Tank Support Combat Vehicle
The BMPT tank support combat vehicle is a development that has no equal in the world. Its powerful weapons set and heavy armour protection correspond well with the Russian nickname "Terminator". But in 2010, Chief of Armaments of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Vladimir Popovkin said that the BMPT, along with the 2S25 and BMD-4, would not be accepted into service due to the armored vehicles being developed on chassis' from the Soviet era. The BMPT "Terminator" was officially adopted by the Russian army, but the supply of weapons to the troops of the sample was not made.
The tank support vehicles (BMPT) "Terminator" will appear in the Central Military District (TsVO) in 2018. This was reported on 17 May 2018 by the district commander, Lieutenant-General Alexander Lapin. "This is a good combat vehicle, I tested it in combat conditions, it will be in the troops of the district this year," he said.
The BMPT is built on the basis of the mass-produced T-72 battle tank. Modernization of the T-72-type battle tanks into the BMPT combat vehicle can change tactics of combat actions and significantly increase fighting efficiency of tank units. The new combat vehicle features enhanced armor protection and is equipped with powerful armament capable of destroying anti-tank capable ground and air targets and infantry, while operating in a common battle formation. Its main armament consists of two 30-mm 2A42 automatic cannons, a coaxially-mounted 7.62-mm PKTM machine gun with an electromechanical drive, and four launchers with laser-guided Attack-T anti-tank missiles.
The BMPT tank support combat vehicle combines powerful weapons with heavy armour protection which facilitate armour support operations, in particular by defeating tank-dangerous targets of an antitank missile system crews type, as well as autonomous operations to reinforce infantry units, protect troop columns and installations, and defeat terrorist groups.
The BMPT's hull is the same as that of the T-72 battle tank. It is provided with explosive reactive armor (ERA) on the frontal armor plate, ERA-applied screens to protect side plates, as well as grilled shields to protect the hull rear. The welded turret is provided with a filler and built-in ERA. The distinguishing feature of the BMPT combat vehicle is its low-profile turret mounted on a tank chassis. The turret is equipped with up-to-date weapons for defeating antiarmor-capable targets and enabling tanks to advance, leaving close antiarmor-capable targets for the BMPT to take care of. The BMPT crew consists of five men.
The BMPT armament can effectively defeat both lightly armored ground and aerial targets and heavily armored tank-type ground targets. Its main armament consists of the 30mm 2A42 automatic gun and coaxially-mounted AG-30 or AGS-17A grenade launcher stabilized in two planes, and the Kornet ATGM system provided with a semiautomatic jamproof laser-guided system. The BMPT is additionally armed with two AG-30 grenade launchers or two 7.62mm PKTM machine guns with an electromechanical drive and a day/night sight combined with the Agat-MR optronic sight. The additional weapons are arranged on fenders.
The vehicle's fire control system includes a multichannel sight and a panoramic low-level light television (LLTV) sight, providing detection and identification of small-size targets at long ranges by day and night in adverse weather conditions. Three operators in the BMPT provide quick detection and engagement of three different targets in the all-round sector.
The turret-mounted 7.62mm machine gun provided with an electromechanical drive and the PNK sight serves as an auxiliary weapon. The BMPT has a built-in dozer equipment for digging in. The vehicle can be equipped with the KMT-8 treadway mine plow and the EMT electromagnetic device. A diesel-electric set rated at 5 kW is installed in an armored compartment on the right fender.
|Combat weight||47 tons|
|Maximum speed||65 km / h|
|Cruising range||550 km|
|gun||2 x 30 mm 2A42|
|machine gun||1 x 7.62 PKTM|
|guided missile||4 "T-Ataka" 130 mm|
|Commander's sight||Panoramic with TV channel and laser rangefinder|
|The engine type||B92C2 Multi-fuel diesel|
|power||1000 HP (736 kW)|
Object 781, 782, 787
Work on the BMPT or Object 199 "Ramka" ["Frame"] started in the second half of the 1990s, but the first attempts to create such a machine were made back in the early 1980s. At the time, the experience of existing military conflicts has shown that the traditional use of tanks and infantry fighting vehicles is becoming increasingly problematic due to a variety of anti-saturation of defense complexes, including various missile systems.
