China Academy of Space Technology [CAST]
The previous organization of the Fifth Academy consisted of the 501st Department and the 502nd through 508th Institutes. Currently, organizations under CAST include:
|501st Research Institute||Responsible for satellite systems engineering. Established in 1968.|
|502nd Research Institute||Beijing Institute of Control Engineering (BICE)||Beijing||1400||R&D of attitude control systems. Established 1956 under CAS.|
|503rd Research Institute||Beijing Institute of Satellite Information Engineering (BISIE)||Beijing||300||R&D of satellite applications and communications technology.|
|504th Research Institute||Xian Institute of Space Radio Engineering||Xian||1200||R&D of space communications, remote sensing, and spacecraft TT&C. Produces space electronic systems, including TWTs, CCD camera and microwave data links, and antennas.|
|508th Research Institute||Beijing Institute of Space Machinery and Electronics (BISME)||Nanyuan||R&D of remote sensing and recoverable vehicle technology|
|510th Research Institute||Lanzhou Institute of Physics||Lanzhou||research in optical cryogenics, microgravity, and radiation effects|
|511th Research Institute||Beijing Institute of Environmental Test Engineering||Beijing and Huairou|
|513rd Research Institute||Shandong Institute of Aerospace Electronics||Yantai|
|529 Factory||Beijing Orient Scientific Instrument Factory||Beijing||1200||Final assembly for satellite systems|
|Beijing Satellite Manufacturing Factory|
|Beijing Center of Space Science and Technical Information||Beijing||200|
|Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Systems Engineering|
|Beijing Orient Institute of Measurement||Beijing|
|Beijing Space Technology Development and Application Corporation|
|Shanghai Institute of Spacecraft Engineering||Shanghai|
|Shanghai Scientific Instrument Factory||Shanghai|
|Shantou Institute of Electronic Technology Equipment||Shantou|
|Shanxi Taihua Institute of Electronic Machinery Equipment|
The China Academy of Space Technology develops and manufactures Chinese spacecraft, including scientific research satellites and application satellites.
In 1957, when the first artificial earth satellite was launched, China began work on the development of space technology, and before long both the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building began developing space technology.
The Chinese Academy of Space Technology was set up in February 1968 with responsibility for management of satellite development. CAST has retained its responsibility for the design and manufacture of most Chinese satellites, e.g., recoverable, communications, and scientific spacecraft, and operates a number of institutions and factories to meet satellite development and testing requirements.
Meteorological spacecraft are created by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology's Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering, which until 1993 was also a part of CAST.
The first DFH-1 satellite was launched on 24 April 1970. The staff of over 10,000 also develops and manufactures spaceeraft ground support equipments and satellite application facilities. It has developed technology for the recovery of satellites, multiple satellite launches from a single launch vehicle, and the positioning of geosynchronous communications satellites. Activities of the research institutes and factories under CAST include the development, design and production application satellites, sounding rockets and related technical engineering projects. These units also supply technology and equipment in the fields of vacuum, low temperature, automatic control, remote sensing, radio and precision machinery.
On October 8, 1957, former Soviet Union launched in the successful world the first orbiting vehicle, opened the new domain which the humanity moved, the Chinese scientific and technical circles has highly appraised this great pioneering work, many renowned scientists positively initiated to develop Chinese the spatial technology research work.
On May 17, 1958, Chairman Mao Zedong proposed in party's eight big two conferences "we also must do the orbiting vehicle" the grand tentative plan, reflected the Chinese people were determined the development spatial technology, the earnest desire and the firm faith which marches to the universe. In the same year in August, has established take Qian Xuesen as group leader's leading group, is responsible to organize to implement the orbiting vehicle development plan the functional command; The Chinese Academy of Science had been established the spatial technology development system which by the satellite system design and the launch vehicle development, the control system development and the satellite detection instrument and the spatial physics research three design institutes constitutes. In November, 1958, the Chinese Academy of Science was engaged in the orbiting vehicle, the launch vehicle system design technical personnel moves to Shanghai from Beijing to set up the Shanghai mechanical and electrical design institute to carry on the satellite and the rocket production manufacture.
From the development rocketsonde start development spatial technology in January, 1959, the Chinese Academy of Science puts the satellite and the national strength according to General Secretary Deng Xiaoping about the present is not symmetric, must adjust the spatial technology research duty the instruction, proposed by the rocketsonde training, the upper air physics survey built the foundation, unceasingly explores the satellite development direction the policy.
