UNITED24 - Make a charitable donation in support of Ukraine!


Tien Chien -I / Sky Sword-I

The air-to-air missiles equipped by the Air Force of the Taiwan Region of China include "Sky Sword I" (300 pieces), "Sky Sword II" (400 pieces), "Mica" (1200 pieces), and R550 "Magic II" (480 pieces). ), AIM-9M "Sidewinder" (900 pieces), AIM-120 AMRAAM (800 pieces), and "Sparrow" AIM-7M (600 pieces). Air-to-air missiles of the Air Force in Taiwan are mainly purchased from foreign sources, with a small amount of self-developed.

The "Sky Sword" Type I is a third-generation infrared close-range combat missile developed on the basis of the American AIM-9N missile . Its performance is close to that of the American AIM-9L. Tien-Chien I, an infrared guided short range air-to-air missile, with all-aspect attack, fire &forget, high maneuvering, and precision guidance capabilities, can be carried by various types of fighters including the Ching-Kuo IDF to achieve air superiority.

The PLAAF has in its inventory a number of AAMs which are superior to those in Taiwan's inventory. The Russian-built AA-11/ARCHER infrared (IR) AAM carried on the Su-27 is superior to Taiwan's AIM-9/SIDEWINDER and indigenously-produced Tien Chien-I/ Sky Sword-I IR AAM. China's AA-10a/ALAMO missiles, on the other hand, are roughly comparable to, or slightly less capable than, Taiwan's AIM-7/SPARROWs.

The development of the "Tianjian" Type I missile began in the early 1980s. Its appearance is very similar to that of the AIM-9L. It also uses a duck layout, front wing control, and stabilized tail to control the flight. The bomb is equipped with an improved solid rocket motor . After the missile is ignited off the shelf, the gun smoke dissipates quickly and is not easy to be detected by the target aircraft. "Heaven Sword" type I seeker adopts refrigerated indium antimonide detection components, which has high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability, and can attack in all directions. The warhead is equipped with an active laser proximity fuze, and uses ring fragments to kill the target.

The missile weapon for destroying enemy aircraft, includes seven major groups.

  • Guide and control section includes two parts: infrared seekerr and brake. The Infrared Seeker is an optical network sensor with omnidirectional sensing capability, but it needs high-pressure air cooling to increase zero sensitivity. There are two sets of brakes, the upper and lower fore wings act at the same time, and the left and right fore wings will also move at the same time . The brake accepts the instruction of the target finder and drives the front wings to change the flying direction of the missile to achieve the goal of intercepting the enemy aircraft.
  • Explosive transfer group is located between the warhead and the target detector, the purpose is to detonate the head device, which is composed of electric detonators, three sets of reinforced tubes and boosters. When the target detector sends a detonation signal, it must be detonated layer by layer through the booster to have a detonation effect.
  • Warhead group is a pre-fragmented high-explosive warhead of 10 kilograms of explosives, with 2,300 pieces of high-explosive pre-fragment design, each piece can penetrate 3/8 inch steel plate. For safety reasons, the warhead can only be detonated after detonating step by step.
  • Target detector - the current missile launchers, missiles are fried in a safe standby state, when the projectile body 12G acceleration is greater than the above safety slide was prepared by frying apparatus can begin to slip, and after flying about 250 meters slider When the position is reached, the safety device is turned on and the explosive power supply between the booster group is turned on, and the missile is in the ready state of explosive. After that, the warhead will be detonated when the fuze detects the target or after it collides. It has double fuzes such as bumper type and laser proximity type. The slider of the safety preparation device can only start to slide after the acceleration is greater than 12G. The missile is ready to explode after flying about 250 meters. After the laser proximity fuze detects the target, it will detonate the warhead at the best time. After hitting the target, the fuze will detonate the warhead through the booster group by the collision fuze. The missile is in a state of safe preparation before being launched.
  • Rocket thruster section provides the flying acceleration of the missile, so that the missile can start from a standstill and quickly accelerate the missile to a speed of about Mach 2.
  • Front wing - there are four control front wings in the whole projectile, which are driven by actuators to change the flying direction of the projectile.
  • The whole projectile has four fixed fins, two of which are equipped with rolling ailerons, which are used to reduce the angular velocity of the projectile body after launch and make the projectile fly stably. When the missile is launched, the rolling aileron will automatically enter the active position due to aerodynamic forces.