The main executor of works on creation BMPT was appointed CB Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant Minselhozmasha (GSKB-2), headed by VL Vershinskaya, co-executor of developer weapon system was chosen for BMPT known Tula Instrument Design Bureau (KBP), which was led by Chief Designer A.G.Shipunov. GSKB-2 set out to build a new class of combat vehicles in 1985, when there were scientific research to determine the shape of the combat vehicle. The main armament BMPT initially was performed in 2 versions. In the press, they are often referred to today as "Object 781" and "Object 782."
The chelyabinsk prototypes were the object 781, object 782, and the object 787. These prototypes used the T-72 chassis, but these prototypes were not the BMP-T. These were built by the Chelyabinsk tractor factory, and are not directly related to the Object 199 BMP-T built by Uralvagonzavod.
The military remembered the tragic consequences of the storming of Grozny on the night of January 1, 1995, when in close quarters on the outskirts of the city to the railway station almost point-blank shot was the 131st Maikop brigade burned about 50 tanks and military vehicles. Assault on the city was literally awash in the blood of Russian soldiers and officers. Thrown into battle without proper reconnaissance, unaccompanied by helicopters or infantry formidable fighting machine in tight city streets were easy prey Chechen RPGs.
In 1996, the war machine, designated the "Object 787" was ready. The experimental sample looked quite unusual. At the T-72 was disassembled gun, and on each side of the turret were installed 2nd 30-mm automatic cannon 2A72, coupled with a 7.62-mm machine guns. The data set as a forked tongue viper could fatally sting any opponent, so the car company named "Viper".
Object 199 "Ramka" BMPT T-90A
The position in combat grouping with tanks forces the BMPT to be protected by equivalent armor. The purpose of the vehicle differs from the Achzarit and BTR-T transporters. The task of BMPT (in the constructors’ assumption) is not safe transport of infantry in terrain threatened by direct enemy fire or in areas where operations of typical infantry transports are impeded (urban areas, mountains, etc). Rather, it is meant to provide fire support to tanks. Presented during the Ural Expo Mars 2000 in Nizim Tagile, BMPT (Object 199), was constructed in Ural Transport Machine Construction Bureau (UKBTM). The prototype was developed as the own initial of UKBTM and uses the T-72/90 tank chassis.
The 4th version of the BMPT developed in the Ural KB Transport Engineering was originally applied to the UKBTM chassis of the T-72 "tank of the future" - the T-90A. The chassis layout of the new BMPT "Frame 99" (Object 199) was first shown to the public in the summer of 2000 during the Nizhny Tagil exhibition. At Nizhny Tagil'2004 twenty five Russian enterprises showcased over 60 pieces of military equipment and arms. Foreign visitors have shown a special interest in the tank T-90S and the updated tank T-72, the BMPT combat vehicle with a rapid-fire gun and guided antitank missiles, as well as the MSTA self-propelled gun mount and the self-propelled howitzer Akatsia.
In 2008 it was reported that the order for the Combat vehicle for tank support would be made by UWZ for Kazakhstan, which purchased 10 BMPT units. According to the ground forces department of Rosoboronexport [ROE] Vyacheslav Gubarev, the order could have come earlier, but the customer could not determine the chassis, T-72 or T-90 as a platform. Originally it was planned to use Kazakh T-72, inherited from the USSR. However after calculation of the expenses it appeared that it is more reasonable to use T-90 as the platform. ROE noticed that Israel is actively exploring the upgrade market of Kazakhstan. In particular, the Israeli companies fitted local howitzer D-130 on KAMAZ. ROE intended to push off the competitor from this market.
In December 2009 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, on a working visit to the Urals Federal District, visited the Nizhny Tagil Institute of Metals Testing and assessed the specifications of modern Russian armored vehicles. Prime Minister Putin was particularly interested in the BMPT tank support combat vehicle, a new and unique fighting vehicle intended to destroy small soft and hardened targets on any terrain. The BMPT displayed its impressive combat potential while shooting at targets located 700 to 1,600 meters away. The Nizhny Tagil Institute of Metals Testing, which marked its 70th anniversary in 2009, is a unique agency specialising in research, production and testing of ammunition, weapons and military equipment at every stage of their development and production.
Hopes for the fielding of the BMPT were dashed in 2010 when the Russian MoD announced that funding for BMPT had been cancelled. Initially, it was reported that cause of the cancellation stemmed from the Russian defense minister’s (at the time, Anatoly Serdyukov) desire to build a more “Western” military. In short order, the BMPT, BTR-90 and further T-90S tank acquisitions were all cancelled. In 2011, the T-95 Black Eagle program was cancelled, but the cancellation was attributed to the development of a new universal chassis, the Armata, which was intended to incorporate many of the T-95’s features.
