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Soviet Aerial Bombs - Cold War



FAB M-54

In the postwar period, several types of high-explosive air bombs of caliber 100, 250, 500, 1500, 3000, 5000 and 9000 kg were put into service. High-explosive high-explosive bombs, which were put into service in the late 1940s - early 50s, were mainly intended for action on large sea-going ships. Only FAB-1500 was considered acceptable for strikes against industrial facilities, dams and underground structures.

A conventional FAB-1500 bomb had walls 18 mm thick and contained 675 kg of explosive. In addition, in service was a thick-walled bomb FAB-1500-2600TS. Despite the name (caliber), its actual weight was 2.5 tons. The warhead was cast, with a wall thickness of about 100 mm. FAB-ZOOOM-46 and FAB-ZOOOM-54 each contained 1,400 and 1,387 kg of trotyl, and FAB-9000M-54 contained 4,297 kg of trotyl. Heavy high-explosive bombs rather intensively used in the Afghan war. So, in just three months of 1988, Tu-16 bombers dropped 289 FAB-9000M-54 bombs. However, the real effect of using high-explosive aerial bombs was small. The FAB-3000 shock wave lethal radius did not exceed 39 m, and 57 m for FAB-9000, respectively. Disabling contusions with bleeding from the nose and ears received the enemy, respectively, in a radius of 158 and 225 m. action in the mountains thick-walled FAB-1500-2600TS.

The design of the first German guided bomb implemented the ideas of Dr. Max Kramer from DVL (the German counterpart of TsAGI), confirmed by the results of research carried out under his leadership in the last pre-war years on stands and in wind tunnels. In 1938-1940 At the Berlin-Adlershot test site, experimental samples of radio-controlled versions of 250-kilogram bombs were tested. Despite the fundamental installation of the fascist leadership on the creation of weapons with only minimal development time, the PC-1400 (armor-piercing, 1400 kg) guided bomb project received adequate support. In 1942, prototypes were tested in the Baltic, and from August 29, 1943, bombs were used by German pilots in a combat situation in the Mediterranean.

The Americans also created their own guided bombs. Beginning in 1942, glide bomb - GB of 2000 pounds (907 kg) equipped with wings, tail tail and autopilot were used to attack the most protected objects. The long range of such a bomb - up to 32 km - allowed the bomber not to enter the zone of fire covering the anti-aircraft guns, but in terms of accuracy such planning bombs were much inferior to conventional unguided weapons dropped directly above the target. In 1944, the Americans tried to use more advanced GB-4 planning bombs with a television guidance system in Europe, but the equipment, well-developed in California and Florida, refused to work in a cool foggy climate.

The successful use of such weapons by the Americans against the North Korean facilities caused the intensification of similar work in the Soviet Union. To start in 1950, decided to test the captured "Fritz." This work involved KB-2 of the Ministry of Agricultural Engineering, which had already had experience using the German radio command guidance system "Kel-Strasbourg" both during tests in 1948 of captured Hs-293A cruise missiles, and in subsequent flight experiments with the Shchuka anti-ship missiles.

However, in the early 50s, simply reproducing a German guided bomb a decade ago seemed inappropriate. The use of a captured radio link, which fell into the hands of both Soviet and American specialists, did not ensure sufficient resistance of the weapon to various means of electronic warfare. Increased flight speeds of aircraft carriers required appropriate aerodynamic forms of suspended aircraft armament. Therefore, already in 1950, the Ministry of Agriculture applied to the government with a proposal to organize the development of three types of guided bombs - armor-piercing UB-1600B and high-explosive UB-2000 and UB-6000 (the figures in the name of the bomb corresponded to the mass in kilograms). It was planned that Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze would lead the development of guided bombs.

However, even with the implementation of all these innovations, guided bombs of the first generation had a significant drawback - for their dumping the plane had to approach the target at a distance of several kilometers at medium altitude, which made it vulnerable to artillery and especially air defense missiles. To ensure the survivability of the carrier, it was necessary to increase the range of the bombing. To solve this problem, the developers were offered to equip a guided bomb with a solid propellant rocket engine.

