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Russian Gravity Bombs

Pattern Description
AVBPM"Father of All Bombs" [vacuum bomb]
BETAB-500U runway denial aerial bomb
BETAB-500SHP runway denial aerial bomb
FAB-250TSthick-walled high-explosive aerial bomb
FAB-500TS thick-walled high-explosive aerial bomb
FAB-500-M62 high-explosive aerial bomb
FAB-500SH high-explosive bomb
FAB-5000 high-explosive bomb
FAB-5000 M-54 high-explosive bomb
FAB-9000 M-54 high-explosive bomb
FZAB-500 high-explosive incendiary bomb aircraft
KAB-500500 kg corrected bombs
KAB-500Kr corrected air bombs Pr-E/F-E/OD-E/K-E. The most perfected example of the caliber of 500 kg, which has no direct relation to their foreign counterparts in the TV seeker, with a correlation algorithm of information processing of the purpose. Betonoboynymi-explosive warhead.
KAB-500L-Pr-E/F-E/OD-E/K-E With semi-active laser guidance system
KAB-500LGPr-E / F-E / OD-E / K-E
KAB-500-OD corrected air bombs Volume-detonating explosion. KAB-500-od is different from the KAB-500Kr type warhead.
KAB-500S Adjustable air bomb
KAB-1500Kr corrected air bombs Pr-E/F-E/OD-E It has television correlation homing system, while providing bombing circular error probable of 4 m.
KAB-1500Lcontrolled bomb Pr-E/F-E/OD-E With semi-active laser guidance system
KAB-1500L-F smart bomb As a warhead, a special-piercing high-explosive penetrating the capsule that can go deep into the soil to a depth of 20 m. And punching overlapping structures with thickness up to 3 m.
KAB-1500LG Pr-E/F-E/OD-E
KAB-1500L-Prcontrolled bomb As a warhead, a special-piercing high-explosive penetrating the capsule that can go deep into the soil to a depth of 20 m. And punching overlapping structures with thickness up to 3 m.
KAB-1500TKcontrolled bomb With television-command guidance system
KMGU container of small loads
ODAB-500PM "Space-bomb" [fuel air explosive]
OFAB-100-120 high-explosive aerial bomb
OFAB-250-270 high-explosive aerial bomb
OFAB-250SHN/SL high-explosive aerial bomb
OFAB-500U universal high-explosive aerial bomb
OFZAB-500 high-explosive incendiary bomb aircraft
RBK-500Family of cluster bombs
SPBE 500-Dsingle cluster bomb
ST-500 Incendiary tank
ZAB-500 Incendiary Bomb aviation
10XV-1 buzzbomb analog aircraft missile
v14X 1946 KB Chelomei aircraft missiles
SURF 16X 1948-53 "Priboy" [Surf] aircraft missiles

The first bombs were used by the Italians in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911-12. In Russia, the first aerial bombs were developed in 1909-14. Aircraft designer bombs of the system of V.Oranovskii consisted of 4 fission bombs weighing from 8 to 80 and 8 kg of explosive bombs weighing from 4 to 640 kg. In 1916, the system was supplemented incendiary bomb designs of Colonel Yakovlev. By the early 1930 the Soviet Union had all existing types of bombs of the main and auxiliary facilities (AB Nadashkevich designers, VI Sassaparel, NL Solovyov Turahin AF et al.). By 1931 the Air Force of the RKKA received the first bombs FAB-100, FAB-250, FAB-500 and FAB-1000. A year later their production was established, and the release of AF-82 ceased. Four-engine TB-3 already had the opportunity to carry all this range. The biggest bomb, FAB-1000 (it's the AF-1000), was suspended from the outside under the fuselage. In the polygonal tests near Balaklava, such a bomb was dropped on a concrete casemate with a ceiling thickness of more than one and a half meters. The explosion simply moved the entire upper part of the structure. FAB-1000 gave a funnel diameter of 17 m and a depth of 4 m. But the main weapon for TB-3 was considered "hundred", two dozen of which he carried on the cassette holders in the fuselage.

During the Great Patriotic War there were created a few samples of the new bombs (anti-tank, high-explosive) and modernized pre-war. After the war, it was decided to adopt several types of high-explosive bombs of caliber 100, 250, 500, 1500, 3000, 5000 and 9000 kg. explosive bombs of large caliber, taken into service in the late 1940s and the beginning of the 1950s were mainly intended for operation against large marine ships. Only the FAB-1500 was considered eligible for attacks on industrial facilities, dams and underground structures.

The KAB (Korrektiruyeskaya Aviatsionnaya Bomba - Managed (correctable) aerial bomb) refers to the high-precision weapons. It has a guidance system (television, laser, infrared or thermal imaging) and structurally different from conventional aircraft carrying bombs presence and control of aerodynamic surfaces. KAB combines powerful warhead (explosive fragmentation, high-explosive fragmentation, penetration, cassette) normal aviation bombs with precision guided air missiles "air - ground" (probable circular deviation of 3-10 m). Proper planning with KAB allows aircrafts carriers to use them without entering the air defense zone of the object.

