATO FH-70 155mm howitzer had a 39-caliber barrel at the time). Using extended range ammo, the maximum range of the shell was nearly 40km, and it had an auxiliary power system. It had a high degree of automation. The placement and retraction of the gun mounts were all carried out by the hydraulic system (only 3 minutes each).
There was no need to rely on manpower to dig and shovel pits, and no vehicle towing was required. It can change positions by itself, and the overall design is very advanced. At that time, the Republic of China, which was still had diplomatic relations with South Africa, was quite enthusiastic about the G-5. However, because the price was too expensive to buy directly, the idea of ??imitation was raised. On March 27, 1979, the National Army sent a group of experts from the Joint Logistics Factory 202 to South Africa. On the surface, they were investigating and deciding whether to purchase G-5. In fact, they were trying to understand the various designs of G-5 so as to copy the original technology and provide design drawings, just imitating without license.
The most important person in the inspection group is undoubtedly Colonel Chen Hu of 202 Factory. Among all the personnel participating in the inspection, he alone thought that Joint Logistics had the ability to imitate the G-5, and everyone else thought that there was no way. Previously, Colonel Chen Hu led the joint logistics 202 factory to develop three prototype guns, such as the 63A, T-65, and M68, and accumulated some engineering experience. In addition, at that time, the 202 factory planned to build a production line to manufacture artillery, including 105mm, 155mm and even 240mm. The caliber was equal, so many machines and instruments were purchased, and the production energy was not scarce. Therefore, Colonel Chen Hu boldly agreed to take this job. When the joint logistics experts went to South Africa for inspection, the South African factory also took strict confidentiality measures. When the visiting group arrived, the factory stopped work to greet them and was not allowed to take photos. The answers to various data were quite vague and reserved. Of course, for the joint logistics company who is good at reverse engineering, South Africa has long been expected, and they are also well prepared. Chen Hu himself brought some small props to measure secretly. When unable to measure, he would use his pace, palm size, etc. In this way, the rough external parameters of G-5 are brought back to Taiwan.
Due to the limited steel manufacturing technology in Taiwan at that time, it was impossible to directly manufacture the 7m long 155mm 45-diameter gun body, so Chen Hut changed to use two T-65 gun barrels to be combined into a long gun barrel by hot sleeve jointing. The G-5's breech block was further improved, and the barrel smoke evacuator was added, which was not available in the G-5. Since the G-5's muzzle brake cannot be directly imitated, the 202 factory directly used the M109 on hand. The brakes of the walking guns were replaced. Using this method of overcoming difficulties, the first imitation new gun took only five months and was completed on September 17, 1979 (Republic of China year 68). The model of XT-69 was given according to the year. The second prototype gun was completed on March 27 in 1981 (the 70th year of the Republic of China). After that, the 202 factory produced four more prototype guns.
In addition to the use of hot-sleeve joining technology to complete the 45-diameter barrel, since the previous 202 factory purchased a batch of 155mm 45-diameter barrels (integrated) from Germany through Singapore, a total of 40 pieces were also used on the XT-69. test. When the XT-69 prototype gun succeeded, Colonel Chen Huo began to carry out proper operations. First of all, the G-5's bearing system design has the problem of being prone to overheating, and the actual towing speed must be limited to 40km/hr or less; therefore, the design of XT-69 is changed from G-5 with two axles and four wheels to single axle and two wheels ( The auxiliary power system is still maintained), and the towing rate is increased to 90km/hr; in addition, the XT-69 also modified the hydraulic drive of the gun mount and housed it in a large frame to prevent collision damage.
However, the results of the XT-69's test firing were not satisfactory. The maximum range of the first test firing was only 25 kilometers, which was different from the original target of 30 kilometers. This was because the joint logistics related technology of extended range ammunition was not perfect. Full-caliber extended-range projectiles are quite different from standard projectiles. Not only does the projectile itself have a more streamlined and slender appearance, but the projectile body must be equipped with stabilizer wings and sealing rubber rings, and the three-base propellant required for extended-range munitions It is also not available in standard ammunition. When the joint logistics experts went to South Africa for an inspection, the director of the shell office, Colonel Tan Ting'e, not only secretly measured the size and configuration of the extended-range shells, but also secretly picked up many shell fragments and returned to Taiwan.
Finally, the extended-range ammunition was developed by reverse engineering; however, the three-base propellant did not. The method was imitated based on the appearance alone. Originally, Joint Logistics planned to send another delegation to Canada to inspect the extended-range shell, but it was cancelled for some reason. In the end, the joint logistics 203 factory had to research and develop on its own. Therefore, the extended-range projectile and propellant developed by the Lianqin 203 Plant not only failed to meet the requirements, but also had unstable problems in the early stage of the test, and the hydraulic pipeline of the artillery itself was also prone to bursting during launch. The XT-69 has a 7m long body, 48 right-handed rifles in the barrel, and a maximum chamber pressure of 50000 psi. The muzzle velocity when firing NATO standard M107 155mm grenade is 770m/s, the range is 22km, and the bottom of the ERFB/HB projectile is fully recessed. The muzzle velocity of the caliber extended-range ammunition is 895m/s, and the maximum range can reach 29km. This is the limit performance of XT-69 and cannot reach the original target.
Subsequently, the joint logistics factory 202 installed the XT-69 body on the tracked chassis of the existing M108 self-propelled gun (using an open turret, and the body is directly fixed on the chassis), and it was exhibited at the National Day parade in 1981. Out. At that time, the South African personnel attending the National Day were surprised when they saw the G-5-like artillery, and they immediately protested; however, because the design of XT-69 has been modified according to Taiwan’s national conditions and technological level, South Africa has been unable to find out. Direct evidence of counterfeiting G-5. Afterwards, Chen Hu was in charge of interviewing 5 people including the director of the relevant arsenal in South Africa, explaining the difference between XT-69 and G-5, and then the matter was over. Erection of the XT-69 gun body on the M108 chassis was unsuccessful, and the shooting stability was not good, and this development did not come to an end.
Later, around 1990, Lianqin Factory 202 once again moved out the XT-69 as a "new domestic artillery"; at the same time, Lianqin also developed another XT-86 155mm howitzer. The barrel was produced in Taiwan, but only 39. Times diameter. The XT-86's artillery also developed poorly, failed in performance and quality, and never entered the service stage. In 1994 (Republic of China 1983), Joint Logistics moved the XT-69 out to participate in the Hanguang 11 exercise and made its debut under the name of "new self-made artillery."
155mm Wheeled chassis self-propelled gun
In the early 2000s, Lianqin Factory 202 began to develop self-propelled guns with trucks as the chassis at its own expense. Compared with the regular tracked chassis and closed turret self-propelled gun, the truck chassis self-propelled gun has a simple structure, lighter weight, and lower fuel consumption. The cost of purchase and daily operation and maintenance is greatly reduced, while wheeled trucks are on ordinary roads. Operational adaptability and economy are also far better than tracked chassis; in addition, wheeled truck self-propelled guns are also more conducive to tactical air transport due to their light weight, and it is not a problem to load them by transport aircraft such as C-130.
Although in terms of performance, the traditional tracked chassis self-propelled gun has high off-road capability, the choice of gun position is more flexible, the shooting stability is higher, and the armor protection benefit is better. The turret can be rotated 360 degrees freely (most of the gun bodies of truck self-propelled guns) It can only turn ten degrees left and right), which makes the shooting operation more convenient, and also allows a greater degree of automation (a fully automatic shell feeding system can be easily installed in the turret, and most truck self-propelled guns require the shells to be driven by manpower.
