UNITED24 - Make a charitable donation in support of Ukraine!


Russian Aviation Bombs - Aviatsionnaya Bomba

Pattern Description
AGITAB-500-300500 kg Leaflet
AO-50/100100 kg Frag
AOKH-1010 kg Chemical
AVBPM"Father of All Bombs" [vacuum bomb]
BETAB-500U 478 kg Target Penetration runway denial
BETAB-500SHP 478 kg Target Penetration runway denial
BRAB-200 DS200 kg AP
BRAB-220220 kg AP
BRAB-500500 kg AP
BRAB-10001000 kg AP
FAB-250TSthick-walled high-explosive
FAB-250 M46250 kg GP
FAB-250 M54250 kg GP
FAB-250 M62250 kg HE
FAB-500 M54500 kg GP
FAB-500-M62 500 kg GP high-explosive
FAB-500SH high-explosive bomb
FAB-500 SHN500 kg GP
FAB-500 SHL500 kg HE
FAB-500TS 500 kg GP thick-walled high-explosive
FAB-500 Welded500 kg GP
FAB-5000high-explosive bomb
FAB-5000 M-54 high-explosive bomb
FAB-9000 M-54high-explosive bomb
FOTAB-100-80100 kg Photoflash
FOTAB-250T250 kg Photoflash
FZAB-500 high-explosive incendiary
KAB-250L250 kg corrected bomb
KAB-250S-E250 kg corrected bomb
KAB-500500 kg corrected bombs
KAB-500Kr corrected air bombs
KAB-500L semi-active laser guidance
KAB-500-OD corrected Volume-detonating
KAB-500S Adjustable air bomb
KAB-500S-EGlonass Adjustable air bomb
KAB-1500Kr 1500 kg HE corrected air bombs
KAB-1500Lcontrolled semi-active laser guidance
KAB-1500L-F 1500 kg HE smart bomb
KAB-1500L-Prcontrolled bomb
KAB-1500TKcontrolled bomb TV-command guidance
KHAB-2525 kg Chemical
KHAB-100100 kg Chemical
KHAB-200 200 kg Chemical, Nonpersistent
KHAB-200200 kg Chemical, Persistent
KHAB-500500 kg Chemical
KHAB-10001000 kg Chemical
KHAB-200 R-5Chemical
KHAB-200 R-10Chemical
KMGU container of small loads
ODAB-500PM 500 kg "Space-bomb" [fuel air explosive]
OFAB-100NV100 kg Frag
OFAB-100-120 100 kg Frag high-explosive
OFAB 100-120100 kg HE Frag Retarded
OFAB 100-120 TB100 kg Thermobaric Bomb
OFAB-250-270250 kg Frag
OFAB-250-270 250 kg HE Frag
OFAB-250SH250 kg HE Frag
OFAB-250SHL 250 kg HE Frag (Retarded)
OFAB-250 SHN250 kg HE Frag
OFAB-500 M62PF500 kg Pre-fragmented High Explosive
OFAB-500U 500 kg HE Frag (Retarded) universal bomb
OFZAB-500 high-explosive incendiary bomb aircraft
RBK-500cluster bombs
RBK-500Ucluster bombs, Glonass guided
SPBE 500-Dsingle cluster bomb sub-munition
SAB-250-200250 kg Illumination
ST-500 Incendiary tank
UB-2000F 2000 kg Chaika radio-controlled
UB-5000F 5000 kg Condor TV or radio-controlled
ZAB-50T SHCH50 kg Incendiary
ZAB-50TB 50 kg Incendiary Type B
ZAB-100T SHCH65 kg Incendiary
ZAB-500T SHCH300 kg Incendiary
ZB-500GD500 kg Incendiary
ZB-500SH500 kg Incendiary
10XV-1 buzzbomb analog aircraft missile
v14X 1946 KB Chelomei aircraft missiles
SURF 16X 1948-53 "Priboy" [Surf] aircraft missiles
Russia's arsenal of precision-guided munitions [Korrektiruemye Avia Bomby - guided aviation bombs] is very limited. Russia lacks most of the modern guided ammunition types, and the available ones are very expensive, one of the main reasons being the small scale of their production. It is clear that precision-guided munitions are very expensive, since their production requires advanced navigation and targeting systems. It is unrealistic to claim that Russians could independently manage to miniaturize the guidance systems for smart ammunition.

Russia does have precision guided missiles, but these are vastly more expensive that precision gravity bombs dropped from aircraft. And even such missiles are in short supply. In early 2022, the P-800 Onyx supersonic missiles fired by the Bastions, designed primarily to destroy cruisers and aircraft carriers, were used against the centers of radio and electronic intelligence of the Ukrainian army in the settlements of Veliky Dalnik and Velikodolinskoye in the Odessa region. And on March 26, they also turned the fuel base of the Ukrainian military in the Nikolaev region into smoke and ashes.

A Senior US Defense Official in a background briefing onn 09 May 2022 stated "we've seen they have blown through a lot of their PGMs. In fact, they continue to hit Mariupol with a lot of dumb bombs. And so, they're having inventory issues with precision-guided munitions and they're having trouble replacing PGMs, and we do believe that the sanctions and the export controls, particularly when it comes to components, electronic components has had an effect on the Russian defense industrial base and their ability to restock PGMs".

It must be said that in the new millennium free-falling bombs are no longer created. They were replaced by corrected or planning to bomb capable induced at the target with the help of various physical principles. "Smart bombs" they are called. This type of bombs are not new. They were first used in 1943 by the Germans, with the highest precision bombed from a distance of 8 km British ships. A year later, "smart bombs" were used against the Japanese, American Air Force. With the advent of nuclear weapons, which for a long time it was considered a necessary and sufficient condition for a military victory, this type of ammunition was buried. Designers returned to it only in the middle 1960s.