In September 2011 at Nizhny Tagil in the VIII International exhibition of arms, military equipment and ammunition included the presentation of the combat vehicle support tanks (BMPT) "The Terminator". BMPT is a multipurpose military vehicle that was created on the basis of the T-90S. During the presentation, visitors salon demonstrated in action arms control turret BMPT. As described by the manufacturer, the "Terminator" is intended to destroy enemy personnel, armed with antitank grenade launchers, missile systems and also in small arms. BMPT also capable of hitting light armored targets, enemy tanks and infantry fighting vehicles, helicopters and low-flying low-speed aircraft. Thanks to good security and high manuverability, the "Terminator" can be used effectively in fighting in the mountain woodlands and urban areas.
Russian enterprises promoted a number of their newest developments at the Eurosatory 2012 International Land Security and Defence exhibition held in Paris, France, on 11-15 June 2012. Major items of interest are the T-90S MBT upgrade, BMPT tank support combat vehicle, Kornet-EM antitank missile system based on the Tigr armored car, and Ural 6x6 hardened truck.
By one account the only BMP-T customer which opted for the T-90 chassis was Kazakhstan, which purchased 10 BMPT units. It was said that the tank support combat vehicle (BMPT) “Terminator” will release a joint venture NPK “Uralvagonzavod” and the Kazakh company in 2015. This is a bit confusing, as the Kazakh military did not seem to have any T-90 tanks.
One of the most interesting Russian developments of recent years is the combat support vehicle BMPT tank ( "Object 199" and "Terminator"). This armored vehicle is capable of acting in the same battle formations with tanks, finding and destroying various targets. The specific structure of weapons BMPT allows her to choose the most effective weapon in this situation, the firepower is best suited to hit the chosen target. In addition, the BMPT able to attack several targets simultaneously.
BMPT was developed in the late nineties, but was not adopted by the Russian Army. It should be noted, the project "Object 199" was not the first domestic development of its class. So, having a combined arms and capable of hitting different targets, in the 1980s the design office Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant has developed two variants of prospective combat vehicle.
It should be noted, the first proposal to establish a new armored vehicles on the basis of the tank, carrying small-caliber guns, machine guns, etc. appeared in the late 1950s, when it became clear that modern anti-aircraft self-propelled gun can effectively engage ground targets some. However, until that time, these ideas do not go beyond simple discussions. The impetus for the beginning of work on the topic has become a promising first experience of fighting in Afghanistan. Troops needed a new armored vehicle with a high level of protection, armed with cannons, machine guns and rockets capable of hitting manpower and equipment in various conditions. For example, there was a need for large angles of elevation of weapons needed for firing at targets on the slopes.
Some sources mention that the new system had the designation associated with its intended use, - "Mountain Tank." The term "tank support combat vehicle" came much later. The development of a new class of machines tasked GSKB-2 Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. Projects received the designation "Object 781" and "Object 782". In some sources "Object 782" appears as "Object 781, variant B". In addition, there are the designations "781, assembly 7" and "781, assembly 8 '.
Design work started in 1986. Chelyabinsk engineers have taken into account the requirements of the military and decided to create just two versions of a "mountain of the tank", characterized by a different set of weapons. At the same time both cars had to use the same chassis. The basis for the latter was the T-72B, which is made noticeable in the design changes.