On February 19, 1960, the Chinese Academy of Science Shanghai mechanical and electrical design institute developed China first kind of practical rocketsonde - meteorological sounding 7 (T - 7) the atmosphere rocket model rocket (T-7M) flew for the first time the blue sky.
- 1963 the Chinese Academy of Science started from 1961 to hold the interplanetary navigation symposium, discussed the China spatial technology the development way and the exchange academic achievement. In 1963 the Chinese Academy of Science had been established the interplanetary navigation committee, is responsible to formulate the interplanetary navigation development plan, to arrange each spatial technology in advance topic, has done the massive developments work for the Chinese space enterprise early development.
At the beginning of the 60's, the intermediate stage, China has obtained the first raid of valuable upper air physics environment parameter survey material and the upper air biologic test data in the rocketsonde domain, in the aerodynamics, the orbital motion theory, the heat control technology, the rocket engine and the propellant, the attitude control technology, the rocket recycling technology, radio and the space electronics, space aspect in the and so on environment simulation equipment, space physics as well as spatial medicine project, bioenvironmental engineering research and the development work has also yielded one batch of results, afterwards developed the orbiting vehicle for China the development to build the essential foundation.
The satellite project development start in 1964 China developed successfully the ballistic missile and the atomic bomb one after another, and has basically completed adjusts the national economy the duty. Scientist Zhao Jiu Zhang, Lu Qiang and Qian Xuesen separately to central proposes the report that, suggested makes the overall planning to China's orbiting vehicle enterprise, soon will include the national plan, will press its development.
At the beginning of 1965 national defense science committee obeyed Vice-Premier Nie Rongzhen about the orbiting vehicle "so long as the strength had the possibility, wanted positive did" the instruction, to central has delivered to "about Development Orbiting vehicle Plan Report", this report proposed drew up - 1,971 launches Chinese to 1970 the first orbiting vehicle. Afterwards, Premier Zhou Enlai managed Central Committee of the CCP special board approval this report. In the same year in August, the Central Committee of the CCP special committee authorized "about To develop Chinese Orbiting vehicle Work Plan Plan To suggest" (this suggestion revised in 1966 forms "Has developed Chinese Orbiting vehicle Enterprise Ten Years Plan", it outlined blueprint which Chinese space enterprise developed, has been clear about development direction and goal, had important instruction function to China spatial technology development).
1965 was in the China spatial technology history has significant transition significance a year. In this year, the Chinese orbiting vehicle enterprise from many years academic preparation, changes over to has the plan, has the step to carry out the project development the time.
In September, 1965 the Chinese Academy of Science started to set up the satellite design institute, in technical person in charge Qian under Ji management, carried on the first orbiting vehicle overall plan proof. At the same time, the Chinese Academy of Science has also carried out the surface observation system plan proof, the station plan, the point sort, arranges the above-ground equipment development work; The Shanghai mechanical and electrical design institute in under Chief Engineer Wang Xiji management, carries on the first orbiting vehicle the launch vehicle plan overall to prove and to return to the type remote sensing satellite plan discussion. In at the end of November, 1965, the Chinese first orbiting vehicle overall plan preliminary determination, various subsystems started the technical design, the trial manufacturing and the test work.
1966 year's end drew up return to the type remote sensing satellite (FSW - 0) the plan tentative plan, in, 1967 has September completed the plan proof.
Time the spatial technology research institute's foundation while the Chinese space enterprise prompts forward according to the plan, "the Great Cultural Revolution" started. For does not affect the realization which our country space enterprise plans, at the beginning of 1967 Vice-Premier Nie Rongzhen in to central delivered to the report, proposed set up the spatial technology research institute the suggestion, and established the spatial technology research institute preparatory office in August. Under November, the national defense science committee authorized by Qian Xuesen, Chang Yong to lead the research institute which the spatial technology research institute preparatory office proposed to establish the plan, had determined research institute's duty as well as respectively formed the unit the direction, the duty, the division of labor and so on. On February 20, 1968, by the Chinese Academy of Science satellite design institute, Institute of Automation, the research institute of dynamics branch, the applied geophysics research institute, the institute of electrical engineering, southwest the electronic research institute, the biophysics research institute, the Lanzhou institute of physics, the Beijing scientific instrument factory, the Shanghai scientific instrument factory, the Shanxi Taigu scientific instrument factory, the seventh ministry of mechanized industry eighth design institute (the original Shanghai mechanical and electrical research institute), unit and so on military medical science academy third research institute was engaged in the strength which the spatial flight vehicle studied for the foundation to carry on sets up, officially had been established the China spatial technology research institute. The China spatial technology research institute is the party and the country for founds and develops the China spatial technology a series of significant decisions-making result, is the China spatial technology develops the certain stage product. The spatial technology research institute's establishment has laid the important foundation for the Chinese space enterprise development.