The ammo bay at the rear of the cabin is raised to the rear of the vehicle); however, after comprehensive consideration, the new truck self-propelled gun is equipped with a 155mm 52-caliber barrel, a semi-automatic loading system, a stabilizing aid for automatic placement, advanced information transmission/firing control, and automatic After aiming guns and other devices, the overall combat power is already quite strong, enough to meet the needs of most modern artillery, and its low price and excellent cost-effectiveness are even more commendable. Therefore, in the 2000s, several countries competed to develop self-propelled guns with trucks as the chassis. Among them, the French Caesar (Caesar) was the most typical design, and it was also the most successful in the export market.
In mid-2007, this new type of truck self-propelled gun was first exposed in the newspapers, and was publicly unveiled at the 2007 Taipei World Trade and Aerospace Exhibition at the end of August of the same year. According to the actual vehicle displayed at the scene, its gun mount and artillery parts still roughly follow the XT-69 architecture of the year. The 155mm 45-diameter gun body is still made up of two pieces of barrel material hot sleeves. The more obvious difference is the replacement of the muzzle brake. Joint Logistics claims that the body of this truck self-propelled gun uses more advanced manufacturing technologies than the XT-69 back then, including hydraulic self-tightening.
For the chassis, early test photos show that this self-propelled gun uses a previously built Huatong truck as the chassis, but the prototype unveiled in 2007 uses the same series of products as the "medium tactical wheeler" newly purchased by the Taiwan Army in recent years. The "medium-sized tactical wheeler" is a derivative of the International 7400 of the International Truck & Engine Company (ITEC) of the United States, and authorized by Taiwan Sanyang Industrial to assemble it. It uses a straight-six engine with a 4X6 chassis configuration; in order to resist the vibration of the artillery launch In contrast to the muzzle storm, a protective panel is installed on the top of the cockpit, and the front windshield is also equipped with shutters, which can be closed to protect the windshield during launch. The national army purchased a total of 4788 medium-sized tactical wheeled vehicles, which were divided into five batches and delivered in five years.
The numbers of the five batches were 643, 1104, 1104, 1104, and 883 respectively. The 155mm wheeled self-propelled gun is the same series of ITEC products, but it uses a 6X10 configuration chassis to cope with the larger vehicle weight; however, because this type of chassis is the same as the medium-sized tactical wheeled vehicle, it belongs to the civil standard. , There is only a pair of tail wheels, no all-wheel drive design, the chassis height is relatively high, the distance between the drive shaft and the vehicle body is too large (easy to be damaged), and the off-road operation performance is not ideal. Fortunately, Taiwan’s industrial roads are developed and the battlefield is short in depth, and the requirements for off-road capabilities are not particularly high. Therefore, the driving ability of this type of chassis should still be sufficient. This new type of self-propelled gun weighs about 18 tons.
The 155mm self-propelled gun that was publicly exhibited in 2007 only has a hydraulic servo drive for the body, and it has not been integrated with the fire control computer. After the shooting is calculated, the hydraulic device must still be operated by human control; and again at the 2009 World Trade Show At the time of exhibition, the gun body servo device has been changed to electric drive, and it is integrated with the fire control computer. After calculating the shooting elements, it can automatically adjust the gun's direction/pitch angle to complete the aiming. If the digital data link is interrupted, the gun vehicle can obtain the parameters through voice transmission, and the gun crew can manually input the computer interface. The fire control system can still successfully complete the shooting solution and target aiming; if the shooting control computer fails, the gun crew can directly control it. The hydraulic system is used for gun aiming; if even the hydraulic gun control fails, the gun crew can adjust the pitch and position of the gun body in the traditional way of rocking the gun, and there is a spare optical direct sight on the side of the gun body.
In addition to the advanced fire control device, the GPS/INS module on the vehicle is also responsible for the navigation and driving function of the gun vehicle itself, which can quickly guide the gun vehicle into the firing position based on the gun position information transmitted by the superior unit. This type of artillery has a closed loop correction capability. The upper part of the gun body is equipped with a Doppler muzzle velocity measuring radar. When the projectile is shot out of the muzzle, the velocity meter immediately tracks the direction and velocity of the projectile, calculates the deviation, and then automatically feeds it back to the ballistic calculation computer as the basis for the correction of the next shell.
Due to the high chassis height, in order to facilitate the crew to operate the gun, there is a hydraulic lifting plate at the rear of the gun cart, so that the crew on the cart can stand on the board to perform loading operations. The shells on the vehicle are stored in two quick-release magazines behind the cockpit. The left magazine holds 17 shells, and the right magazine holds 18 charges. This kind of magazine can complete the supply crane in 3 minutes.
The main functions of this prototype gun are generally complete and catch up with the world trend. The only obvious shortcoming is that the front cockpit has been changed and expanded, and it is difficult to accommodate the four personnel of the entire gun squad. Appropriate engineering that must be carried out when it is favored and put into mass production.
The primary goal of the artillery unit at this stage is still to purchase American M109A6 self-propelled guns. Therefore, whether this type of artillery vehicle can actually be purchased in a short period of time remains quite variable. In addition, the Joint Logistics 202 Plant has also studied with artillery units, and the various technologies of this type of gun vehicle (including positioning, data transmission, fire control calculation, electric servo drive and even extended range gun body) are used to improve the M109A2 self-propelled gun.
The research and development process of this artillery vehicle still reflects the consistent old problems of national-made weapons in the past ten years. There is no high-level platform to make overall decision-making and integration for the limited domestic military units. The research and development work of each team is often the "eight immortals crossing the sea".
Add aFrench high-explosive reactive armor (ERA) GIAT manufactured M48H tanks, in February 2003, the first time publicly. (This picture is authorized to be used by Advanced Technology Magazine) --by Captian Picard Model M48H (CM11) Brave Tiger Main Chariot Manufacturer Country/Factory Republic of China/Chariot Development Center Use Country Republic of China Body Size (m ) Full length 6.95 (excluding gun barrel) Full width 3.63 Full height 3.09 Combat weight (ton) 50 engine/horsepower AVDS-1790-2C diesel engine * 1/750 thrust-to-weight ratio (hp/ton) 15 speed (km/hr) 48 endurance ( km) 480 crew 4 armed main armament: 105mm 51 double-diameter revolver *1 armament: 74 type 7.62mm coaxial machine gun*1 M85 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun*1 74 type 7.62mm coaxial machine gun*1
M48H (CM11) Brave Tiger Main Chariot
China’s first self-made tank - M48H Brave Tiger - is a combination of M48’s turret and M60A3 chassis. It is equipped with a new fire control system and the 105mm main gun is strictly speaking a kind of "assembly vehicle".
Like many countries that received US aid, the Chinese Army also used US-aided tanks as its main equipment at the beginning. However, with the severance of diplomatic relations between Taiwan and the United States, our country's sources of arms are on the verge of severing. In this situation, the government has launched a number of plans to cultivate its own national defense industry, including self-made main tanks. In 1979, the loyalty group responsible for the research and development of tanks was established and later expanded into the tank development center. In 1984, the War Development Center cooperated with the General Dynamics Land System (GDLS) of the United States to plan the next-generation main combat vehicle of the Chinese Army.
Due to the restrictions of the 817 Communiqué, the United States was unwilling to blatantly export the complete M60A3 to Taiwan at that time, so the two sides adopted a workaround, with the M60A3 chassis and M48 turret, with 105mm main gun and a new integrated fire control system. , Become a unique Taiwanese version of the tank. The Chinese military assigns this new tank CM11 the number (Note) , while the US military calls it M48H. H means a hybrid of M48 and M60 (Hybrid). In 1988, two M48H prototypes were manufactured and shipped to the US Equipment Test Command for testing.