This missile is the third-generation short-range air-to-air missile developed by the Zhongshan Academy of Sciences in Taiwan. The "Sky Sword I" was developed in the early 1980s and was successfully developed in 1987. It adopts infrared guidance and has an omnidirectional attack capability. Its performance is close to that of the American-made AIM-9L Sidewinder missile. The combat readiness production has now been completed, and a total of about 300 pieces have been produced.

The Tianjian-1 missile is very close to the AIM-9 Sidewinder air -to- air missile in terms of appearance and performance. It is an infrared guided missile with a range of up to 8 kilometers and is a short-range combat missile. Because the current public information is very small and lack of specific parameters; the research team is chaired by Dr. Yang Jingchao. After the Tianma missile was terminated by political pressure, the descendant president Huang Xiaozong reorganized the team that originally developed the Tianma missile to develop an air-to-air missile. The team was called Tianma missile. The Sword Planning Office is responsible for the research and development of airborne weapons for the Jingguo fighter (Tianxiang Project). The actual operation began around 1983.

The development code name of Tianjian I was "Tianxiang B", and the number was changed to Tianjian I in 1985. In April 1986, the test firing of Tianjian I was completed by the F-5E modified test machine; the development of the missile body was ahead of schedule. Ching-kuo fighter is complete, Ching-kuo prototype factory before with new aircraft avionics integration and verification in R & D officially closed in 1993, and with Ching-kuo fighter pilot production made available to the region with China Taiwan Air Force . Jingguo fighters can each carry one Tianjian-1 missile on the wing-end pylons of the wings , and the inner and outer pylons under the wing can each carry one. For most air-to-air missions, only The outer pylon will carry air-to-air missiles and operate in a configuration of 2 medium-range and 2 short-range missiles.

In the introduction of the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology (CSIST), it is claimed that the Tianjian I has "omnidirectional target tracking and attack capabilities", but this performance lacks specific technical descriptions, so outsiders have different judgments; one group of arguments believes that the performance can be close to AIM-9L/M, but Another faction believes that the Tianjian-type target finder "has some omni-directional target tracking and attack capabilities", and the overall performance should be between AIM-9P4 and AIM-9L.

Since the short-range missile pylon of the Guoxian fighter was designed with integrated AIM-9P4 and Tianjian-1 shooting interface support, and in the 1980s when the F-5E/F was mass-produced, the Taiwan Air Force purchased a large number of new AIM-9P4s. Ammunitions and upgrade kits unify the fleet's armament specifications. Therefore, a huge amount of AIM-9 is still kept in the inventory of the Taiwan Air Force in China. Therefore, during the service of the Jingguo, the F-CK-1 is frequently seen in outside photos. Wear AIM-9P4 instead of Sky Sword One. In addition to the reduction in production of Jingguo fighters, the original plan to produce 700 pieces was later reduced to 300 pieces, and the ammunition reserve was also relatively urgent.

Tianjian III

The Zhongshan Institute of Science in Taiwan is implementing a "Red Shadow Project", which aims to develop a new generation of short-range air-to-air missiles to replace the active "Tianjian I" missiles, entered service in 2010.