Research institute's establishment, enable China to have has specially been engaged in the unit which the spatial flight vehicle developed. After the research institute had been established, the implementation "constructs, develops" the policy, gradually has formed the quite necessary spatial flight vehicle development system, and realized the Chinese orbiting vehicle enterprise in 1976 to develop in ten years plan essential target.
Research institute's direction: Gradually completes the China spatial technology research institute the nation spatial technology the development center. Research institute's primary mission: Is responsible for the country spatial technology research the work, drafts the country spatial technology research plan, is responsible to organize, the implementation and the coordination spatial technology research work; Is responsible for the spatial flight vehicle the research, the design, the trial manufacturing, the experiment and the production and so on.
The research institute organization main establishment research institute had been established when draws up the organization establishment is: The courtyard straight institution, the system design department, 10 specialized research institutes, the computation stand with 5 factories. Up to 1968 year's end, research institute subordinate system design department, space control technical research institute, space charge technical research institute, spatial physics and survey technical research institute, electrically-powered rocket research institute, space medicine and project research institute, vacuum technique research institute, Beijing scientific instrument factory, Shanghai scientific instrument factory and so on 12 units, total staff 8,570 people. Along with the work progress, development wanting, the organization organic unceasingly has the adjustment. On July 24, 1973, the research institute officially incorporated into the seventh ministry of mechanized industry.
The technology base condition construction research institute constructs at the beginning of the courtyard, science and technology foundation weak, the development condition is extremely crude, but the research institute difficultly starts an undertaking, tenaciously strives for success, carries forward the spirit which relies on one's own effort to revive, to work hard for the prosperity of the country, to dare to climb, a step of stair, a step of footprint, founded to have the Chinese characteristic the development spatial technology path. The scientific researcher deficient does not have the experience in the material in the situation, attacks and captures a difficulty, obtains time and time again wins, specially in the overall, technology aspect and so on controls and returns to makes the distinct progress, thus accomplished and raises a thought attitude to stand up to the most rigorous test, the technical level higher space flight vehicle development troop. The management system management system goes forward in the exploration, correspondingly has established the effective rules and regulations, and has formed set of scientific managements.
The research institute subordinate unit majority of comes from the Chinese Academy of Science, is basic does not have the project development method, unsuitable spatial flight vehicle design, production and experiment. In could not introduce and purchase the overseas technology and the equipment at that time, depended entirely on oneself begins and in under the domestic unit concerned's vigorously cooperation, attacked and captured the technical difficulty, has developed each kind of technical supplementary equipment, has built one batch of special-purpose laboratories and the special-purpose workshop, has made in the dynamic balancing machine, the precision turnplate, KM3 and KM4 the large-scale hot vacuum environment simulation test equipment, many projects and the equipment facility achieved the national advanced level, some fill country blanks, the minority project had achieved the international advanced level, for developed each kind of spatial flight vehicle and the research, the development spatial technology has created the essential condition.
After the spatial technology experimental stage acted according to in 1965 the central authorization to launch the Chinese first people in 1970-1971 to make the satellite the plan arrangement as well as in the Chinese orbiting vehicle enterprise ten years plan proposes first the development science and technology experiment satellite, then the development take returns to the type satellite as the key application satellite series development step, the research institute had been established, determined prominent key, first guaranteed Chinese a first orbiting vehicle - East Is Red development duty on time to complete, and further found out the satellite project through this satellite development practice the development rule, founds the essential development condition, has constructed the urgently needed special production line and the test equipment, Builds a more solid foundation for the successor satellite development.
