FAB-250 General purpose Bomb
The FAB-250 is a general purpose dumb bomb with is widely manufactured and exported, similar to the US 500lb bomb. The have been widely used in the conflicts along the Russian (Soviet) border in Afghanistan, Chechnya, Nagarno-Kharabak and Georgia. They are frequently seen carried on Russian multiple ejector racks.
FAB-250TS / 500TS thick walled high-explosive bombs are characterized by increased strength compared to conventional FAB. This is achieved by increasing the thickness of the walls of the case and its use for the manufacture of high-quality alloy steels. Housing thick fab cast, with a massive warhead without a fuse socket. Thick-wall FAB are intended to destroy concrete shelters, concreted airfields, field fortifications and urban types with reinforced concrete slabs with thickness up to 1 meter (for FAB-250TS) and up to 1.25m (for FAB-500TS).
In 1978 the modification FAB-500TSM was created, (total weight 520kg). These thick-walled high-explosive bombs used on all aircraft, which are suspended high-explosive bomb model 1946 corresponding caliber, with heights ranging from 500 to 15 000 meters at the aircraft flight speed of up to 1500 km / h.
In Afghanistan, the destruction of "hard nut" type of rock shelters and caves that served dushmans shelters and warehouses, the best results were given thick bomb FAB-250TS and especially FAB-500TS. Typical fugaskami hit the cave could only be in contact with the mouth in unobtrusive, and on the surface of the explosions were only given potholes. Thick-wall bomb punching rock and torn in stone thicker, caused landslides and caving caves vaults, moreover, it gave a lot of heavy debris. Such munitions were widely used during the operation in the mountain range Lurkoh in Farah province in January 1981 in the Black Mountains, in September of the same year, where spooks tried to cut the road to Kandahar, and elsewhere.
The high-temperature high-explosive bomb FAB-500T was adopted on December 22, 1976. NPO "Basalt" created it specifically for the bomber MiG-25RB, which bombs of other types of super high-speed machines did not fit. The Scout bomber MiG-25RB, which joined the air force in 1971, was the modification of the MiG-25 interceptor. It was able to reach a speed of 3000 km / h and rising to a height of 20,700 m. Due to the fact that the speed was approaching 3 Mach, the aircraft paneling is heated to 300 degrees or more, and only 11% of the weight of the machine was made of aluminum. The main materials of steel and titanium steel.
Similarly, in-flight warming up [and the bombs] were located on an external sling. Moreover, when dropped at a speed of 2 Mach from a great height, they received a greater thermal load. In this connection, they could not only change their parameters, but it became possible to completely lose the effectiveness of air strikes.
It is with the MiG-25RB tht for the first time in the history of bombing that release was made at supersonic speed. It happened in Belarus at the site "Polesie". The bomb, developing a fall from a height of 20 km an enormous speed, flew out of inertia 40 km and left the land of the funnel depth of 2.5 meters and a diameter of 4.5 m. In this case, fragments flew in a radius of 870 m. In the case of slow blasting crater had a depth 13 m, diameter - 22.5 meters radius of the separation of fragments was 430 m. Such an effect is possible due to the fact that the bomb at high speed is dug into the ground and then later exploded.
FAB-500T Features include: - Total weight - 530 kg; - Explosive TNT - 256 kg; - Length - 247 cm; - Diameter - 40 cm; - Maximum attack range to easily vulnerable technology - 200 m; - For a maximum effective range of light armored vehicles - 75 m. Currently, the Russian Air Force used heat-resistant and more powerful bombs - the FAB-1500T.
The most powerful modern Russian high-explosive bomb - FAB-9000 M54 - was created 50 years ago for the "heavyweight" Tu-95. The weight of the bomb was 9407 kg, BB - 4297 kg. It was used in bombing from a height of 16,000 meters at a speed of 1200 km / h.
They were widely used during the war in Afghanistan, where dushmans [bandits, ie, Mujahideen] fortified positions were dropped about five hundred FAB-9000 M54. Air strikes carried bombers Tu-16. However, experience has shown that the expected effectiveness of the bombing was not achieved. That was due to both the not too accurately hit, and with the strength of the caves in which Soviet opponents hid their bases and munitions factories. More effective were the Kh-25, had a deviation from the target of 2 meters. Flying on the Su-25, they flew to the caves, destroying and manpower, and equipment.
Heavy bombs were used largely to exert psychological pressure on the enemy. Pilots soon worked out tactics of bombing in narrow gorges, which literally "evolved". Another reason for the use of super-bombs - natural, non-principal - was that was coming to the end of their shelf life. And it was the cheapest way of "recycling".
The Americans acted in Afghanistan at the beginning about the same as the Soviet troops. And just as well. They used the free-falling bomb BLU-82 / B Daisy Cutter, known as "Big Blue - 2". Weight was 5715 kg of explosives. Also in Afghanistan were tested the next generation of the "vacuum bomb" GBU-43 with a mass of explosives equal to 8480 kg. Moreover, according to its creators, the power of the explosive was 1.35 times greater than that of TNT.
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