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Military




European Missiles

Surface-to-Air Air-to-Air
Aster 15
Aster 30
Bloodhound
Blowpipe
CAMM (FLAADS)
Crotale / Shahine
Gepard
Hirondelle
HISAR
IDAS
Indigo
Javelin
MARUCA
MASURCA
Mistral
NASAMS
PAAMS
R422
Rapier
RBS 23 BAMSE
RBS 70
Red Duster
Roland
Sea Cat
Sea Ceptor
Sea Dart
Sea Slug
Sea Viper
Sea Wolf
Starstreak HVM
Skyguard
Spada
Thunderbird
Tigercat

Aspide
ASRAAM
Bozdogan
BVRAAM
Fireflash
Firestreak
Gokdogan
Magic 2
Meteor
Mica
Red Top
R550
Skyflash
SRAAM
Super 530D
Air-to-Surface Surface-to-Surface
[tactical]
ALARM
AM.39 Exocet
Apache
Armat
AS 11
AS 12
AS.15
AS.30
AS.34 Kormoran
AS.37 Martel
Brimstone
CASOM
JSM
KEPD 150
KEPD 350
Kormoran
Martel
RBS 15
Sea Skua
Storm Shadow
SCALP EG
Taurus
UMTAS


Atmaca
ENTAC
Eryx
Exocet
HOT
MALAFACE
Mamba
MdCN
Milan
Milas
Mosquito
Naval SCALP
NLAW
NSM
OMTAS
Otomat
Polyphem
RBS 15
RBS 56 BILL
S.S. 10
S.S. 11
Sparviero
Swingfire
Vigilant
Trigat
European tactical missiles can be divided into three basic categories ship-borne, land based and airborne, each category having a number of subdivisions. Taking first ship-borne missiles, by 1975 there was the shorter range Penguin from Norway and Sea Killer II and III from Italy, which had a range of some 20 kilometers and a relatively small warhead, suitable for fast patrol boats. In the longer range, there are the French Exocet, to be followed by the MM40, the Otomat produced by Italy and the Harpoon by the USA. Exocet has been purchased by the Royal Navy but has to be fired within plus or minus 30 degrees of the direction of the target, whereas Otomat can be fired within plus or minus 300 degrees, giving much greater flexibility. Harpoon has the great advantage in that it is designed to be fired from ships, submarines or aircraft.

In the surface-to-air category there was greater duplication in the medium range the French Marine Roland II and the Naval Crotale and Italy's Albatross using the Sea Sparrow III or Aspide missile, together with the very successful, but shorter range, British Sea Cat and the rather specialised SLAM. In the longer range, there are the British Sea Dartwhich is replacing Sea Slugthe French Masurca and the United States Standard II. Mention must also be made of the unique British Sea Wolf, which was then the only anti-missile missile in existence and is said to be able to hit an object the size of a cricket ball travelling at Mach 2.

Helicopter-borne anti-ship missiles included the Italian Marte, the French AM39 and the British Sea Skua, Hellcat and Hawkswing, with the Franco-German HOT and the American TOW for use against armor. The UK Government cancelled Hawkswing, which left British helicopters armed with a near-obsolete weapon AS 11 or 12.

As far as land-based missiles were concerned, as of 1975 duplication in certain categories was even greater. Tactical surface-to-surface missiles with nuclear capacity include the American Lance, adopted for many NATO armies, and the French Pluton. In the field of surface-to-air missiles the long-range category, now that Bloodhound and Thunderbird were obsolete, was dominated by the American Improved Hawk, with a range of some 40 kms. In the medium range, there werethe French Roland and Crotale, the British Rapier and the Italian Indigo and Spada, and in the short-range infantry missiles the British Blowpipe and the American Red Eye, to be replaced by the Stinger.

In the anti-tank weapons were the British Swingfire, which was the only one to be capable of being fired from behind cover, the Franco-German HOT and the American TOW. In the lightweight range, the Franco-German Milan, the now obsolete British Vigilant, the Italian Sparviero and Mosquito and the German Mamba.

Airborne missiles provide an even greater variety. These include the long-range air-to-surface Anglo-French Martel and the Italian Otomat. In the medium range there are the French AS30, the United States Bullpup, the British Sea Skua and the German Kormoran. In the air-to-air category, medium range, there is the very advanced French Super 530, the American-United Kingdom XJ 521, the Italian Aspide, the British Red Top and the American Sparrow. For close combat there were the French R550, the British SRAAM and the American Sidewinder.

By the mid-1970s five companies dominated the European marketAerospatiale and Matra from France, MBB from Germany and BAC and Hawker Siddeley Dynamics from Great Britain. There is already considerable co-operation between these firmssome are producing joint weapons and there was a general feeling that this co-operation could be greatly increased, given the right circumstances.

The problem was how to standardise the existing 79 European-built tactical missiles together with the 13 types purchased from the United States. In the naval sea-skimming category, would come the MM40 that is, the improved Exocet and the Otomat. In naval underwater-to-surface operations, now that the British Government had abandoned the Sub-Martel, the United States Harpoon was the obvious choice. With naval area self-defence there is a considerable query because there was no ideal weapon in this category yet. Possibly the Sea Dart could be used, or the Maritime Roland or the American Aegis system then under development. For naval point defence there is no query the Sea Wolf is a world beater.

The American Lance is the main weapon system for army ground-to-ground, while for army ground-to-air there are Roland, which has been chosen by America for protection of armoured forces, and Rapier which is best for airfield defence. For air-to-ground, long range, the Martel is supreme, while for air-to-ground, short range, there is HOT or TOW. Martel or Harpoon come into the air-to-ship, long range stand-off category, and the Sea Skua is my choice for the air-to-ship, short range. In the air-to-air medium to long range category there is the Super 530, and the 550 for the air-to-air, short range, dog-fight rle.



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