February 14, 1957 A.D. Nadiradze appeals to the Minister of Aviation Industry M.V. Khrunichev with the proposal to develop for front-line aviation a one-and-a-half URB-100 guided missile bomb with a combat range of 100-150 km. It was proposed to begin flight tests of such a bomb from 1958. For long-range aviation, the development of a guided missile bomb of 7500 kg, dropped from a carrier at a distance of 300-500 km from the target, was envisaged. According to the current classification, the proposed weapons belong to the category of aviation guided ballistic missiles on solid fuel. However, these plans were not implemented, and the development of the Condor and BWM-5 could not be completed due to a number of clearly subjective and relatively objective circumstances.

By the mid-1950s, GSNII-642 was one of the organizations of Minaviaprom, in which Vladimir Nikolaevich Cheleomey OKB-52 was formed in 1955. Having achieved certain successes in the development of P-5 cruise missiles deployed on submarines, which were intended to defeat large coastal objects with nuclear warheads, V.N. Chelomei was interested in expanding the development and research and development base of his organization, and in particular in attracting GSONI-642 experienced specialists in homing systems for the development of anti-ship missiles. In accordance with the order of Minaviaprom dated November 6, 1957, GSNII-642 and OKB-52 were transformed into Scientific Research Institute-642 with a branch of OKB-52, headed by V.N. Chelomey. The main task assigned to NII-642 was the creation of jet weapons for the Navy. Then NII-642 was eliminated as an independent organization and became a branch of the OKB-52 for the development of cruise missile control systems under Ordinance dated March 8, 1958 No. 293-140, which was assigned to develop anti-ship missiles P-6 and P-35. At the same time, the continuation of work on guided bombs and other former topics of GSNII-642 was entrusted to the newly organized design bureau attached to plant No. 642, isolated from SRI-642.

In fact, most of the specialists turned out to be in the structure of the OKB-52 branch and switched to naval topics. However, many of them were forced to go to other organizations. A.D. Nadiradze transferred to the Scientific Research Institute-1 of the State Committee on Ordered Technology, where he headed the work on the creation of solid-propellant guided ballistic missiles. Soon, the former participants of the development of guided bombs - V.I. Gogolev, L.V. Kryukov, G.F. Korol, E.A. Lang, K.N. Smirnov, E.N. Vladimirskaya, T.I. Yakubov and many others.

Along with these subjective reasons, the work on the guided bombs stopped in those years and due to objective circumstances. The development of anti-aircraft guided missiles seemed to make most of the important targets inaccessible to aircraft attack using conventional bomb and cannon weapons. The absolutization of the role of nuclear weapons, characteristic of the 50s, removed the task of increasing the accuracy of hitting bombs - the enormous power of ammunition made weapons equally effective with a maximum deviation from the target in tens and hundreds of meters. Finally, N. S. Khrushchev personally particularly keenly perceived the emerging changes in the assessment of the role of traditional means of warfare and, with his enthusiasm for his nature, began to curtail military aviation and the intensive development of rocket forces.

Ultimately, the dialectic of historical development was manifested in the fact that these circumstances, which seemed to be extremely unfavorable for A. D. Nadiradze and his comrades-in-arms, led them to impressive achievements in a more promising and significant area of national defense. The subjectivity of N. S. Khrushchev in assessing the capabilities of rocket weapons ensures the priority development of this area of military equipment. At the beginning of the 60s, under the leadership of A. D. Nadiradze, a controlled solid-fuel ballistic missile was created and first adopted in the country. In the following decades, his team developed the majority of strategic solid-fuel missiles in service.

As for the guided bombs, the development of means of warfare showed the fallacy of the cessation of work in this direction. Subsequent wars were local in nature and were conducted without the use of weapons of mass destruction. In an effort to improve the effectiveness of aviation weapons, Americans are returning to the development of guided bombs in the 1960s, and Soviet specialists in the 1980s. But at the same time, completely different technical solutions were used, based on the experience gained in the development of aircraft guided missiles in the 1950s and 1970s. The tasks of creating modern guided bombs in our country were already solved by other organizations and people who were not associated with the development of the “Seagull”, the first national bombs that were adopted for service, which was a completely original unmanned aerial vehicle.