On April 14, 1990, the M48H was officially released and entered service. It was named the Brave Tiger. Since then, the Chinese Army has entered the era of 105mm main guns, thermal imaging cameras, and shooting capabilities on the move. More than ten years late in Western countries. A total of 450 M48Hs were produced. It was originally expected to be delivered in 1992. However, due to the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the United States controlled the export of many military products, including the electronic parts required by the M48H. It was only completed in 1994 and was in full service. In addition, afterwards, Taiwan also improved the current M48A3 with the M48H fire control system and main gun to become the CM12.
The M48H uses the same chassis as the M60A3, and a modified M48A2 turret (both are stock kits that were not sent to the production line in the United States), so the appearance is exactly like the M60 early type that also uses a tortoise shell-shaped cast turret. Because the M48's turret is lighter than the M60A3, the mobility of the M48H will be slightly better than that of the M60A3, which is comparable to the early M60, and it is impossible to reach world-class standards. The M48's tortoise shell-shaped cast turret is not as good as the M60A3's turret in terms of anti-ballistic shape or armor thickness, which means that the M48H has suffered a loss in protection. M48H completely inherits the power system of M60A3 (including AVDS-1790-2C diesel engine and CD-850-6-A1 automatic gearbox), load-bearing system (torsion rod suspension, first, second, and six pairs of load-bearing wheels) equipped with shock absorbers) and T-142 double-sheath crawlers, but use the same load wheels as the active M48A3 of the Chinese Army, presumably to simplify logistics maintenance operations.
Like the M60 series, the M48H does not have side skirts to protect the suspension system and suppress the raised dust. This point really needs to be improved. The NBC protection system of the M48H is also the same as the M60A3. It uses the M13A1 filter ventilator to send fresh air to the M25 mask worn by the occupants through the ventilation pipe. The M48H’s turret battle room is equipped with a sea dragon automatic instant fire extinguishing system. Its optical detector can detect the light source within 5m/s and release extinguishing agent within 150ms to extinguish the fire.
The fire extinguishing system in the engine room is started manually, and can be started from outside the vehicle in an emergency; both fire extinguishing systems use Hailong 1301 fire extinguishing agent, which will not cause harm to the human body. Due to the weak armor of the M48H turret, the army declared from the beginning that it would add high-explosive reactive armor to it. However, it was not until February 2003 that the Chinese army disclosed two additional high-explosive reactive armors (ERA) made by French GIAT. ), installed on the front and sides of the turret. The configuration of this GIAT armor is very different from the more common Israeli style or Soviet style. Several groups of ERA are integrated on a base, and these rectangular ERAs are arranged in a vertical row and upward. Tilting is said to allow its explosive fragments to fly upwards, reducing the chance of injuring one's own infantry.
In terms of armament, the M48H abandoned the M48A3’s 90mm main gun and replaced it with a 105mm 51-caliber rotary gun produced by the Joint Logistics 202 Factory, which is a Taiwanese imitation of the American M68A1 105mm tank gun (the body is believed to be It is from the M68A1 main gun replaced by the US Army and remanufactured). It was officially launched in 1988 and began production in 1990. Compared with the original American M68A1, the Joint Logistics 105mm tank gun has slightly different details, such as a different thermal sleeve and no body curve detector. M68 is an L-7 designed by the United Kingdom and authorized to be produced in the United States, and then improved by the United States. It has reliable performance and a wide range of shells.
Although the mainstream caliber of modern Western tank guns has been increased to 120mm, the current 105mm gun was deemed still suitable for use in China. As a result, the 105mm shell is smaller in size and weight, which can better match the size and physical strength of the Oriental; more importantly, the revolver Bore guns use a much wider range of ammunition than the current mainstream smoothbore guns, including the high-explosive ammunition (HE or HESH) that the latter lacks; if the Communist Army launches an amphibious landing operation, it is most likely that the first landing will be lightly armed infantry and vehicles. Light vehicles are also the most likely targets. In addition, the Communist army must take a large number of landing craft. These are soft targets and are suitable for dealing with high-explosive shells. If armor-piercing shells are used, they will be difficult to kill in large numbers and effectively.
The Joint Logistics produced a total of about one thousand 105mm guns of this type. In addition to the M48H, they were also used to replace the original 90mm guns of the M48A3. The second-hand M60A3 TTS that Taiwan purchased from the United States later was also used. This type of artillery was replaced to unify the body of the main tanks of the national army. In terms of secondary armament, M48H dismantled the M48’s original closed captain's rotating turret and replaced it with the Israeli-designed Urdan captain's rotating turret. Due to the open design, the overall height of the Urdan is low, and the machine gun holder can be replaced, which is helpful for reducing the height of the vehicle. However, the relative disadvantage is that the captain must expose hid upper body when using the machine gun (M48, M60 cars). The hatch can be sealed in a rotating turret to operate the machine gun), exposed to the threat of enemy small-caliber weapons and nuclear, biological and chemical threats. The Urdan gun turret does not have a full perimeter periscope, but there are three periscopes on it. In addition to the normal opening of the turret top cover, a small slit can be opened, allowing the captain to obtain a 360-degree view.
In addition to the captain's machine gun and coaxial machine gun, the M48H also adds a loaded cell phone gun to enhance its melee firepower. The M48H's coaxial machine gun and loading mobile phone gun are both the new 74-style 7.62mm machine gun developed by Lian Logistics, and the commander's anti-aircraft machine gun is 12.7mm. Each side of the M48H turret is equipped with an M239 60mm six-pack smoke grenade launcher, which is the same as the M60A3. This is the first time that a Taiwan army tank has such equipment.
The most proud achievement of the M48H is the fire control system, which is more high-end than the M60A3. It is claimed to be the same level as the American M1 tank, including an AN/VGS-2 gunner that is the same as the M60A3 TTS. Thermal imaging camera (produced in cooperation with American manufacturers), an AN/GVS-5 yttrium-neodymium garnet (Nd-YAG) laser rangefinder (originally presumed to be a carbon dioxide laser rangefinder), and M1A1 digital/analog mixed ballistic calculation electro-integrated brain (M60A3 is a pure analog M21), these are all American products.
The biggest challenge that M48H faced in the development was the integration of different equipment into a set of fire control system, which caused a delay in the development of the M48H. The gunner has a control panel that can input commands and shell selections into the M1A1 ballistic computer, which then receives information from the roll sensor, crosswind sensor and laser rangefinder, calculates the shooting parameters, and then It is transmitted to the turret rotation and main gun servo mechanism to align the target through the interface. The commander has the same control grip as the gunner and can overtake the turret. Like the M60A3, the M48H is equipped with an M105D tubular sight coaxial with the main gun as a backup sighting device. The range of CVS-5 laser rangefinder is 300~7990m, which is much longer than the VVG-2 of M60A3. Before the M48H, the Taiwan Army’s tanks did not have any night vision fire control observation system, but this time it was able to jump and need to project an infrared light source, the infrared telescope with poor efficiency and the direct use of an infrared thermal imaging camera was a great innovation.
The M48H is equipped with a two-dimensional body stabilization system, which is more complete than the one-dimensional stabilization device of the M60A3, so it truly has the ability to shoot while on the move. Its gyro stabilization system can automatically drive the body follow-up device to maintain the muzzle at a predetermined level. On the aiming axis, the ballistic driver is also driven to keep the crosshair of the sight facing forward. Compared with the M60A3, the M48H's fire control system is not only more advanced in many components, but the other main difference is that the M60A3's laser rangefinder is installed in the earlier M60 that used to install the optical rangefinder. The window (operated by the commander), and the M48H integrates the laser rangefinder together with the thermal imager into the gunner’s sight. The gunner is responsible for the ranging work; such laser rangefinder and infrared thermal imager The optical path is the same, the boresight correction operation is more convenient, and the laser ranging data can be directly projected on the thermal image display.