Under an East Is Red satellite development work, started from 1965 to formulate the plan to be established to the research institute has been responsible in the Chinese Academy of Science to make a bigger progress, has completed at the beginning of the type stage work. After the research institute had been established changes over to the test specimen and the type development stage.
Develops the personnel through the tenacious struggle, successively attacked and captured "East Is Red" the musical note installment, the short-wave antenna release has launched, equipment capsule covers the big area gold-plating craft, the satellite hot vacuum simulation test method and so on the essential technology, completed entire static testing work and so on star structural strength experiment, hot vacuum experiment, electricity performance match experimented and synthesizes experiment. An East Is Red satellite development and the launch receives the party and the country highly takes, to obtain national each department concerned, the unit and whole nation's vigorously support. Premier Zhou Enlai listens to an East Is Red satellite development situation many times the report, powerfully impelled the satellite development advancement. In March, 1970, the research institute has smoothly completed 2 emission stars (1 for backup star) the general equipment department and leaves the plant the work.
Authorizes by Chairman Mao Zedong, an East Is Red satellite implemented the launch to April 24, 1970. Same day 21 o'clock 48 minute, the satellite in the Jiuquan satellite launch center while a Long March launch vehicle direct impact Yunsiao, started to rush to the space Long March. 21 o'clock 48 minute, the satellite ascent guidance, the boundless outer space raised the Chinese first star! "East Is Red" the music resounds through the universe, spreads over the world!
An East Is Red satellite launches successfully, causes China has realized the orbiting vehicle at one fell swoop "zero" breakthrough, causes China to become in the world fifth to be able independently to develop, the launch orbiting vehicle country, has the epoch-making significance in the Chinese space enterprise history.
The research institute wins the first battle causes the entire courtyard staff to see own strength, have increased has striven for the victory the confidence. On March 3, 1971 the research institute successfully developed and launches has practiced a scientific experiment satellite, the satellite and has worked for 8 years long time in the outer space normal operation, has obtained the massive spatial environment parameter and the project telemetry parameter. Developed for China's spatial enterprise has laid the important foundation, realized our country orbiting vehicle enterprise to develop in ten years plan first step of goal. While develops East Is Red with to practice, the research institute is responsible for the FSW-0 experiment which develops to return to the type remote sensing satellite also to make the certain progress. In March, 1970, FSW-0 is listed as the country key project. In 1973 entered the type development stage.
On November 26, 1975, returned to the type remote sensing satellite success launch, the satellite accurately enters prearranges the track. The satellite along the orbital motion, carries on to the place observes, the work is normal, after 3 days, the satellite according to prearranges the plan to return to the ground, has obtained the basic success which the satellite returns and has bring back to from the outer space to the surface observation remote sensing material. Chairman Mao Zedong once joyfully and carefully has scrutinized this satellite photography picture. In December, 1976, also launches successful to return to the type satellite, its experiment and the recycling obtains successfully. This indicated China in climbed astronautics photography and the satellite returns to the technical aspect to make the unprecedented progress, caused China to become in the world third to grasp these two high difficulty technology the country, won to this China realizes the orbiting vehicle enterprise to develop in ten years plan the second step of essential target. In 1975 the research institute started to begin the first Earth stationary orbit experiment communication satellite development and practices two scientific experiments satellite the development.
Reform and open policy, promotion spatial technology development "Great Cultural Revolution" after conclusion, the specially reform and open policy has provided the good environment and the advantage for the China spatial technology research institute's construction and the development.
1977 year's end, the research institute implemented the development plan which the national defense science committee formulated, vigorously organized the East Is Red two experiments communication satellite essential technology attack, sped up the East Is Red two experiments at the beginning of communication satellite the type development step. At the same time, the FSW-0 experiment satellite an performance flight which 26 - 29th carried on in January, 1978 has obtained the complete success which the launch, moved and returns. Successfully completes to this FSW-0 experiment satellite development duty, it for developed the FSW -0 practical satellite to build the good foundation.
In March, 1978, the national scientific congress convened, Comrade Deng Xiaoping proposed for the first time: "The science and technology is the first productive forces", fully has affirmed the science and technology and intellectual's in socialist construction status and the function. At this congress, the research institute is awarded the national advanced group title, some 80 significant scientific research item is commended.
