Chinese Towed Artillery
In the 1960s and 1970s, it was commonly known as the "first 30 years." In that era, the country's economic strength and technological level were not as good as they are now, but the security threat facing the country is greater than it is now. Therefore, at that time, the PLA had always had a large army, but military funding was limited. The number of high-tech troops that required large investment in the naval air force missile force was relatively small - mainly the army. In the Army, the number of tank armored vehicles is also relatively small - so the artillery became the technical weapon that the Army is more valued, and the artillery needed attention.
When the new China was founded, the artillery of the People's Liberation Army had begun to take shape. The artillery was mainly seized in the long-term revolutionary war. It is really "no guns, no guns, and the enemy made us." These artillery models are many and have many production countries, including many famous ones such as the Swedish Bofors Mountain Cannon, the German Krupp Mountain Cannon and the sFH18 150mm howitzer, and the Japanese Four-in-one Type Nine-style Mountain Cannon 38. Four-year-style ninety-six howitzer, American M1 mountain cannon, M2 howitzer (105 mm), M1918 howitzer (155 mm) and so on.
These artillery pieces are obsolete, such as those of the mountain cannons, and also have good design features such as German-style American howitzers... But the biggest problem with so many models of the Universal brand is that the supply of ammunition parts is very difficult, and the pressure on logistics supply is great... ...not conducive to modern warfare!
Thus, from the middle and late period of the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea, until the mid-1950s, our army introduced a large number of Soviet-made large and medium caliber artillery pieces, and completed the dressing and selected the classic models in a short period of time. Counterfeit and self-developed a number of artillery pieces - thus forming an artillery equipment system that was deeply influenced by the Soviet Union but had its own characteristics.
The oldest guns seized and used by the People's Liberation Army during the war were the ones who participated in the First World War... but they were mainly used in World War II. Most of the Soviet artillery models introduced in the early days after the founding of the People's Republic of China participated in World War II, but this does not mean that these artillery pieces are not easy to add backwards... and the speed of the artillery model update is faster than the rapid upgrade of these high-tech weapons such as aircraft, tanks and missiles. It is relatively slow. Both the US and the Soviet Union have used the old models for decades. The life of the artillery is also relatively long. If a conventional body gun is properly operated, the safe operation is fifty or sixty years. No problem, "a hundred years old gun" is not rare. In the middle and late 1950s, China introduced some new types of artillery developed by the Soviet Union after World War II. These artillery were relatively advanced weapons at that time.
There are many classic models that have not only been introduced in China, but also copied. According to incomplete statistics, there are: ZIS-3 76mm field gun (54 type field gun) and later renamed cannon, D-44 type 85mm cannon (56 type cannon) ), D-74 122mm cannon (60 type cannon), M-46 type 130mm cannon (59 type cannon, followed by improved type 59-1); M30 type 122mm howitzer (54 type howitzer), D- Type 1 152mm howitzer (56 howitzer), D-20 type 152mm plus howitzer (66 type with howitzer); M-160 type 160mm heavy mortar (type 56 heavy mortar).
There were many models that because they were old the performance is not good enough. China has only introduced but not imitation. Among them, there are many famous weapons, such as: A-19 type 122mm cannon, ML-20 type 152mm howitzer, BM-13 type rocket launcher. , SU-100 and SU152 self-propelled artillery.
During this period, the People's Liberation Army attached great importance to artillery, but it did not seem to be too eager to increase the caliber and power of the artillery. When the Soviet Union stationed in Lushun Dalian Lu Haijun, our army got several 180mm coastal guns, but The number is very small and will soon be retired. The Soviet Army had a B-4 203mm howitzer (Stalin's Hammer), but our army did not introduce it, it was too heavy. The largest caliber Soviet artillery that our army has introduced is 152 mm. Similarly, the largest caliber gun seized and put into use by the field forces during the war should be the American 155 mm howitzer! Compared with the pursuit of caliber and power, our military pays more attention to the overall coordination of firepower and maneuverability.
The 1958 bombardment of the Golden Gate battle can be regarded as the first large-scale appearance of our artillery after the general replacement of Soviet artillery. 122, 152mm howitzers, 85, 130mm cannons, 160mm mortars have fired a large number of artillery shells, giving a heavy blow to the Kuomintang army on the island of Kinmen. And with the Kuomintang's new artillery from the United States, such as the so-called 8-inch cannon (203mm howitzer), a fierce artillery battle ensued, and finally Chinse artillery overcame the KMT with the strength and quality of the artillery.
In 1979, the counter-attacks against Vietnam and the two-wheeled war in the 1980s were the last concentrated appearances of these "old cannons". Our army once again severely attacked the arrogance of the Vietnamese army with its powerful artillery quantity advantage. They made a major killing. In these military operations, cannons, howitzers, rockets, cannons, and mortars without infantry have excellent performance... but they also exposed these old weapons. The performance is insufficient. Thus, in the 1980s, China began to develop new types of artillery, and these old-fashioned weapons gradually gradually faded out of the artillery equipment sequence.
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