Similar to M60A3, the M48H turret gyration and gun body pitch use traditional hydraulic braking instead of the more advanced electric servo. Not only is it more complicated and inefficient, the failure rate is higher, and the fire hazard is high, but the gun control and stability will be reduced by factors such as air return and oil leakage. It needs frequent maintenance and adjustment. In American tests, the M48H prototype was superior to M60A3 TTS in terms of night combat capability and hit rate. (M48H had a first round hit rate of 82% against a 2000m external fixed target. 75% for targets beyond 1500m).
However, the M48H did not have a full-perimeter sight for the commander, and had to use an optical channel to share the image of the thermal imaging camera with the gunner, indicating that the shooting command command must still be dictated by the commander to the gunner and cannot be automatically directed. The ability to receive multiple targets is compromised. There are three periscopes in the driver's seat of the M48H, and the central one can be equipped with AN/VVS-2 starlight night vision goggles. The Vehicle Development Center purchased a total of 550 sets of related kits for the production of M48H fire control systems. In addition to 450 M48Hs, the surplus was used for the improvement of M48A3. The number of improved M48A3 increased to more than 250, so the war development center should have further purchased related fire control kits).
Since the M48H is the first integrated tank in Taiwan, there was early news that the M48H’s turret and the hull were not well integrated; and the M48H used the old and small M48A2 turret to be inserted into the 105mm tank gun. The newly integrated fire control system appeared to lack space, which not only reduces the comfort of personnel, but also affects the heat dissipation capacity of internal equipment, leading to an increase in the failure rate of electronic components. Although the M48H’s fire control system is better than the M60A3 on the book, it was discovered after the service that its more sophisticated fire control system was not compatible with Taiwan’s hot and humid environment, coupled with improper operation and lack of logistical energy, and other national armors. The old problems of the army have faced many failures. Therefore, the overall evaluation of the M48H's service in the army is not as good as the second-hand M60A3 TTS purchased from the United States later.
From the perspective of the M48H, the overall performance of the M48H is certainly not among the top-notch levels. However, for China, which was facing the difficulties of arms sales and lacked technical sources, it was very difficult to achieve this goal. Some people compare the Type 88 tank developed by South Korea at the same time with the M48H. However, due to the close relationship between South Korea and the United States, the Type 88 gained a large amount of technical inheritance from the US M1 tank. The conditions are far superior to that of Taiwan. It is totally unfair to mock the M48H.
Obviously, however, the M48H's improvement to Taiwan's tank industry is only limited to assembly, integration, and the development of some minor parts. The most important engines, gearboxes, fire control observation systems, and vehicle body turrets on the vehicle are all used. The imported kit can only be regarded as an assembled vehicle at best, and there is still a long way to go before the self-developed production. For this reason, some people criticized Da Fei Zhouzhang for "assembling" a tank with a comprehensive performance that is approximately the same level as the M60A3. It is completely uneconomical, but this is based on a special strategy adopted by the time. In any case, the emergence of M48H is still an important milestone in Taiwan's tank industry.
At present, the M48H's mobility and basic defense capabilities are inferior, especially where the defense problem is the most serious. The maximum thickness of the front armor of its cast turret is only 110mm. Most of the PLA’s active infantry light anti-tank rockets or anti-tank missiles can easily penetrate this armor, so strengthening the armor is the most urgent matter. In addition to the existing reactive armor, it is actually best to use composite armor that can withstand both kinetic energy-piercing projectiles and shaped charges. The first wave of the PLA’s landing infantry or airborne troops will inevitably carry a large number of individual anti-armor weapons, and the anti-tank missiles and rockets manufactured by China are sufficient to effectively deal with the armor of Taiwan's CM11 and M60A3. According to the experience of the Yom Kippur War, if the tank protection capability is insufficient or there is no accompanying support of infantry and artillery, facing this kind of well-prepared infantry formation is tantamount to seeking a dead end.
Therefore, on the one hand, Taiwan's army must pay attention to the coordinated operations of various arms, and must also improve the protection capabilities of the main combat vehicles in active service. Due to the rapid advancement in science and technology, the previous generation of combat vehicles such as M48H and M60A3 entered the 1990s, are all below the tonnage of the main tank, and they don't have enough defensive capabilities. And if Taiwan chose to strengthen the armor, the M48H and M60A3's insufficient mobility will be further reduced. Although the main combat vehicle does not have much movement depth in the beachhead combat stage, the main combat vehicle must be assembled in the theater as soon as possible (Moreover, the road conditions are often poor and it is necessary to go off-road.) Mobility is still very important for tanks (not to forget that Taiwan has a lot of rugged terrain).
As for firepower, the firepower of the M68 105mm gun is still sufficient for most current needs, and the gun can use the type of ammunition that is lacking in smoothbore guns, but that Taiwan needs more. Therefore, the proportion of the main artillery shells carried by the tanks of Taiwan must be in accordance with the actual needs of the country, rather than copying the US military's guidelines for the "tank war", lest there will be no suitable ammunition available.
When considering the needs of the army's tanks, the first thing to consider is often the battle between the two main tanks. The new-generation Type 96 combat vehicle of the Chinese Communist Army is equipped with a 125mm smoothbore gun, composite armor, and high-power engine. It is far superior to Taiwan's main combat vehicle in terms of technical standards and various performance measures. However, because the PLA’s current power for amphibious operations is limited, it is difficult to transport enough tanks. Therefore, no matter how excellent the tank performance is, it may not play a critical role in the battle situation (don’t forget that Taiwan also has AH-1W attack helicopters, etc.). In addition, the first thing Taiwan tanks encounter is most likely to be enemy light troops or infantry with anti-tank weapons. Therefore, when defining the needs of tanks, Taiwan must not put all its strength on the tanks.
In addition, many people think that the main tank is not suitable for island countries like Taiwan, and even think that Taiwan's army is too large. In fact, if Taiwan significantly reduces its defenses on the land, it means that the PLA can dominate the outcome of the Taiwan Strait campaign as long as it obtains air and sea dominance. With the disparity in military strength and material gap between the two sides, it should only be a matter of time before Taiwan’s navy and air force are exhausted. Then Taiwan will have no bargaining chips. From a practical perspective, if the Taiwan Strait campaign enters the landing stage, it will be difficult for the PLA to transport a large number of heavy mechanized equipment to Taiwan in the early stage. Taiwan's army can use light/heavy mechanized units as the core, with infantry, artillery, and attack helicopters. The formation of an offensive and defensive, flexible and mobile force hits the fatal injuries of the PLA's sea-crossing forces, making it more difficult for them to build a stable beachhead.
The Taiwan Army must not only strengthen precision artillery weapons with long ranges such as multiple rockets or tactical missiles, as well as wheeled armored vehicles that can quickly reach the theater and project force, but also must not neglect heavy equipment such as main combat vehicles and self-propelled artillery. In addition, some people have suggested that the main tanks are too bulky for island nations like Taiwan and should be replaced by light tanks. This is also an overly biased argument, because the island of Taiwan is large enough to accommodate mountains, hills and plains. Regarding it solely from the "island terrain", the size of the western plains is enough to carry out a certain degree of tank combat. The protection capability of light tanks is weak (the biggest problem), and continuous firepower is relatively poor. As long as the main tank’s resident base is close to the place where it can be landed on a large scale, the mobility problems are actually within the controllable range.