Weights of 250 -1500 kg, the maximum flight range of up to 70 km. CC can be equipped with propulsion system to achieve the greatest possible range planning. Altitude range for combat use of bombs weighing 1500 kg is in the range from 1 to 18 km at a speed of the aircraft carrier 550-1700 km / h. Designed primarily for the destruction of small-sized and high-objects (KP strategic, tactical nuclear missiles, runways, bridges, etc.). Consumption of KAB to defeat these goals can be ten times less than conventional bombs.

After the mid-1950s the USSR halted all work on Soviet guided bombs ("Condor," "The Seagull-2" and the BWM 5), and returned to them only in the 1970s. In 1971 the Soviet Union began development work on creating corrected bombs KAB-500 and KAB-1500 with laser homing head 27H. Development CC-500 conducted in SSPE "Region". In 1975, the KAB-500L entered service with frontline aviation.

It must be said that in the new millennium free-falling bombs are no longer created. They were replaced by corrected or planning to bomb capable induced at the target with the help of various physical principles. "Smart bombs" they are called. This type of bombs are not new. They were first used in 1943 by the Germans, with the highest precision bombed from a distance of 8 km British ships. A year later, "smart bombs" were used against the Japanese, American Air Force. With the advent of nuclear weapons, which for a long time it was considered a necessary and sufficient condition for a military victory, this type of ammunition was buried. Designers returned to it only in the middle 1960s.

The first guided aerial bombs (KAB) were imperfect. First of all, because they were directed at a target using a radio signal. And very soon the defending side began to fight with them using radioglushilok. At the moment, there are several ways KAB guidance on target: radar, laser, infrared, television, radio command, the satellite (GPS and GLONASS). The circular interquartile ranges from a few tens of meters to 2.3 meters.

A significant advantage over freefall bombs is not only a sharp increase in bombing accuracy. Overcoming distance in planning mode, up to 60 km, they allow the bombers do not go near the enemy's air defense zone. As for the principle by which the bomb to travel long distances, it is quite simple. With no engine, it maneuvered by rudders. It must be said that the rapid development of information technology is constantly improving the quality of "smart bombs."

The Russian Air Force is armed with two "smart bombs": CC-500 and CC-1500. Each of them has some modifications, depending on the warhead. It can be high-explosive, fragmentation-high explosive, armor-piercing, anti-submarine is unique ... concrete-bomb capable of exploding at a depth of 150 meters at sea state 6 points. Their range of slightly more modest than the American CAB, - up to 12 km. Accuracy is in the range from 3 to 7 meters. They use three guidance systems - laser, and satellite television.

Precision-guided weapons (PGM) can tremendously improve accuracy and reduce collateral damage. The Russian Air Force employed very few PGMs in the First Chechen War, perhaps saving them for use in a conventional theater. During the Second Chechen War, Russian aircrews employed many more high-precision aerial weapons. On the surface, this suggests that Russia perceived that the threat of conventional war had receded or that sufficient quantities of PGMs were available for use in Chechnya, while maintaining a strategic reserve. In reality, the increased use of precision-guided weapons reflects the shift in emphasis from unplanned close air support, characteristic of the First Chechen War, to strategic attack and theater-wide interdiction and a greater concern for collateral damage.

In 2015, VKS used in Syria:
  • RBC-500 SPBE
  • Betab-500
  • FAB-500SH
  • FAB-500M54
  • FAB-500M62
  • KAB-500
  • KAB-500Kr
  • KAB-500S
  • KAB-1500L
  • OFAB 250-270T
  • OFAB-500SHR
  • OFZAB-500

Russian bombs have an explosive section with a tail structure that is added and in the case of guided bombs like the KAB-1,500 a guidance section in the nose but they are not modular. Unlike American PGMs, it is not possible to fit a satellite guidance nose and tail control section to a standard FAB-500M62 bomb and make it a KAB-500. Satellite bombs and Laser or IIR guided bombs and missiles are made that way. They don't come in bomb kits that are attached to bombs of various sizes.

A normal Su-24 Fencer attack sequence begins with the crew flying towards a known target, using the on-board navigation systems. The weapon systems officer then refines the target location using radar or infrared (IR) sensors. These sensors cannot detect targets hidden behind shadows caused by intervening terrain or obstacles. Small point targets, or aim points in complex urban environments are particularly difficult to detect.

If the target is not identifiable on the sensor, the pilot can release the bomb on coordinates. The computer constantly updates the release point, based on the weapon’s ballistic characteristics and the aircraft’s flight data. However, without global positioning systems (GPS) updates to the aircraft navigation systems, this technique may result in significant miss distances.

This may explain the reports of Russian “carpet bombing.” Gusty winds and high altitude releases, typical in mountainous terrain, further degrade the accuracy of system deliveries. After the pilot gives consent by depressing the “pickle button,” the aircraft’s bombing computer releases the weapon.

Proficient Fencer aircrews using computed deliveries should normally place bombs within 200 feet of the target in any weather. To improve the odds of destroying the target, the crew may release multiple weapons, singularly or in pairs, sequentially to form a “string” of bombs. Ideally, this pattern will intersect the target and one or more weapons will achieve the desired results. The remaining weapons, impacting off-target, may cause serious collateral damage.

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