After party's 11 sessions of three CCP plenary conferences, the research institute has carried on earnest bringing order out of chaos with the recoverable reorganization work, caused the satellite development and each work has stepped onto the health development track, and positively implemented the central instruction promptly with emphasis to shift the work to each kind urgently needs, the practical application satellite development duty primarily scientific research produces; Proposed and has realized from the topic research to the project development management transformation, has established take the designer system as the core technology and take the administrative dispatch as the central administration; Has implemented the Total Quality Management, established and improves aspect the and so on quality, craft, measurement, standardization control system, research institute's technical management went forward a stride on the scientific path; The research institute devotes to the development condition improvement, successively developed has successfully carried on the satellite hot vacuum experiment the KM4 large-scale space-environment facility, uses in the long life space flight vehicle leak detection experiment entire star leak detection equipment and uses in to carry on the satellite dynamic balance test the vertical dynamic balancing machine.
Along with the duty adjustment, research institute's system also had the partial change, the electrically-powered rocket research institute incorporates into the Chinese Academy of Science in 1980, the Shanghai satellite project research institute enrolls the research institute in 1982.
The research institute implements central proposes "stimulates the economy to in, the foreign implementation opens" as well as "the soldiers and civilians unifies" the policy, while accelerates the China spatial technology by the experimental stage which transforms to the practical stage, starts to transplant the spatial technology achievement and to promote the various branches and sectors of a national economy, has carried out the spatial technology two developments, one batch has the characteristic the development new product initially to form the scale; The research institute is authorized in 1978 the to foreign countries opening up the same year August to receive the first visit American science and technology delegation, and starts unceasingly to expand the foreign technological exchange and the cooperation, the technical achievement which the research institute publishes receives the international colleague's attention and the high praise. The research institute changed from the past seal condition and the pure satellite product structure face the market scientific research management management, the spatial technology obtains has further developed.
The spatial technology changed over to the application stage by the experimentin, 1981 in February, 1986, the research institute has September made the new remarkable progress in the spatial technology.
Practiced two and so on 3 spatial physics survey satellite to launch successfully in September 20, 1981 by a 1 storm launch vehicle, entered respective movement road for grain shipment. These 3 satellite detection massive spaces environment data, has carried on the solar cell windsurfboard and the entire star to the date (the sun) satellite new engineering research and so on direction detection, driving-type heat control, for enhanced the Chinese orbiting vehicle the technical level to make the contribution.
Returned to the type remote sensing satellite to take the lead to realize from the experimental stage to the application stage transformation. The FSW - 0 practical satellites mainly use in to carry on the national territory general survey, has determined the overall plan in 1980. On September 9, 1982, in the Jiuquan satellite launch center with the Long March two third launch vehicles initial firing, successfully the ascent guidance, after 5 days, the satellite according to prearranged the plan to return to the ground. To October, 1985, the FSW - 0 practical satellites have continuously obtained 4 secondary emissions and the recycling successes, had opened the satellite directly the prologue which serves for the national economy construction, carried on the national territory plan and the macroscopic economical decision-making for the country has provided the scientific basis. The East Is Red two experiments communication satellite has successively attacked and captured the correspondence transponder and the correspondence antenna, the attitude control and the survey, aspect the and so on unification carrier observation and control system essential technical question, in November, 1979, entered the type development stage. In January, 1984 carried on the initial firing, because the launch vehicle third stage motor two ignition was not normal, the satellite has not been able to enter the Earth stationary orbit the transfer orbit. In the same year in April carried on the second secondary emission to obtain successfully, fixed point to east longitude 125° equator sky, in May satellite payment use.
The East Is Red two experiments communication satellite investment use, is a China socialism modernization great achievements, is the research institute for develops an great victory which the China spatial technology obtains, symbolized the China spatial technology had the new leap and the satellite engineering research stage conclusion.
Launches successfully after the East Is Red two experiments communication satellite, in order to satisfy the domestic correspondence the urgent need, the research institute grasps to develop the East Is Red two practical communication satellites and the East Is Red second armor communication satellite.
The East Is Red two practical communication satellites launched to February 1, 1986, on February 20 fixed point to east longitude 103° equator sky. Compares with the East Is Red two experiments communication satellite, the East Is Red two practical communication satellites message capacity big, to the domestic terrestrial surface radiation power strong, the transmission quality is good, this satellite investment use, causes the China satellite communication to enter the practical stage. In addition, the research institute also vigorously is advancing a wind and cloud meteorological satellite the development work, and for developed the Chinese second-generation satellite, captures the China spatial technology the new achievement to do the massive preparatory work.