The protection capabilities and mobility of the Chinese Army’s M48H and M60A3 definitely need to be strengthened, especially the protection capabilities are the most urgent. If the funds are sufficient, it is of course better to install a new generation of combat vehicles, such as the United States - M1A2 or second-hand M1A1. However, due to the long-term shortage of Taiwan's defense budget, the main resources of the army in the second half of the 2000s were concentrated on the CM32 Clouded Leopard armored vehicle and attack/universal helicopter conversion. It is difficult to update the main combat vehicle force in the short term. However, the most difficult problem of the armored forces of the national army at this stage is probably due to many difficult, such as insufficient funding, institutional corruption, and interruption of parts sources, resulting in the unsustainable logistics of the main vehicle types such as CM11/12 and M60A3.
The accuracy rate is extremely poor. For example, the observation/fire control equipment is incomplete due to the suspension of imported parts, improper operation and maintenance, etc., so that many of the main combat vehicles of the national army have long lost the ability to shoot while on the move. Some tanks and even all fire control units have been reported as ineffective, and can only be engaged with the main gun coaxial tubular sight. It is self-evident how little power it can have. In the main tanks, the CM11 is an assembled vehicle because of the integration of the vehicle body. The self-integrated fire control equipment is more sophisticated and faces material outages, and its proper status is worse than that of the M60A3. On the other hand, the M60A3 has a complete design and the United States still has stock materials available, so its performance is much more active. To eradicate these problems, unless starting with the logistics system itself and the military atmosphere. Even if installing a new tank, it is difficult to guarantee to not repeat the mistakes of decline, but this seems to be very far away at the moment.
|M48H (CM11) Brave Tiger Main Chariot|
|Manufacturer Country/Factory||Republic of China/Chariot Development Center|
|Use Country||Republic of China|
|Body Size (m )|
|Full length||6.95 (excluding gun barrel)|
|Combat weight (ton)||50|
|engine/horsepower||AVDS-1790-2C diesel engine * 1/750|
|thrust-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)||15|
|endurance ( km)||480|
|main armament||105mm 51 double-diameter revolver *1|
|name||CM21 armored vehicle||CM21A1 armored personnel carrier|
|Type||Armored personnel carrier||Armored personnel carrier|
|country of origin||Republic of China||Republic of China|
|service period||1980 to the present||1982 to present|
|Developer||Republic of China Tank Development Research Center||Republic of China Tank Development Research Center|
|production||Taiwan tank development research center||Republic of China Tank Development Research Center|
|research and development||1970s||1970s|
|number||more than 1,000 vehicles (including modified models)|
|total weight||12.7 tons (without guns)||12.7 tons (without guns)|
|total length||4.863 m.||4.863 m|
|width||2.686 m.||2.686 m|
|total height||2.5 m||2.5 m|
|crew||2 operators + 12 infantry||2 crew + 12 infantry|
|armor||double hollow armor, all-welded aluminum||Fully welded double-layer aluminum alloy vehicle shell|
|main weapon||M2 heavy machine guns||Browning M2 heavy machine gun|
|secondary weapon||Mk 19 grenade launcher||Mk 19 automatic grenade launcher|
|smoke launcher||eight||two four-barrel smoke grenade launchers|
|power output||275 horsepower||? 210 horsepower|
|power Weight ratio||22.36 horsepower/ton||? 22.36 horsepower/ton|
|transmission||Allison TX100-1 Variable speed automatic transmission, 3 forward gear, 1 reverse gear|
|suspension system||suspension rod, 5 road wheels||Suspension rod, 5 road wheels|
|maximum operating range||550 km||550 km|
|maximum speed||66 km/h||66 km/h|
CM21 armored vehicle
The CM21 is a self-made armored vehicle developed by the Tank Development Research Center in Taiwan, based on the American M113 armored personnel carrier. From the factory of the first prototype in 1979 to the official service in 1982, the CM21 has developed a complete vehicle series. More than 1,000 vehicles were produced.
The basic type of the CM21 is an armored personnel carrier, which can carry a total of 14 soldiers and has basic armor capabilities. The entire vehicle is composed of fully welded aluminum alloy armor, with the front and rear sides of the body It is a double-layer hollow armor, filled with polyurethane foaming chemicals to absorb the penetration force of bullets or artillery pieces. On the whole, the protection of CM21 is better than that of M113.
There are two perforations on both sides of the CM21, and one perforation is directly behind. Therefore, the rear infantry compartment is ridden back-to-back in the center of the vehicle, and the front half of the infantry compartment is seated face-to-face against the body. CM 21 has the ability to float. Two pumps need to be activated before launching, and the front flap is opened. The water is still propelled by crawlers and there are no extra blades. Like the M113, the CM21 can be equipped with external fuel tanks on both sides of the rear. The basic firepower of the CM21 is a 12.7mm Browning M2 heavy machine gun or a 40mm Mk 19 grenade launcher, and four smoke launchers on each side. However, it has also been found that a double gun holder was used to install the gun at the same time. CM21 with Ronning M2 heavy machine gun and 40mm Mk 19 grenade launcher.
The CM21 service model is CM21A1, an improved version of A1. It has better additional armor and can resist 14.5mm armor-piercing projectiles. Its combat weight has been increased to 12.9 tons. However, it uses a 300-horsepower engine to increase the speed to 65 kilometers per hour. The CM21A1 is still only a basic armored personnel carrier in terms of infantry transportation, and cannot be upgraded to a CM21A2 infantry tank. Since then, after the introduction of the CM32 wheeled armored vehicle, it is even more impossible to modify it.
CM21A2 is an improved version of A1. It has better additional armor and can resist the attack of 14.5mm armor-piercing projectiles. Its combat weight has been increased to 12.9 tons, but the 300- horsepower engine is used to increase the speed to 65 kilometers per hour. CM21A2 presumably want to upgrade directly into infantry fighting vehicle, there was the introduction of the French GIAT DRAGAR type with a single 25 mm gun turret as testing purposes, but does not use, have developed their own simple single captain's gun tower is still only for testing purposes.
- CM22 is the 107mm mortar (120mm mortar) version of CM21, which is the imitation version of the US M106 mortar vehicle. The details of the two are very similar. The CM22 was developed in 1987 and was still in production until around 1999. However, in the later production of the CM22, the internal mortar ammunition compartment was different from the US M106 mortar vehicle, plus detailed parts such as headlights and CM21A vehicle is common. CM22 modified the infantry compartment to be used with mortars, and eliminated rifle perforation and hollow armor. The overall appearance is the same as the M106 mortar vehicle derived from M113.
- The CM23 is an 81mm mortar version derived from the CM22, which is the same as the US M125 mortar vehicle.
- The CM25 is a towed missile (TOW) armored vehicle derived from the CM21 armored vehicle. It is used in anti-armor combat. The CM25 has modified the infantry compartment to carry towed missile ammunition, but the internal space is still quite large. , Moved two 3-pack smoke grenade launchers to the front of the car, canceled rifle perforation and extended the double-layer armor, but the protection of the CM25 is not enhanced. The CM25 is only used by the Marine Corps of Taiwan, China. The Taiwan Army of China still uses the M113A1 towed missile armored vehicle. Under special environmental requirements, the hollow armor of the CM25 is filled with styrofoam to increase buoyancy.
- The CM26 is an armored command vehicle, which is the same as the US M577, is derived from the CM22.
CM24 armored ammunition transport vehicle
The CM24 is an armored ammunition transport vehicle specially designed for self-propelled artillery with the CM21 chassis modified by the military integrator center of the Republic of China. The main modification is to increase the original design of the CM21 from 5 pairs of ground wheels to 7 pairs to extend the body.