In 1971, development work began on the creation of adjustable aircraft bombs KAB-500 and KAB-1500 with a laser homing head 27N. Development of KAB-500 was carried out in GNPP "Region". In parallel with the KAB-500L, an adjustable bomb with a television control channel KAB-500Kr was developed. It had a caliber of 500 mm. The bomb was intended to destroy stationary ground targets such as railway bridges, fortifications, communications centers, and so on. A correlation-type television guidance system provided the possibility of defeat and disguised targets. Unlike foreign counterparts, such as the American AGM-62 Walleye aerial bomb, which captures an optically contrasting target, the KAB-500Kr homing head detects the interposition of various optically contrasting objects. The target may not stand out from the terrain, and the bomb will point to a conditional point defined by a marker.

The KAB-1500L-Pr corrected aerial bomb is designed for use by front and long-range aviation aircraft. The bomb is used to destroy high-strength and deep-seated extremely important objects such as fortifications, nuclear ammunition depots, command posts and various small-sized targets. The bomb KAB-1500L-Pr has a semi-active laser homing system, which provides a circular probable deviation of up to 7-10 m during bombing. Moreover, instrumental errors of measurement accuracy constitute a significant amount of this indicator.

Cassette bombs in service with the Soviet Air Force in the 1980s consisted of cluster bombs caliber 250 and 500 kg. Cassette bombs are called here RBC - one-time bomb cassettes. RBCs are thin-walled aerial bombs designed for equipment with small fragmentation, anti-tank, incendiary bombs or anti-personnel and anti-tank mines. The cassettes have dimensions of high-explosive aerial bombs of caliber 100-500 kg and are denoted by a cipher, in which the abbreviated name of the cassette, its caliber and the type of equipment are marked (for example, RBC-250 AO-1). Different types of RBC differ from each other in the way they spread small bombs.

At the head of the cassette there is a glass into which the expelling charge of black powder is inserted and screwed into the remote fuse. When dropping the RBC, a remote fuse is triggered which operates after a set time on the path of the cartridge in the air and ignites the expelling charge. The pressure of the powder gases is divided into 2 parts; the bombs are pushed out of it and fall independently. Bomb breaking points due to their aerodynamic dispersion are distributed over a certain area, called the covering area. Depending on the angle that the axis of the cassette with the horizon line covered with when the bombs were pushed out it is limited either by a circle, if the angle is 90 °, or by an ellipse, if it is less than 90 °. The dimensions of the covering area depend on the speed of the cassette and the height of the opening.

Incendiary aerial bombs are designed to create fires and for direct destruction of manpower and military equipment by fire. The caliber of most incendiary air bombs ranges from 1.5 to 500 kg. Incendiary aerial bombs of 1.5-2.5 kg are equipped with thermite compounds based on termites (a mixture of oxides iron with aluminum) When burning termite, slags are formed with a temperature of 2500-3000 ° ? For the manufacture of thermite bomb shells, often, a combustible metal electron (aluminum alloy with magnesium) is used, which burns along with the termite Small incendiary air bombs are dropped from carriers in one-time bomb cassettes.

Incendiary air bombs of caliber 100-500 kg are filled with organic combustible substances (gasoline, kerosene, toluene), thickened to a gel-like state. High-molecular-weight aluminum salts, artificial rubbers, etc., are used as thickeners. it is crushed by an explosion into large pieces that are scattered over long distances and burn with a temperature of 1000-1200 ° C for several minutes. The fire mix adheres well to various surfaces and is difficult to remove from them. The combustion of the fire mixture occurs due to the oxygen of the air; therefore, a significant amount of carbon dioxide forms in the radius of action of the incendiary bombs.

In the open press, there are data on only two domestic chemical air bombs - HB-250 and HB-2000. The length of the bombs is 1392 and 2428 mm, diameter is 303 and 535 mm, respectively. No information on the effect of the poisoning agent for these and other chemical bombs is given in the open press. And in many closed descriptions of bombs and missiles, the substance of a chemical warhead is indicated only by an index, for example, the P-35. Circulates information that the Russian military in the mid-1990s. The USA and NATO gave detailed data on domestic chemical weapons, but this document inside the country still has a “secret” stamp. It is not difficult to guess that the Soviet and Russian air forces were and are armed with nuclear and bacteriological warheads.

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Page last modified: 16-01-2019 13:13:14 ZULU