The proper time arrival in 1986, the China economic development entered the seventh five-year plan, was unceasingly thorough along with the reform and open policy; Specially because the party and the country takes the high-tech development, to applied the satellite to use the moderate favorable policy, the China spatial technology research institute entered a fast development time.
Enters for the 80's, the Chinese orbiting vehicle technology enters the application stage by the experimental stage, the domestic various departments to apply the satellite the demand to be day by day urgent, the research institute while steps up to complete the first generation of satellite successor task, positively impels the second-generation new satellite and so on the new generation of spacecraft the development.
In March, 1986, the State Council authorized astronautics ministry of industry "about To accelerate To develop Astronautics Fitness report", has determined East Is Red three, the wind and cloud two, resources with the FSW-2 satellite for the Chinese application satellite on the horizontal new generation of satellite.
At the same time, the Central Party Committee and the country gives the enormous attention to the China spatial technology development. In July, 1987, Chair Min Guirong the scientific and technical worker which had the prominent contribution as the country, received party and the national leader's and so on Deng Xiaoping interview in Beidaihe. Around this, party and the national leader several kind meeting astronautics front representative and so on Jiang Zemin, Li Peng, arrives personally the satellite to launch the scene, the inspection satellite launch situation, the interview senate tries the personnel. In August, 1989, Premier Li Peng has received the application satellite and the satellite application seminar representative, to developed has made the important statement using the satellite and the satellite application technology. In 1988 constructed the courtyard 20th anniversary in the research institute and in 1993 constructs when the courtyard 25th anniversary celebration, Jiang Zemin, Yang Shangkun, Li Peng, Nie Rongzhen, Zhang Aiping, party and the national leader and so on Song Jian wrote a few words of appreciation the congratulation.
The party and the national leader as well as the higher organ specially was enormously inspires the research institute to the spatial technology using the satellite enterprise value for to complete the cadre and the staff which the new generation of astronautics model duty but diligently strove for success, has accelerated research institute's development.
The satellite application composed the new chapter 1987 in 1988, the research institute develops one after another successfully returned to the type remote sensing satellite (FSW 11), the East Is Red second armor practical communication satellite and a wind and cloud sun synchronous orbit meteorological satellite, composed the satellite the new chapter which served for the national economy construction. The FSW-1 satellite uses in the map mapping, its camera focal distance and the picture width criterion may compare favorably with with the overseas astronautics survey camera. The FSW-1 satellite in the axle operating time 8 days, approximately is the FSW-0 satellite in the axle operating time (3 ~ 5 days) mean value 2 times. In January, 1986 entered the type development stage, in, 1987 has September completed the initial flight experiment task. The FSW - 1 satellite altogether carries on 5 secondary emissions, last time in October, 1993. The satellite not only provided have been massive valuably to the place remote sensing material, for national economy various domains and so on national territory general survey, resources survey, railroad route selection has provided the massive pictures and the data, moreover also obtained many micro gravity test the research results.
The East Is Red second practical communication satellite is the East Is Red two practical correspondences broadcasts WeiXing the advanced version. Compares with the East Is Red two practical correspondences broadcast satellite, the East Is Red second armor practical communication satellite performance had a larger scale enhancement, displays corresponds the transponder on the star to increase from 2 to 4, the telephone transmission ability increases from 1,000 to 3,000, the design life increases from 3 years to 4.5 years, the television relay ability increases from 2 frequency channels to 4 frequency channels. In March, 1988 first round star accurate fixed point to east longitude 87.5° equator sky. The East Is Red second armor practical communication satellite altogether carries on 4 secondary emissions, the distinction fixed point in the east longitude 103°, 87.5°, 110.5° and 98° the equator sky, provides service and so on correspondence, broadcast and data transmission for the domestic various users. Last time in December, 1991.
The meteorological satellite development has also obtained the encouraging breakthrough. A wind and cloud sun synchronous orbit meteorological satellite, through developed personnel many years tenaciously to fight bravely, to break through the visible light - infrared radiation scanning to count, the long life three axle is stable and to the place direction detection attitude control system, the solar cell windsurfboard and so on the essential technical project, and for the first time sent in September, 1988 in the Taiyuan satellite launch center by the Long March four launch vehicles prearranges the track. This satellite obtains the basic success.