In the early days, the ROC Army’s self-propelled artillery did not have a professional ammunition supply vehicle. The ammunition was transported by M35 trucks, which was not suitable for the combat support of the armored unit. Therefore, when purchasing new self-propelled artillery in the 1980s, the military integrative center developed this type of vehicle. It was issued to troops in 1988. However, the power performance was slightly insufficient, and the power package was replaced when it was updated to CM24A1 to improve performance.
The CM24 is used with the M110A2 self-propelled gun to carry 42 rounds of eight-inch shells and the required ammunition. The shells are lifted using a manually operated folding boom. As for the M109A2 and M109A5, which have a faster rate of fire, they are matched with the CM24A1. The improvement of the CM24A1 is the use of an automated storage system and an electric transport rail, which can carry 90 rounds of 155mm shells and the required ammunition packs, which can be used to replenish the Soldiers do not need to be exposed to artillery fire to supply shells to the self-propelled artillery.
The CM24 and CM24A1 are currently in service in the ROC Army at the same time. From 1999 to 2000, the CM24A1 improved its operation mode, replacing the traditional joystick with a linear steering wheel to control the vehicle body. This improvement also appeared in the CM21A2 ; But I’m not sure whether the follow-up CM24 will fully carry out this improvement. In addition, the ammunition delivery system has also been improved. It can directly send ammunition to M109A2 and M109A5 directly without manpower transfer. The ammunition delivery rate is 6 rounds per minute.
The CM24 armored ammunition transport vehicle was developed by the "Ordnance Integration Center" in Taiwan for the self-propelled artillery with the improvement of the CM21. The inner compartment can accommodate 42 203 mm artillery shells or 90 155 mm artillery shells. The CM24 cooperates with the M110A2 self-propelled artillery and uses a manually operated folding boom to lift the shells. As for the M109A2 and M109A5, which have a faster rate of fire, they use the CM24A1. The improvement of the CM24A1 is to use an automated storage system and The electric conveyor can quickly supply 155mm shells to the M109A2 and M109A5.
Therefore, the CM24 and the CM24A1 were in service in the Taiwan Army at the same time. The later version of the CM24A1 was developed to use the steering wheel to control the vehicle body. This improvement is also on the CM21A2, but the follow-up CM24 is uncertain. Will this improvement be carried out in an all-round way? In addition, the ammunition delivery system has also been improved, which can directly connect and deliver ammunition to the M109A2 and M109A5 without manual transfer. The ammunition delivery rate is 6 rounds per minute. The CM24 is equipped with a 12.7mm Browning M2 heavy machine gun.
CM27 is a derivative of CM24, shorter than CM24, with a total length of 6.73 meters and only six pairs of road wheels. The CM27 was designed in 1992 and the prototype was completed in 1994. Its development purpose is to tow the army’s towed artillery. It can carry the entire artillery squad and ammunition. It can enter the tracked armored vehicle with its off-road performance that cannot be reached by ordinary wheeled trucks. The land type arrived, the current CM27 high-speed tractor is improved to CM27A1.
M10 self-propelled artillery vehicle
The M10 self-propelled artillery vehicle is not US military standard equipment, but a self-propelled artillery built by the Republic of China with the M10 tank destroyer chassis equipped with a Japanese 91-type howitzer. The decommissioning time is unknown. The National Army received the US M10 during the mainland period and was incorporated into the gun regiment. However, the US Army had destroyed the main battery before the reception.
Afterwards, the National Army’s tank factory replaced the Japanese 105mm howitzer as the main battery and improved it into a closed turret. Instructor Chen Hu who participated in the modification dictated and the current research of the team, this type of national army M10-105 howitzer self-propelled artillery vehicle is known to have three types, this picture is the M10-105 howitzer II (medium type) and M10 -105 self-propelled howitzer III (late type), the M10 currently displayed in the Taiwan Armored Forces Academy is a restoration of the late-model hull of this vehicle.
Before the Kuomintang government retreated to Taiwan in 1949, although the U.S. government did not promise direct military assistance to the Republic of China, it did not prevent the national army from purchasing surplus materials from the war. In 1948, Jiang Weiguo was transferred to the Chief of Staff of the Armored Forces Command. The Joint Logistics Headquarters worked together to search for American vehicles that could be used on the Pacific battlefield, and transport them back to China for refurbishment at the tank manufacturing plant (also known as Shanghai Longhua Tank Plant) at the Shanghai Repair Office of the Ordnance Department.
The materials collected by the joint logistics included the M10 tank destroyer, the M5 Stuart light tank, and the LVT-2 amphibious landing vehicle. These vehicles were damaged by artillery and some of their fuel tanks were filled with asphalt, but the vehicle was still in condition. It can be repaired. In the civil war of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China, the armored forces were repeatedly wiped out and surrendered to the Communist Party.
In the winter of 1948 the Joint Logistics purchased the remaining supplies of the M10 tank destroyer. It was estimated that 34 vehicles were purchased from the United States. These vehicles were in complete normal condition except for the main guns that were destroyed by shelling. The Longhua factory purchased them in December 1948. Before the factory moved from Shanghai to Taiwan, it cooperated with the Research and Development Department of the Ordnance Administration to refit an M10 tank destroyer into a self-propelled gun. The main gun of this refitted self-propelled gun was a Type 94 mountain gun. The first vehicle after the transformation was tested by the armored force. There were many suggestions for improvement, and the relevant transformation continued after the Longhua plant moved to Taiwan.
On January 1, 1949, the Longhua factory was renamed the 61st Arsenal of Joint Logistics and resumed work in Taiwan, continuing the unfinished refitting operations in the Shanghai era; the main gun used for refitting in Taiwan was replaced with the 91-type howitzer developed by the Imperial Japanese Army. But the 105mm howitzer had a relatively large volume. It is too narrow when inserted into the battle cabin designed for the 76.2mm tank gun. The self-propelled gun will cover the original open-air turret, and an additional opening will be added. The steel cover was poorly designed, lacked bulletproof capability, and was easy to pinch the fingers of the crew at the entrance and exit. The Liuyi Factory later modified the height of the artillery to reduce the volume and optimize the movement of the battle cabin. The additional covered armor plate was replaced with a bulletproof steel plate to reduce weight and improve defense capacity, while then turret entrance and exit were re-modified to increase safety.
The improved M10 self-propelled gun armored in Taiwan was considered usable, and 16 were subsequently modified. In addition, 18 prototypes of the Shanghai era were finally modified; the modification time in Taiwan was between March and December of the year 38 of the Republic of China . This batch of M10 self-propelled artillery equipped with Japanese artillery participated in the New Year’s Day military parade and the National Day military parade in 1951 and 1952. After the M7 Priest-style self-propelled artillery force aided the country, these self-propelled artillery vehicles were quickly decommissioned, around 1955-1957, so the overall service period was not long. After retiring, most of the M10 self-propelled guns were destroyed, and only one remained at the Army Armored Training Headquarters (Armored Forces School) at Hukou, Hsinchu ; but only the hull was retained, and the modified artillery and turret were dismantled and replaced with completely distorted fake guns.
M68 155mm L33 caliber towed gun
The ROC imitation of the M68 in fact has no official name, the whole process about 1976 to 1980 (the Republic of China 65 years to 69 years), and therefore referred to as country-made M68 155 mm howitzer. The M68 howitzer was developed by Israel in the late 1960s and was Israel's first self-made howitzer. Strictly speaking, this artillery is not part of the "39-caliber revolution". It has only 33-caliber and has a range of 3-4 kilometers less than the 39-caliber artillery, but the firing range of the M68's 21 kilometers, advanced enough for Taiwan's Joint Logistics 202 plant.
