National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS)
The National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS) has its roots in the 1990s, when the U.S. military issued a tender for a new air defense weapon. A missing category had to be created because there was no other category between the Patriot capable of destroying long-range targets after the withdrawal of the old Hawk and the Avenger (a version of the Stinger vehicle mounted on a soldier that was carried by a soldier).
Every new development is expected to be carried out within the budget provided for, and as we know, this is one of the most difficult tasks. They are trying to take over the components from existing models, so on behalf of the original SLAMRAAM, it also carried out that the rocket to be used would be the onboard AIM-120 AMRAAM Surface Launched version of the aircraft. Because this weapon has active locator self-control, it has also greatly simplified the fire control system. As a carrier platform, the HMMWV (more popularly known as Hummer) was used as a multi-purpose SUV with a load capacity suitable for the task.
The program was given a boost by the fact that, in parallel, the US Marine Corps wanted a similar weapon, which they had called CLAWS (Complementary Low Altitude Weapon System). There was a great deal of identity between the two, and in the end neither was put into service, partly for budgetary reasons. The failure was not because of the weapon's capabilities - it was, on the contrary, working properly.
The AMRAAM missiles used within NASAMS are identical to those used on fighter aircraft, yielding considerable rationalization returns for the user. Raytheon's NASAMS, in partnership with KONGSBERG, is a medium-range surface-to-air missile system. This operationally proven system provides the air defender with a tailorable, state-of-the-art system that can defeat current and evolving cruise missile threats and a wide range of air breathing threats.
NASAMS is owned by eleven countries as of 2020 and has been integrated into the U.S. National Capital Region’s air defense system since 2005. In addition to the U.S., Norway, Finland, Spain, The Netherlands, Oman, Lithuania, Indonesia, Australia, Qatar and one undisclosed country have chosen to depend on NASAMS for homeland defense and the defense of critical assets. NASAMS can engage target at a maximum altitude of 15 kilometers (50,000 feet) and a maximum range of 33 kilometers. NASAMS II, an upgraded version of the NASAMS, uses new radars and 12 missile launchers for quicker identification and destruction of the targets. The upgraded system has been in service since 2007. A complete NASAMS 2 battery consists of 12 missile launchers (LCHR) (each one carrying six AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles), eight radars (AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel F1 Improved Sentinel X band 3D radar), one fire control centre (CTOC), one electro-optical camera vehicle (MSP500) and one Tactical Control Cell (TCC) vehicle.
The National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System is a highly adaptable mid-range solution for any operational air defense requirement. The system provides the air defender with a tailorable, state-of-the-art defense system that can maximize their ability to quickly identify, engage and destroy current and evolving enemy aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle or emerging cruise missile threats.
The proven, fielded, reliable and highly capable NASAMS system contains a BMC4I (Battle Management, Command, Control, Computers, Communications, and Intelligence) Air Defense capability through the integration of sensors and launchers. It employs the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AIM-120) as the primary weapon. Targets are detected and tracked by a high-resolution, 3D pencil beam radar. Multiple of these radars and the associated Fire Distribution Centres (FDCs) are netted together via radio data links, creating a real-time recognized air picture.
NASAMS can fire on target data provided by external sensors. Advanced emission control features of the radars minimize the risk of revealing the NASAMS unit's own position. The FDC automatically performs track correlation, identification, jam strobe triangulation, threat evaluation and weapon assignment.
A new version of the AMRAAM (SL) rocket was tested by the military company Raytheon on 04 October 2016 in Norway. During the successful test, the new missile was launched from the NASAMS (National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System) anti-aircraft missile system. The new AMRAAM-ER (ER) missile, among other modifications, received a new engine, which increased the destruction zone of the NASAMS system by 50 percent in distance and 70 percent in altitude.
During the test, the entire system, including the new AMRAAM-ER missile, the NASAMS launcher, the Sentinel radar, and the Fire Distribution Center (FDC), worked seamlessly to destroy the target material. “AMRAAM-ER has inherited the AMRAAM missile control and warhead as well as the ESSM (Envolved Sea Sparrow Missile) missile engine, increasing the capabilities of the NASAMS system,” said Dr. Taylor W. Lawrence, president of Raytheon Missile Systems. This version could be an ideal solution for all air defense system users worldwide.