A wind and cloud sun synchronous orbit meteorological satellite altogether carries on 2 secondary emissions, second time in September, 1990. Along with these satellites launches, symbolized the research institute is responsible for the Chinese first generation of application satellite duty end which develops.
Enters for the 90's, accelerates the new generation of application satellite development, guarantees the satellite to sail upstream gentle satisfies the domestic user the demand, becomes the decision research institute survival and the development key. The research institute in national and under parties concerned's support, the external environment has the improvement. Simultaneously the FSW - 2 satellites, East Is Red three, the resources, wind and cloud two and so on the new generation of application satellite development duty is more and more pressing. In order to guarantee take East Is Red three as the key new generation using satellite development end of mission, the research institute from 1989, from stressed the reform and so on the various manpower, formulated and has carried out a series of measures, and completed the important promoter action for the duty progress.
The second-generation obtains the practical effect FSW -2 satellites using the satellite is by the FSW - 0 satellites the Chinese second-generation general survey satellite which becomes for the foundation development, compares with the FSW - 0 satellites, it obtains the ground picture resolution is much higher, the information is bigger much, has achieved the international general survey satellite advanced level. Has adopted at the beginning of the type and the type in the satellite triturating overlapping and so on the development way, reduced the development cycle, has saved the development expense, obtains the satellite development "quick, is good, the province" success experience. On August 9, 1992, the FSW - 2 satellites initial firings, passed through 16 day in the axle flight, returned to the ground on August 25, the duty namely obtained for the first time successfully. On July 3, 1994 launched once more, flew 15 day in the axle, and recycled successfully; In performance flight, but also successfully used for the first time keeps axle equipment capsule to carry on the entire posture capture and so on 4 items related to enhance the satellite transit reliable experiment, the experiment obtains the complete success. On October 20, 1996 carried on the third secondary emission, after 15 days, the success recycled, has obtained "the three time champion" the good result. The FSW-2 satellite while completes the host task, also provides many active embarkations for other users and passive embarks the micro gravity test duty, had achieved the anticipated experimental goal, has achieved a star multipurpose, has developed the significant economy, the social efficiency. Specially for celebrates Hong Kong's return, on the third star embarked the Five-Starred Red Flag and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region area flag, the Five-Starred Red Flag New Year's Day raised in 1997 in the Tiananmen Square, on May 23 has bestowed the embarkation national flag and the area flag to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region government, has had the important influence.
The East Is Red three satellites for the center capacity correspondence broadcast satellite, on the star are loaded with 24 C frequency band transponder, uses in the domestic correspondence and the broadcast television program, was the Chinese first kind face the entire social, the implementation management communication satellite, on the star uses many new technologies, the working life 8 years, the satellite technology has achieved the 80's international advanced levels. Developed the personnel to attack and capture many technical difficulties, left the plant in March, 1994 the first satellite, latter because of the propulsion system breakdown satellite has not been able the fixed point. Under the East Is Red three second satellite on May 12, 1997, escorted in the Long March third armor launch vehicle, lifted off at one fell swoop, three time changed the axle after 9 days, on 21st fixed point in 35,786 kilometer, east longitude 125° equator sky. In August, each on-course testing completes. The State Council, the Central Military Committee on May 20, 1997 sent a telegram warmly congratulates the East Is Red three communication satellites launch to obtain the complete success, pointed out, this was "the earnest birthplace Central Party Committee, the State Council and Central Military Committee's each instruction, relied on one's own effort to revive, arduous struggle, unity wholeheartedly, assiduous attack, guarantee quality result". "The development, launches the East Is Red three communication satellites to indicate our country communication satellite technology has gotten up a new stair, regarding further rouses whole nation's spirit, promotes the China satellite communication enterprise development, impels the China reform and open policy and the economic development, enhances China in the international astronautics domain prestige, consolidates China to launch the market in the international astronautics the status, all has the vital significance". At present, the East Is Red three satellites put into the use, the satellite work are normal.