After the founding of Israel the main sources of heavy artillery was the United States for M114 howitzer and France's M50 155 mm howitzer, but the performance suffered compared with the Soviet artillery neighboring countries. Therefore Israel in 1968 with French M50 howitzer based on the 33-diameter extension of the barrel and the installation of a muzzle brake to reduce the impact of the increased recoil after the barrel is increased, a semi-automatic feeder operated by air pressure was also installed to increase the rate of fire. The entire improvement plan was planned in 1970. Completed in the year. Subsequently , the M68 issued to the Israel Defense Forces performed well in the Yom Kippur War and was adopted by many countries. South Africa referred to the purchased M68 as a G-4 howitzer.
The M68 imitation plan was not a formal construction plan under the Army’s decision. It is only a private operation by Luo Youlun , the joint logistics commander, on the orders of the 61st factory. Therefore, Luo Youlun’s plan fell into a semi-delayed state after leaving office. The entire imitation plan is only the technology accumulated in the 61 factory did not enter mass production after the successful imitation, but the entire imitation plan made a great contribution to the future production of the XT-69 howitzer in the 61 factory.
The Republic of China did not exchange artillery technology with Israel in the 1970s. The chance of encountering the M68 was that Singapore came to the Republic of China ’s Starlight Forces for training . Because the performance of the M68 was better than the World War II artillery in the hands of the Republic of China at that time, Therefore, a few people in the military have the idea of ??imitation.
The copying of the M68 was carried out by Colonel Chen Hut of Factory 61. Since the M68 was not a weapon of the Republic of China, it could not be disassembled and reverse engineered. At the beginning of the imitation work, although the Taiwan military had access to this weapon, after all the property rights of the weapon belonged to Singapore. Therefore, although they quickly mapped its size based on external observations, the gun body and gun mount were available in January 1977. But there are still a lot of worries about the part of the Israeli artillery that is actually a French artillery that is very different from the American artillery.
The R&D team could only conduct external observation and mapping of the artillery. Because of the lack of other parts design (the balancing machine and the mechanism for retreat and retraction are French technology, which is different from the American system), the development is slow; however, due to Luo Youlun’s resignation, the plan progress has not been affected by the military. The unit's attention, the imitation plan was not carried out until November 1977 after borrowing a real gun from the Starlight Troops for disassembly and assembly research.
After obtaining the actual product disassembly and analysis, the part specification problem was temporarily solved, but because the rifling is a variable twist design, it needs a special instrument to measure it. Therefore, the imitation plan was temporarily suspended; until the completion of the 41st case of the 202 factory expansion plan and the purchase of the bore measuring instrument, the imitation of the M68 was successfully completed. The entire M68 generic case 61 plants results in addition to the experience of using the new equipment, the main contribution to the technical clearance bore with muzzle brake these World War II US-made guns have not yet adopted these technologies howitzer XT-69 R & D A certain degree of contribution was obtained in the case.
Since then, the development of the artillery has experienced delays in waiting for the introduction of special measuring instruments and other equipment. It was not until the late 1970s that the imitated M68 was successfully trial-produced. Since the performance of this gun is neither as good as the 39-times diameter howitzer, nor as the "favorite" of the national army at the time, even if the imitation is successful, this gun has not been favored by the military, or even won an Official name.
Of course, Lianqin Factory 202, this was not in vain. In addition to introducing some equipment for manufacturing advanced artillery, they also learned about the manufacture of such equipment as brakes for the first time.
Taiwan's Ministry of National Defense (MND) on 23 September 2019 said that the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer "meets the needs of Taiwan's defensive operations." The Legislative Yuan's Foreign National Defense Committee held a meeting to discuss the "Special Bill for the Purchase of New Fighter Aircraft". During the meeting, legislators posed questions to Army officials about the country's weaponry needs.
When Taiwan lawmaker Freddy Lim asked if the Army is planning on procuring Paladin howitzers, National Defense Minister Yen De-fa said the self-propelled gun "meets the needs of Taiwan's defensive operations and has fast reaction speeds and great power" and that "It is hoped that it will further enhance combat effectiveness in the future". Yen did not reveal how many howitzers would be sought, although local media reports in July 2019 stated that Taiwan was looking at acquiring 100 howitzers.
Lin then asked whether the Army's current digitalization process would include compatibility with the weapon. In response, Lt. Gen. Yang Hai-ming, chief of staff of the Army, said that the multifunctional laser designator rangefinder has already been partially digitized and included in live-fire drills, according to reports.
Following the purchase of 108 M1A2T Abrams tanks from the US, the Taiwanese army had recently begun the process of purchasing Paladin howitzers. In July 2020, the Army said that the military acquisition would be carefully evaluated, planned, and handled in order to strengthen the country's defenses.
The American Institute in Taiwan informed the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) that the deal of the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzers will be submitted to the US Congress "soon" and the weapons are expected to be commissioned between 2023-25, Taiwan news website udn.com reported. It did not specify the amount of the equipment or value of the deal. The deal may become the first arms sales to Taiwan by the Biden administration, three months after Joe Biden took office. The process of the deal comes earlier than previous US administrations, even the most "radical and provocative former Trump administration." Donald Trump's approval of the first arms sales to Taiwan, which totaled $1.4 billion, was released in June 2017 by the US. Xin Qiang, deputy director of the Center for US Studies at Fudan University in Shanghai, told the Global Times on 19 April 2021 that the early sales are in line with the Biden administration's strategy of visibly playing the "Taiwan card." The deal will meet few barriers at the administrative level. Wei Dongxu, a Beijing-based military expert, told the Global Times on Monday that by selling arms to the island of Taiwan, the US is not only instigating Taiwan secessionists to create more estrangement and trouble between the Chinese mainland and the island, but also letting US arms dealers earn huge amounts of money. Compared to the sales of 135 precision-guided cruise missiles during the former Trump administration, the deal of self-propelled howitzers, weapons more defensive in nature, is less provocative. But the mainland should be alert on possible sales of offensive equipment in the future, Xin stressed. Though arms sales are usually announced by the US first, it is possible the DPP authority and Washington communicated ahead and arranged to let Taiwan media release the information first, Xin said. The Paladin's main weapon is a 39-caliber 155mm M284 cannon, which is fitted with an M182 gun mount and has a maximum range of 30 kilometers. The gun is operated with an automatic fire control system (AFCS) with a ballistic computer and is fitted with an optical backup; the vehicle’s inertial positioning and navigation system is integrated with the AFCS.
Taiwan's arsenal already included the older M109A2-A5 series of the weapon, the M114 155mm howitzer, and the M110A2 howitzer. The newest of these, the M109A2-A5, was purchased from the U.S. during the Third Taiwan Strait Crisis in 1996, delivered in 1998, and had been in service for 21 years. The M109A6 features improved armor and survivability over older variants of the M109, which allows howitzer batteries to fire from dispersed locations as well as reduce the time required to set up and fire its 155 mm (6 inch) howitzer.
Taiwan had two defense procurement deals with the United States in the pipeline for 2021, worth approximately US$8 billion, Vice Defense Minister Chang Che-ping said 07 December 2020 during a legislative hearing. Chang did not reveal the items involved in the possible deals, but media reports have speculated that they could be the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer and smart mines.
Chang was responding to legislators' questions regarding a speech by American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) Director Brent Christensen on 28 November 2020 at a forum in which he said that the U.S. has verified in Congress US$5.2 billion in arms sales to Taiwan for 2021. In his speech, Christensen also said there were US$11.8 billion in arms sales between the U.S. and Taiwan in 2020, which the MND said should have been only US$5.5 billion.