The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) was the first customer to introduce the NASAMS (Norwegian Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System) program. Because of their success during NATO live flying exercises, NASAMS batteries are taken extremely serious by NATO aircrew. From 2004, NASAMS is earmarked by the Norwegian armed forces to be deployed in support of international crisis management operations.
NASAMS is owned by seven countries and has been integrated into the US’ National Capital Region’s air defense system since 2005. In addition to the U.S., it is in service in Norway, Finland, Spain, The Netherlands and one undisclosed country. It is also currently in production for Oman.
On 10 April 2017 the Australian Government announced that a National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System (NASAMS) solution will be developed for the Land 19 Phase 7B project – the Ground Based Air and Missile Defence capability for the Australian Army through a Single Supplier Limited Tender process to Raytheon Australia. Raytheon Australia has been identified as the Prime System Integrator and KONGSBERG will be a major sub-contractor in the program. On 26 October 2017 KONGSBERG signed a contract worth 109 MEURO (approx. 1.000 MNOK) with the Ministry of National Defence of the Republic of Lithuania to supply a NASAMS air defence system. Lithuania announced 21 October 2016 an agreement with the Norwegian Ministry of Defence on procurement of NASAMS components; today’s contract includes new additional equipment, training and integrated logistics support package, as well as refurbishment and integration of government supplied components for a complete NASAMS system.
On 31 October 2017 KONGSBERG signed a contract worth 77 MUSD with the Ministry of Defence of Indonesia to supply a NASAMS air defence system. The contract comprise delivery of a complete NASAMS system with command posts, radars, launchers, radios and integration, and training and logistics support. AMRAAM missiles will be provided in a separate government-to-government agreement between Indonesia and the United States.
Together with Norwegian partner KONGSBERG Defence and Aerospace, AS, Raytheon continues to integrate new capabilities into NASAMS to develop and field highly capable and fully integrated solutions. As the NASAMS user community grows, new technology insertions will provide current and future NASAMS partners access to the most technologically advanced and combat-ready system in the world.
On 12 December 2011 Raytheon received a multimillion-dollar contract to provide International High-Mobility Launchers (HMLs) to the Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) for its National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS). The HML is a lightweight missile launch platform that can carry up to six AMRAAM missiles mounted on a High-Mobility Multi-Wheeled Vehicle. The contract is part of the Royal Norwegian effort to upgrade, modernize and sustain RNoAF's NASAMS through the NASAMS Robustness Program. The International HML will provide current and future NASAMS users with increased air defense capability, including C-130 roll-on and roll-off agility. In addition, Raytheon will upgrade electronics for the canister launcher fleet to provide common launch electronics for both canister and HML launchers, for easier maintenance and reduced life-cycle costs.
On 09 July 2012 the Royal Norwegian Air Force successfully fired a Raytheon Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile from a National Advanced Surface-to-Air-Missile System (NASAMS). During the first-of-its-kind test at the Andoya Rocket Range in Northern Norway, the ESSM intercepted and destroyed an air target. "Completion of this live-fire exercise is a major step forward in our efforts to qualify ESSM as a ground-based air defense solution," said Rick Nelson, Raytheon Missile Systems' vice president of Naval Weapon Systems. "We will continue our engineering efforts to fully integrate ESSM into NASAMS and other land-based launch systems." In addition to the launcher, the risk-reduction firing event used the NASAMS Fire Distribution Center (FDC) and the Hawk air defense system's High-Power Illuminator radar that served as the semi-active illumination source.
On 23 January 2014 Raytheon received a direct commercial sales contract from The Sultanate of Oman for the National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS). The award, valued at $1.28 billion, includes ground support equipment, a full training package, and technical assistance. NASAMS is the trusted system that protects critical assets in six nations, including the U.S. National Capital Region.
The contract, which was awarded in the fourth quarter of 2013, was announced in Oman at a signing ceremony attended by Mohammed bin Nasser al Rasbi, Secretary General at the Ministry of Defence, Air Vice Marshal Matar bin Ali al Obaidani, Commander of the Royal Air Force of Oman, the US ambassador to the Sultanate, the US Military Attache and Tom Kennedy, Chief Operating Officer, Raytheon Company.
"The Sultanate of Oman's competitive selection of Raytheon's National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS) validates the superior performance, system adaptability and overall security that NASAMS provides," said Dan Crowley, president of Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems (IDS). "Raytheon is committed to delivering the exceptional defense capabilities of NASAMS to Oman."
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