A resources satellite is cooperates the development new earth resource satellite by the national authorization and Brazil, in, 1987 had July determined a resources satellite tentative plan, on the star is loaded with 1 CCD camera, 2 infrared multi- spectra scanners and 1 data acquisition system, working life 2 years. This satellite development has created the south-south cooperation model. The wind and cloud two satellites are the experiment Earth stationary orbit meteorological satellite, on the star are loaded with the multichannel scanning radiac set, the S frequency band number pass on with the cloud chart broadcast transponder, UEIF/the S frequency band data collection transponder and the spatial environment monitor and so on the payload. The research institute was undertaking on the star the transponder, the control, the advancement, the observation and control, the antenna and so on the important subsystem and on the partial structural elements majority of stars the equipment development, in the satellite triturating has carried on a series of technical attack, installed the home biggest optics caliber multichannel scanning radiac set, the initiative nutation control technology, the star including the star on carries the transient equilibrium adjustment technology, two separations technologies, the S frequency band multi-purpose transponder and the high efficiency solid gathers successfully putting and so on.
The wind and cloud two instructions and the data receiving station (were called CDAS) in 1993 to carry on the entire systematicassociation to try with the star docking experiment, obtained the success. The satellite to June 10, 1997, lifted off by the Long March three launch vehicles launch, on June 17 fixed point to east longitude 105° equator sky. After the fixed point CDAS which develops by the research institute (wind and cloud two meteorological satellites instruction and data receiving station) smoothly catches the satellite telesignalization and locks the signal, also successfully gained the visible light cloud chart which the satellite sends back, as well as infrared, water vapor cloud chart. In August, the satellite has completed each on-course testing. On December 1 official payment use.
Practices four satellites spaces environment survey to obtain the good result. Practices four is a spatial environment survey satellite, on December 18, 1991 embarked in the Long March third armor launch vehicle initial flight experiment, design working life 3 ~ 6 months. In 1992 designed, the production, in 1993 the general equipment department, on 1993 December 15 transported to the Xichang satellite launch center, on 1994 February 8, the satellite by the orbital injection, it was our country first obtains the massive scientific data the science survey satellite, after caused our country to become in the world continued US completely gains the Earth radiation zone section plane survey data the country. The second-generation obtained the practical effect using the satellite, in the technology a new stair, was the research institute creates the magnificent important symbol again, has built the important foundation for next spatial technology adaption socialist market economy.
Has launched successful first orbiting vehicle East Is Red since April 24, 1970, the China spatial technology research institute already develops and launches the successful 36 artificial earth satellite, has formed four satellites series:
1. Nearly the track returns to the type remote sensing satellite series
2. Earth stationary orbit correspondence broadcast satellite series
3. Sun synchronous orbit meteorological satellite series
4. Science survey, engineering research satellite series
Research institute's comprehensive strength is growing day by day, the accumulation obtains above a level the technical achievement 1,500 items; Entire courtyard specialized technical cadre 6,000, high-level technical duty personnel nearly 2,000 people; The main satellite model technical level approached the international similar satellite 80, the 90's levels, has gradually formed quite complete, the necessary spatial flight vehicle system and various subsystems development, the design, the production, the experimental system, becomes the China spatial technology the main development center and the development base; The spatial technology two developments products period of the eighth five-year plan output value 26% high speed increased progressively by the yearly average, has formed one batch of unmatchable products;
In late 2002 Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) held an inaugural meeting for the establishment of its spacecraft assembly department. Mr. Zhang Qingwei, president of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation attended the meeting and expressed his warm congratulation on the entitative reform work in Chinese Academy of Space Technology. The Spacecraft Assembly Department of Chinese Academy of Space Technology is responsible for spacecraft assembly design, spacecraft assembly, comprehensive spacecraft test, large environment test and launch work together with the related departments. It is said that the entitative reform idea was put forward in 1996. It had been discussed several times and prepared for a long time. Chinese Academy of Space Technology had done much preparing work. The establishment of Spacecraft Assembly Department is the essential measures of the entitative reform, which greatly promotes the entitative reform and accumulates valuable experiences for the system reorganization in the future. Mr. Zhang Qingwei said that space technology is an important mainstay of aerospace science and technology industry. It is the requirement of our country to realize the leaping over development and industrialization of space technology. It is told that Chinese Academy of Space Technology has already completed the important measures to carry out the entitative reform. The Academy now has established the System Engineering Department, System Special Technology Department, Environment Test Department and Spacecraft Assembly Department, having a good try in system reform for space enterprises.
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