When pressed by legislators on the seeming anomalies in the deals, Chang reiterated that the discrepancies in the amounts were due to different accounting periods on the two sides. The U.S. federal government runs on an Oct. 1-Sept. 30 fiscal year, while Taiwan's runs from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31.
CM12 / M48A3
The CM12 tank is a model based on the old M48A3 tank has been modified. It is also listed as the army's main tank unit along with the CM11 and M60A3(TTS) tanks. The Armored Vehicle Development Center (AVDC) used the extra 100 fire-control system units from the production of the CM11 Brave Tiger to modify the existing M48A3 tanks of the ROC Army. The CM12 can be distinguished from the CM11 by the rounded glacis plates, and from the M48A3 by the 105mm M68A1 cannon, which is longer than the 90mm T139/M3A1 cannon on the M48A3 and lacks a muzzle brake, and by the different commander's cupola.
The CM12 is the CM11 turret combined with the modified M48A3 chassis, and it is undoubtedly a derivative model of the M48 family. The CM11 is the M60A3 chassis combined with the M48 turret and a new fire control and gun control system. Strictly speaking, it is not a M48 derivative, but has a higher technical relevance to the M60.
Taiwan began to receive M48A1 tanks in 1973, with a total of about 300 vehicles. These tanks were upgraded to the M48A3 specification in 1981, mainly using the more fuel-efficient AVDS-1790-DM diesel engine, which increased the tank's continued mileage. Since 1984, the War Development Center has developed a new tank based on the M48, which is the M48H Brave Tiger, or the current CM11. When the CM11 was developed that year, a total of 550 fire control kits were purchased, but only 450 CM11 were produced, and the remaining 100 fire control kits were used to modify the existing M48A3 to become a CM12 tank. Therefore, some publications classify the CM12 as a derivative of the M48A5, which is actually completely wrong.
Because the CM12 uses the M48A3 chassis, it retains the ship-shaped front of the M48 family, and the engine room structure is different from that of the M60A3 tank. This makes the CM12 engine room top and rear structure different from those of the CM11. These are all distinguished. Important characteristics of both. CM12 is equipped with AVDS-1790-2DM diesel engine and a domestically produced gearbox designed by the Industrial Technology Research Institute. Part of the fuel tank of M48A3 is removed due to the modification of the power package, which greatly reduces the mobility of CM12. There are more than two hundred kilometers left. In addition, the crawler used by CM12 is also changed to T142 crawler with lower ground pressure.
The turret, armament, fire control system, gun control system and sighting system of the CM12 are the same as those of the full CM11, including the M68 type 105mm rifled gun, two-dimensional body stabilizer, digital ballistic computer, and laser ranging Cameras, thermal imaging cameras, etc., are all brand-new American products, and theoretically have the same level of shooting ability and night combat ability as CM11. However, some of the internal design defects of the CM11 turret also occurred on the CM12. This is mainly due to the fact that the M48’s turret capacity is smaller than the M60A3, but it has to accommodate the main gun and fire control system of the same level as the latter, which may easily cause poor heat dissipation and failure of electronic equipment.
Looking at the CM12 tank as a whole, the modification modes and equipment are different from those of the M48A5. It is a special member of the M48 family, and its fire control system is much better than that of the M48A5. The protection design of the CM12 is at the same level as that of the M48A5, without any reinforcement. The protection performance is the weaker part of the CM12, making the CM12 a unique domestic M48 series tank. The CM12 is currently considered older equipment in the army. It is mainly equipped with the 298 infantry brigades in Pingtung Wanjin, and all armored brigades use CM11 and M60A3 combat vehicles.
Taiwan has a large number of tanks of various types, but faced with difficulties such as old tanks and insufficient recruitment of officers and soldiers in the tank unit, the military has decided to expand its storage operations for tanks in poor conditions. Military officials pointed out that the Army originally had about 100 CM12 tanks, a small part of which has been chemically sealed, but it has been reported from within the military that after the Lunar New Year, the number of chemical seals will increase, and only a small part will be retained to serve as a training task.
Officials said that before the 2018 Chinese New Year, relevant units of the Army had initiated an inquiry mechanism for the chemical storage of CM12 tanks, and hoped that they could formally invite bids after the Chinese New Year. It was rumored within the military that these 100 CM12 tanks would be "all sealed up" and the mission would be replaced by other armored vehicles. However, the Army Command stated 21 February 2018 that in order to ensure proper mobilization and equipment, "some" CM12 tanks must be sealed up to save maintenance manpower and maintain proper equipment. The Army Logistics Command will handle related operations in accordance with the government procurement law.
As for the chemical storage of tanks, will it be extended to CM11 and M60A3(TTS) main tanks due to insufficient recruitment? Military sources said that these two main combat vehicles are the main force of the Army’s ground defense, and there was no plan for chemical containment at present. When the military used the production of the CM11 tank, it purchased a hundred additional sets of equipment for the fire control system, and modified the M48A3 tank. The modification was completed before 1993. The number was 100. But because of the proper rate Not good, in addition to gradually withdrawing from the main role of the island’s defense, a small number were placed in storage mode to save maintenance costs.
Officials pointed out that the military will adopt a "flat seal and war start" model for high maintenance costs or important equipment that is not easy to obtain. The army called it "chemical storage." In the past, the Air Force used the "environmental control" mode to seal the main components of the phantom aircraft with a device similar to a space bag to prevent them from contacting the outside air to extend the life of the aircraft components.
Taiwan's Air Force Chief of Staff Huang Chih-wei confirmed 07 December 2020 during a legislative hearing that Taiwan will purchase additional Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) air defense missiles from the US. Huang did not provide further details, saying only that the Air Force will not request extra budget for that purpose. He was responding to legislators' questions regarding media reports that said the Air Force is planning to purchase an additional 300 PAC-3 missiles to raise its stocks to around 650 by 2027. But China already has many more missiles that can strike Taiwan.
The number of Taiwan interceptors does not directly tranlsate into the number of missiles that China might need to attack Taiwan, or the number of targets that Taiwan might defend. Interceptors are not perfect, so more than one interceptors may be required to destroy a single missile. The common SHOOT-LOOK-SHOOT method, in which a second defenders is launched based on the kill assessment of the first defenders, is usually efficient in defending targets against a salvo attack. Or an alternative SHOOT-SHOOT-LOOK algorithm can increase the probability of the defended target surviving the salvo attack, or alternatively, it can reduce the number of defenders needed to reach a given level of protection.
Three types of defenses are possible : random, preferential, and adaptive preferential. Random defenses would act to reduce the total number of objects in the threat. For small attacks, that could be adequate. Defenses can act preferentially by protecting only a fraction of the targets, they could save more missiles than would survive with random defenses.
An “adaptive preferential defense”, if successfully executed, could give an outnumbered defense some leverage against a large attack. “Preferential defense” means defending only a selected set of high-value targets out of a larger number of targets under attack, thus concentrating the defensive forces. In essence, some targets would be sacrificed to increase the chances of survival of others. “Adaptive preferential defense” means deciding during the course of the battle which targets to defend by adapting to the distribution of the attacking RVs (missile warheads) that are presented. Of the high-value targets under attack, those with the fewest RVs coming at them are defended first.
An adaptive preferential defense would be suitable mainly for protecting fractions of redundant, single-aimpoint targets, such as missile silos, command posts, or other isolated military installations against non-nucler attack. Large area, soft targets (such as cities or large military installations), would present so many potential aimpoints that defending, say, a third or a half of the aimpoints in a given area against a nuclear attack would be unlikely to assure survival of that area.
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