In order to improve the IDF fighter's air-to-air combat capability, the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology plans to upgrade the existing Tianjian-1 short-range air-to-air missile to the "Tianjian-3" missile, but the air force is currently only listed as an evaluation case. The AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder missile is listed as the main melee force of the fifth-generation fighter short-range air-to-air missile. Has a higher target recognition ability, can clearly distinguish between "artificial heat source (flame bomb)" or "target heat source"; the missile propulsion system adds a vector nozzle, after launching, it makes a large turn for off-axis flight, and can even turn 180 degrees to attack The fighter directly behind is also known as "backward launch"; this type of missile has a data link system that can correct the missile's flight trajectory through the link, and even has the ability to lock after launch. The pilot will be able to use the joint helmet aiming system ( Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System, JHMCS), attack the enemy aircraft that has not entered the view of the missile finder at the time of launch. Once the enemy aircraft is locked by the missile, it will be difficult to escape the missile pursuit.

By 2019 the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology had plans to upgrade the existing Tianjian I flying elasticity to the level of the AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder missile. The AIM-9X Block II missile uses an infrared image finder and guidance system. More powerful target recognition ability can identify the induced heat source (hot flame bomb) and the target heat source. The vector nozzle is added to the missile propulsion system, so that the missile can make a large turn and fly after launching, and even turn 180 degrees to attack the enemy directly behind. machine. In addition, the AIM-9X Block II missile adds a digital link system, which can correct the missile's trajectory through the helmet aiming system, and even has the ability to "target after launch".

In response to the upgrade of the Tianjian-1 missile, the Air Force considered the upgrade of F-16 to F-16V, plus the purchase of AIM-9X missiles, the purchase of 66 new F-16CD fighters, and the air-launched Yuzou planned for IDF fighters. Missile research and development projects and other factors, the Tianjian I missile research and development project has not yet been included in the research and development, only listed as an evaluation case as of 2019.

The Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology is assessing the development of the missile propulsion system with the addition of vector nozzles, and after launching, it makes a large turn to perform off-axis flight "rear shot" attacks. This technology originated from Europe, and the United States also purchased technology sources from Europe. Part of it is not too difficult to obtain technology. However, if the missile has a data link system, it can be connected with the joint helmet sighting system link and can modify the missile's flight trajectory, and even have the ability to lock after launch. This part involves the modification of the fighter's fire control system and the various interfaces of the radar. This system The design is complicated. Therefore, the Air Force will discuss the development of the "Tianjian III" missile only after the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology has put forward a more detailed evaluation.

Sea JianLing missile system

The sea-derived version is the Sea Sword missile system developed on the basis of the Jetlin air defense missile system. It was first exhibited at the 2015 Taipei International Aerospace Technology and Defense Industry Exhibition. Mainly in view of the continuous increase in the purchase price of the phalanx rapid artillery, the navy evaluated the limited budget and the independent national defense policy, and formulated a plan to require the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology in Taiwan to conduct research and development, which is part of the Xunlian plan.

It is estimated that there are 8 to 16 missiles in a launch box. The missile is based on the original Tianjian I, equipped with a data link receiver, and adopts a folding spin-tail group and a folding front wing design, and the launcher has multiple targets. Combat capability. It will replace the original phalanx mortar system and can enhance the near-air defense capabilities of naval ships. Its function is similar to that of the American Ram short-range anti-missile system.

According to the status exhibited at the 2017 Taipei International Aerospace Science and Technology and Defense Industry Exhibition, the Haijianling system will have two configurations. The independently operating configuration launcher is equipped with 12 Haijianling anti-aircraft missiles, and the launcher is integrated on top Fire control radar and photoelectric fire control instrument; the other is a configuration that is combined with the ship combat system, canceling the radar and photoelectric system on the launcher (the target parameters and fire control commands are completely provided by the ship combat system), and the missile The launcher was increased to 24 missiles.

It is still in physical design. On November 29, 2018, the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology and the Navy of Taiwan, China , first revealed in the Legislative Yuan that it is estimated that the operational evaluation (IOT) will be completed in 2020, and mass production is expected to be shipped in 2022.

Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list

Page last modified: 22-02-2022 11:38:48 ZULU