Intelligence and counterintelligence make up the first line of defense in an antiterrorism program. A well-planned, systematic, all-source intelligence and counterintelligence program is essential. The role of intelligence and counterintelligence in antiterrorism is to identify the threat. Additionally, counterintelligence provides a warning of potential terrorist attacks and provides information for counterterrorism operations. This appendix provides the elements of the intelligence cycle that have particular importance in a viable antiterrorism program. Effective intelligence and counterintelligence support requires effort, planning and direction, collection and analysis, production, investigation, and dissemination. The entire process provides decision makers with information and timely warnings upon which to recommend antiterrorism actions.
C-1. The primary sources of intelligence and counterintelligence for the antiterrorism program are open-source information, criminal information, government intelligence and counterintelligence, and local information.
- Open-source information. This information is publicly available and can be collected, retained, and stored without special authorization. The news media is an excellent open source of information on terrorism. The media reports many major terrorist incidents and often includes in-depth reports on individuals, groups, or various government counterstrategies. Government sources include congressional hearings; publications by the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the FBI, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Department of State (DOS), and the national criminal justice reference services. Additionally, there are private data services that offer timely information on terrorist activities worldwide. Terrorist groups and their affiliates may also have manuals, pamphlets, and newsletters that reveal their objectives, tactics, and possible targets.
- Criminal information. Both military and civil law-enforcement agencies collect criminal information. Because terrorist acts are criminal acts, criminal information is a major source for terrorist intelligence. Commanders must work through established law-enforcement liaison channels because the collection, retention, and dissemination of criminal information are regulated. Local military criminal investigative offices of the CID; the Naval Investigative Service Command (NISCOM); the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI); and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, Criminal Investigations Division, maintain current information that will assist in determining the local terrorist threat.
Government intelligence and counterintelligence.
The Community Counterterrorism Board (CCB) is responsible for coordinating with the national intelligence agencies concerning combating international terrorism. These agencies include the CIA (the lead agency), the DIA, the National Security Agency (NSA), the DOS, the Department of Justice (DOJ), the FBI, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) (including the USCG), and the DOD. Service intelligence and counterintelligence production organizations include the US Army Counterintelligence Analysis Center; the Navy Antiterrorism Analysis Center (NAVATAC); Headquarters, US Marine Corps, Counterintelligence; and the US AFOSI Operations Center. These organizations compile comprehensive intelligence and counterintelligence for distribution on a need-to-know basis throughout the services. In combatant commands, the J2 is responsible for the intelligence fusion center. The Counterintelligence
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