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FM 3-19.30 (FM 19-30)

Field Manual
No. 3-19.30
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 8 January 2001

FM 3-19.30





Chapter 1 - Physical-Security Challenges


Automated Information Systems

OPSEC and the Threat

Chapter 2 - The Systems Approach

Protective Systems

Systems Development

The Integrated Protective System

Security Threats

Chapter 3 - Design Approach

Design Strategies

Protective Measures

Vehicle Bombs

Exterior Attack

Standoff Weapons


Forced Entry

Covert Entry and Insider Compromise

Surveillance and Eavesdropping

Mail and Supply Bombs

Chemical and Biological Contamination

Chapter 4 - Protective Barriers



Utility Openings

Other Perimeter Barriers

Security Towers

Installation Entrances

Warning Signs

Other Signs

Installation Perimeter Roads and Clear Zones

Arms-Facility Structural Standards

Chapter 5 - Physical-Security Lighting


Commander's Responsibility

Planning Considerations

Principles of Security Lighting

Types of Lighting

Wiring Systems


Chapter 6 - Electronic Security Systems


ESS Design Considerations

Interior ESS Considerations

Exterior ESS Considerations

ESS Alarm-Annunciation System

ESS Software

Interior Intrusion-Detection Sensors

Exterior Intrusion-Detection Sensors

Electronic Entry Control

Application Guidelines

Performance Criteria

Data Transmission

CCTV for Alarm Assessment and Surveillance

Chapter 7 - Access Control

Designated Restricted Areas

Employee Screening

Identification System

Duress Code

Access-Control Rosters

Methods of Control

Security Controls of Packages, Personal Property, and Vehicles

Tactical-Environment Considerations

Chapter 8 - Lock and Key Systems

Installation and Maintenance

Types of Locking Devices

Chapter 9 - Security Forces

Types of Security Forces

Authority and Jurisdiction

Personnel Selection

Security Clearance

Organization and Employment of Forces

Headquarters and Shelters

Execution of Security Activities

Training Requirements






Miscellaneous Equipment

Military Working Dogs


Chapter 10 - In-Transit Security

In-Port Cargo

Rail Cargo

Pipeline Cargo

Convoy Movement

Chapter 11 - Inspections and Surveys



Appendix A - Metric Conversion Chart

Appendix B - Sample Installation Crime-Prevention Handbook

Section I — Installation Crime-Prevention Programs

Crime-Prevention Working Groups

Crime-Prevention Officers

Crime-Prevention Program Development


Civilian Crime-Prevention Organizations

Section II — Criminal Analysis

Sources of Information

Individual Criminal Analysis

Criminal-Analysis Procedures

Criminal-Analysis Summary

Section III — Command and Law-Enforcement Countermeasures

Crime Hot Lines

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

Specialized Patrol Tactics and Surveillance

Publicity Campaigns

Residential-Security Surveys

Juvenile Crime Prevention


Internal Theft


Section IV — Army Property at the Local Level

Motor Vehicles

Consumer 0utlets


Section V — Community Crime-Prevention Programs

Neighborhood Watch Program

Operation ID

Neighborhood Walks


Mobile Patrols

Project Lock

Section VI — Evaluation

Crime-Prevention Programs

Crime Rates

Measures of Effectiveness

Internal Measures

Appendix C - Intelligence, Counterintelligence, and Threat Analysis

Information Sources

Responsibilities of US Government Lead Agencies

Information Requirements

Threat Analysis and Assessment

Determination of the Threat Level

Appendix D - Crisis-Management Plan

Appendix E - Office Security Measures

Physical-Security Survey

Security-Engineering Assessment

Technical Assessment of Responses

Physical-Security Enhancement Measures

Appendix F - Physical-Security Plan


Tactical-Environment Considerations

Appendix G - Personal-Protection Measures

Personal Protection

Working Environment

Home Environment

Appendix H - Bombs


Concealing Bombs

Damage and Casualty Mechanisms

Telephonic Threats

Evacuation Drills

Searching for a Suspected IED

Appendix I - Executive Protection

Supplemental Security Measures

Executive Protection Goals

Residential Security Measures

Transportation Measures

Individual Protective Measures

Combating-Terrorism Training for Executives

Travel to Potential Physical-Threat Risk Areas

Protective Security Details

Executive-Protection System Integration

Appendix J - Resource Management

Funding Programs

Projected Requirements

Obligation Plan

Types of Appropriations

Appendix K - Vulnerability Assessment

Assessment Considerations


Assessing Vulnerability





Distribution Restriction: Approved For Public Release; Distribution Is Unlimited.

This Publication Supersedes FM 19-30, 1 March 1979.


This field manual (FM) sets forth guidance for all personnel responsible for physical security. It is the basic reference for training security personnel. It is intended to be a "one-stop" physical-security source for the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of the Army (DA), and other proponents and agencies of physical security.

Prevention and protection are the two primary concerns of physical security. Both serve the security interests of people, equipment, and property. These interests must be supported at all staff and command levels; and this support must be unified in joint, multinational, and interagency operations.

Support to joint, multinational, and interagency operations relies on the fact that the Army will not conduct operations alone. Additionally, force-projection operations conducted by the military will involve the integration of war-fighting capabilities with stability and support operations. This manual's primary focus is the articulation of a balanced understanding of physical security for joint, multinational, and interagency operations throughout the environments of peacetime, conflict, and war (whether in the continental United States [CONUS] or outside the continental United States [OCONUS]).

Physical security must integrate the various capabilities of joint, multinational, and interagency operations in pursuit of a seamless connection between the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war. Physical security must also address an expanded range of threats that embraces not only traditional threat components of war, but also nontraditional threats generated by guerrillas, terrorists, criminals, and natural or man-made disasters. In addition, physical security must address the concept of Homeland Defense due to the aforementioned threats.

Homeland Defense is the military's role in the United States (US) government's principal task of protecting its territory and citizens. This is accomplished by joint, interagency, and multijurisdictional organizations. Homeland Defense includes—

  • Supporting domestic authorities for crisis and consequence management with regard to weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
  • Protecting national-security assets (such as installations) and deploying forces and ensuring the availability, integrity, and adequacy of other critical assets.
  • Deterring and defending against strategic attacks while maintaining freedom of action through antiterrorism and force-protection operations.

With this in mind, it is essential to address the five pillars of force protection—combating terrorism, physical security, personal security, law enforcement, and operations security (OPSEC). Physical security is a central component of force protection and provides an integrated venue to express support for operations. Physical security is a primary-leader task and an inherent part of all operations to protect soldiers, family members, civilians, and resources. This function directly supports the Army's universal task list.

While the effects of these changes (when viewed individually) appear revolutionary, the basic activities remain relatively unchanged, though executed under different conditions and standards. Another component that remains unchanged is our reliance upon quality soldiers and leaders well versed in physical-security fundamentals. Leaders will be challenged to ensure that they are functionally proficient; possess an understanding of physical-security operations; are educated in joint, multinational, and interagency operations; and have the ability to perform physical-security functions in support of full-dimension operations.

Appendix A contains an English-to-metric measurement conversion chart. Appendix B is a sample installation crime-prevention handbook. This handbook is designed to assist commanders in developing crime-prevention programs for their installation and units.

The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 directly to Commandant, US Army Military Police School (USAMPS), ATTN: ATSJ-MP-TD, Directorate of Training, 401 Engineer Loop, Suite 2060, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri 65473-8926.

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.


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