??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? «?????? 781» ? «?????? 782» Object 781 - version of "A" in Kubinka The main difference between the first chassis BMPT from basic T-72B was the higher body. To accommodate the arms, ammunition and crew of the tank body has a new frontal part of the arrangement with other angles armor plates and large high fenders. In addition, a significantly raised the roof of the housing. Housing protection level has remained the same: the frontal projection withstand artillery shells hit, and the sides and roof protect the crew from small arms bullets and shells of small-caliber cannons. Chassis "mountain tanks" were made of aggregates production of T-72B, which was to affect their powerplant and chassis. The modified chassis apparently was equipped with a diesel engine power B-84-1 840 hp Chassis on each side had a total of six road wheels with torsion bar suspension, rear drive and front wheel steering and three support rollers. ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? «?????? 781» ? «?????? 782» Object 781 - version "B" in Kubinka In front of the case both BMPT planned to place the jobs of the driver (in the center) and two shooters at the beads. Behind them were fighting compartment with armament. The overall layout of the two promising options armored vehicles looked like "mountain tanks' mainly differed only in armament. Machine "Object 781" had an original set of weapons, it is not characteristic of Soviet tanks of the last decades. On the roof of the tower was proposed to establish at once two combat unit with arms. Each of these units are equipped with 30-mm automatic cannon 2A72 with PKT coaxial machine gun 7.62 mm. On the outer sides of the modules can be mounted launchers for anti-tank missiles. During combat modules to cover the car from the side and rear attacks proposed to install two large-caliber machine gun NSV. In order to attack targets in the forward hemisphere "Object 781" had two automatic grenade launcher and two PKT machine gun. One grenade launcher and machine guns were placed in developed nadgusenichnyh shelves in front of the machine. Remote control system allows the shooter to direct the weapon at the target within a relatively small sector. For guidance arrows-weapons grenade throwers had their own periscope sight. "Object 781" had an impressive ammunition: 550 rounds for automatic guns, 2,000 rounds of ammunition for each gun and grenades, 300 grenade launchers each. The number of launchers for anti-tank missiles could reach six, but on the existing photo of the prototype "object 781" can be seen only two transport-launch container. In combat units were smoke grenade launchers. ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? «?????? 781» ? «?????? 782» The crew of "Object 781" consisted of seven persons: a driver and two hand-grenade throwers (their place is in the front of the case), commander and gunner, and two feed arrow-gunner, were located in the fighting compartment. As follows from the data available, the commander and gunner perspective "mountain of the tank" could be steered separately, two gun-machine gun combat units. It has a set of machine-guns and rocket-propelled grenades as well increased the firepower of the machine and the number of simultaneously attacked targets. Simple yet estimates show that the "Object 781" could simultaneously attack six goals: using two sets of weapons in the course nadgusenichnyh shelves, two combat modules and two stern guns. Of course, exchange machine guns and grenade launchers, which had no high-grade guidance systems had limited effectiveness. Stabilizing the lack also not conducive to high accuracy of fire guns, arranged on the housing. Nevertheless, the crew was able to observe the situation on the battlefield, as well as to fire in any direction and use the most suitable for a particular purpose weapon, not having large dead zones. The "Object 782" meant the use of a fighting unit with a different composition of weapons. This machine was to get the classical tower design. The photo of the prototype of "mountain tank" can be seen that the tower is similar to the corresponding unit of infantry fighting vehicle BMP-3, from which it can be assumed about its borrowing. Nevertheless, the first impression is deceptive. For the "Object 782" new tower was designed only resembles a combat unit of the BMP-3. Tower perspective BMPT received protivosnaryadnym booking, output protection level to an acceptable level. ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? «?????? 781» ? «?????? 782» Property 782 The main weapon of "the mountain of the tank," offered to make a 100-mm gun-launcher 2A70 and coupled with her gun 2A72 30 mm caliber. Behind the tower is a side unit with a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun designed for shooting sideways and forwards. Using the total for the two armored tank chassis support it has led to the fact that the "Object 782" also had to carry two automatic grenade launcher and two machine guns located in the fenders. On the sides of the tower were smoke grenade launchers. A typical "Tank" look promising machines allowed to place in the fighting compartment 50 shots for 2A70 gun, including up to four run through the barrel of guided missiles "Bastion", 500 30 mm rounds, 1,000 rounds of ammunition for each gun and 300 grenades per grenade launcher. As is the case with the "Object 781", "Object 782" had a crew of seven. Location of the crew members was similar but had some differences. In front of the building has a driver and two gunners, were in a twin tower commander and gunner, and a tower with areas for two shooters who ran the onboard machine guns. Using a tower with a powerful weapon impact on the maximum number of simultaneously engaged targets. Nevertheless, the loss of the possibility of attack a "complementary" target compensated firepower 2A70 gun. In 1987, the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant has built one prototype "Object 781" and "Object 782", which were used in the tests. According to some sources, only one