The first guided aerial bombs (KAB) were imperfect. First of all, because they were directed at a target using a radio signal. And very soon the defending side began to fight with them using radioglushilok. At the moment, there are several ways KAB guidance on target: radar, laser, infrared, television, radio command, the satellite (GPS and GLONASS). The circular interquartile ranges from a few tens of meters to 2.3 meters.

A significant advantage over freefall bombs is not only a sharp increase in bombing accuracy. Overcoming distance in planning mode, up to 60 km, they allow the bombers do not go near the enemy's air defense zone. As for the principle by which the bomb to travel long distances, it is quite simple. With no engine, it maneuvered by rudders. It must be said that the rapid development of information technology is constantly improving the quality of "smart bombs."

The KAB (Korrektiruyeskaya Aviatsionnaya Bomba - Managed (correctable) aerial bomb) refers to the high-precision weapons. It has a guidance system (television, laser, infrared or thermal imaging) and structurally different from conventional aircraft carrying bombs presence and control of aerodynamic surfaces. KAB combines powerful warhead (explosive fragmentation, high-explosive fragmentation, penetration, cassette) normal aviation bombs with precision guided air missiles "air - ground" (probable circular deviation of 3-10 m). Proper planning with KAB allows aircrafts carriers to use them without entering the air defense zone of the object.

Weights of 250 -1500 kg, the maximum flight range of up to 70 km. CC can be equipped with propulsion system to achieve the greatest possible range planning. Altitude range for combat use of bombs weighing 1500 kg is in the range from 1 to 18 km at a speed of the aircraft carrier 550-1700 km / h. Designed primarily for the destruction of small-sized and high-objects (KP strategic, tactical nuclear missiles, runways, bridges, etc.). Consumption of KAB to defeat these goals can be ten times less than conventional bombs.

After the mid-1950s the USSR halted all work on Soviet guided bombs ("Condor," "The Seagull-2" and the BWM 5), and returned to them only in the 1970s. In 1971 the Soviet Union began development work on creating corrected bombs KAB-500 and KAB-1500 with laser homing head 27H. Development CC-500 conducted in SSPE "Region". In 1975, the KAB-500L entered service with frontline aviation.

The Russian Air Force is armed with two "smart bombs": CC-500 and CC-1500. Each of them has some modifications, depending on the warhead. It can be high-explosive, fragmentation-high explosive, armor-piercing, anti-submarine is unique ... concrete-bomb capable of exploding at a depth of 150 meters at sea state 6 points. Their range of slightly more modest than the American CAB, - up to 12 km. Accuracy is in the range from 3 to 7 meters. They use three guidance systems - laser, and satellite television.

Precision-guided weapons (PGM) can tremendously improve accuracy and reduce collateral damage. The Russian Air Force employed very few PGMs in the First Chechen War, perhaps saving them for use in a conventional theater. During the Second Chechen War, Russian aircrews employed many more high-precision aerial weapons. On the surface, this suggests that Russia perceived that the threat of conventional war had receded or that sufficient quantities of PGMs were available for use in Chechnya, while maintaining a strategic reserve. In reality, the increased use of precision-guided weapons reflects the shift in emphasis from unplanned close air support, characteristic of the First Chechen War, to strategic attack and theater-wide interdiction and a greater concern for collateral damage.

In 2015, VKS used in Syria:
  • RBC-500 SPBE
  • Betab-500
  • FAB-500SH
  • FAB-500M54
  • FAB-500M62
  • KAB-500
  • KAB-500Kr
  • KAB-500S
  • KAB-1500L
  • OFAB 250-270T
  • OFAB-500SHR
  • OFZAB-500

Russian bombs have an explosive section with a tail structure that is added and in the case of guided bombs like the KAB-1500 a guidance section in the nose but they are not modular. Unlike American PGMs, it is not possible to fit a satellite guidance nose and tail control section to a standard FAB-500M62 bomb and make it a KAB-500. Satellite bombs and Laser or IIR guided bombs and missiles are made that way. They don't come in bomb kits that are attached to bombs of various sizes.

A normal Su-24 Fencer attack sequence begins with the crew flying towards a known target, using the on-board navigation systems. The weapon systems officer then refines the target location using radar or infrared (IR) sensors. These sensors cannot detect targets hidden behind shadows caused by intervening terrain or obstacles. Small point targets, or aim points in complex urban environments are particularly difficult to detect.

If the target is not identifiable on the sensor, the pilot can release the bomb on coordinates. The computer constantly updates the release point, based on the weapon’s ballistic characteristics and the aircraft’s flight data. However, without global positioning systems (GPS) updates to the aircraft navigation systems, this technique may result in significant miss distances.

This may explain the reports of Russian “carpet bombing.” Gusty winds and high altitude releases, typical in mountainous terrain, further degrade the accuracy of system deliveries. After the pilot gives consent by depressing the “pickle button,” the aircraft’s bombing computer releases the weapon.

Proficient Fencer aircrews using computed deliveries should normally place bombs within 200 feet of the target in any weather. To improve the odds of destroying the target, the crew may release multiple weapons, singularly or in pairs, sequentially to form a “string” of bombs. Ideally, this pattern will intersect the target and one or more weapons will achieve the desired results. The remaining weapons, impacting off-target, may cause serious collateral damage.

Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list

Page last modified: 24-05-2022 16:02:32 ZULU