chassis was assembled under the project, which were installed in series two versions of the combat units and other equipment. Nevertheless, there are enough photos, which simultaneously embodied both the "mountain of the tank", which indicates the existence of two test machines, one of each type. Shortly after the completion of the prospective car was taken to the Alabino, where they demonstrated the leadership of the armed forces. Tests were conducted on two armored cars Chebarkul training ground in the Chelyabinsk Region. During the tests focused on the weapons and firepower of the new "mountain of tanks." Both cars have shown their potential to destroy a variety of purposes by means of a weapons and showed their real potential in certain situations. During testing fine-tuned machines. Thus, the prototype of "Object 731" to improve the accuracy of shooting guards got the frame structure. Tests two BMPT continued until 1990. By this time, the USSR Ministry of Defense leadership has had time to get acquainted with new techniques and to express their opinion. More interesting and promising was named "Object 781" with two separate combat units, equipped with 30-mm automatic cannon. In accordance with the decision of the military staff GSKB-2 Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant started preparing documents for pilot production. However, due to the new political trends at that time, many defense companies are having serious problems. In particular, in 1990, Chelyabinsk designers were ordered to cease all work on the projects for military purposes and to transfer the documentation on them to "Uralvagonzavod». Nizhny Tagil plant was uploaded their projects, as well as beginning to feel economic troubles. As a result of the project "Object 781" was postponed, so to speak, till the best times. The military did not have the opportunity to continue to finance the project, with the result that all the promising "mountain tanks" stopped. Two prototype "Object 781" and "Object 782" machines were sent to Kubinka, where it is still stored on one of the grounds of the museum of armored vehicles. Subjects combat vehicles, capable of supporting actions of various departments, including tanks, for some time has been forgotten. Work on the creation of a new BMPT resumed only in the mid-nineties. Their result was the famous car "Object 199".
The appearance in the troops of "Terminator-3" will radically change the nature of the fighting. Armed with two 57-mm cannons and powerful long-range missiles, the combat vehicle will not leave any chances both to the ground enemy, even to such high-tech NATO armored vehicles, and to airborne targets, a well-known military expert Alexey Khlopotov believes. “As you know, on the chassis of a platform of a heavy unified platform, the Armata planned to develop and manufacture a large number of combat and auxiliary equipment. Some information can be found on the web, while others are not yet known.
In addition to the well-known T-14 main battle tank, the T-15 heavy infantry fighting vehicle, and the T-16 armored repair and recovery vehicle, there was a lot of talk about the Terminator-3 fire support vehicle, he said. The military expert cited an excerpt from his publication of November 2016:
“As follows from the materials of the anniversary edition“ Ural Railroad Car Building Plant is 80 years old ”(S.Vustyantsev, Tankprom Library series, p.159), the new version of BMPT will have 57 mm caliber as the main weapon, but the armament module will Quite different. I quote: "A new fire support machine for the domestic armed forces is being developed today on a single base" Armata ". In addition to the above advantages of the base model (meaning the Armata platform - GKh), it received a much more powerful weapon system. The 30-mm cannon was replaced by the Iskra 57-mm automatic guns with a range of up to 16 km. Their front armor projections of the main battle tanks are capable of withstanding their armor-piercing projectiles today, but powerful ATGMs have been procured for them. "
Then he also noted: "The emergence of such a fire support vehicle effectively levels the efforts of many NATO companies and companies to create a modern, highly secure transport - MRAP, BTR and BMP. Information about the possible appearance of "Terminator 3" at that time caused the effect of a bombshell. All central publications wrote about this "hellish thresher of the 21st century" After more than two years, it is hardly remembered. “But in vain, for me, this development would be even more interesting than a tank or a heavy infantry fighting vehicle, not to mention BREM. technical forum. Maybe we really will see it this year? " - hopes Khlopotov.
Russia is generally making a choice in favor of 57-millimeter weapons, which will have larger ammunition and, therefore, fewer projectiles than Western models. During World War II, the Soviet Union adopted 57-mm anti-tank guns, traveling on wheels or mounted on armored chassis. After the war, the USSR created an anti-aircraft self-propelled unit ZSU-57-2, installing a double 57-mm rapid-fire gun on the chassis of the T-54 tank. Now the Russian Defense Ministry has decided that the guns on all future armored personnel carriers will be of the same caliber - 57 millimeters. “For all light combat vehicles (infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers and armored cars) a new maximum caliber of 57 mm has been chosen, explains Izvestia. - Such guns are strong in their versatility. They can not only destroy tanks, but also shoot down drones. Their rate of fire can be compared with a machine gun. So far, only Russia has been able to bring such weapons to mass production. Light armored vehicles with 57 mm cannons will take precedence over other combat vehicles of the same class. ” In addition to armored vehicles, a new 57-mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun is being developed in Russia. ZSU 2S38 "Derivation-Air Defense" is made on the basis of the BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle.
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