On the eve of the Great Patriotic War the Soviet military-industrial complex created a number of new other towns and cities for weapons development and manufacturing. The creation of such "town-forming enterprises" accelerated during the War, as much of the Soviet military industrial infrastructure was relocated beyond the reach of Hitler's advancing armies.
In response to the immense challenge of the unfolding East-West arms race, Stalin decided to create dozens of centers of research and development excellence in the USSR. Some of these so-called "Naukograds" [Science Towns] were "Akademgorodok" [Academic Cities} devoted to basic research. Others were secret cities which were to provide the technical foundation for Soviet military technology - sputniks, long-range missiles, thermonuclear warheads of extreme yield. Among the work performed in such places were chemical, biological and nuclear weapons research and manufacturing, enrichment of plutonium, space research, and military intelligence work.
Collectively, these secret cities are known as zakrytye administrativno-territorial'nye obrazovaniia (ZATO), many of which were built by slave labor from the Soviet GULAG. During the cold war many of Russia's towns and cities, including some of its largest, were 'closed cities'. Anyone with a foreign passport was forbidden to enter, and many were even out of bounds to Russian citizens. These closed cities provided the technical foundation for Soviet military technology including chemical, biological and nuclear weapons research and manufacturing, enrichment of plutonium, space research, and military intelligence work. This meant that large numbers of highly qualified scientists and researchers were concentrated in these geographical areas, developing new technologies but isolated from the global research community. With Glasnost and the fall of the Soviet Union, all of the major cities were opened for collaboration in civil research and the slow process of breaking down the barriers of secrecy began.
Such "secret cities" were known only by a postal code, identified with a name and a number. Originally, the number following the city was the distance in kilometers the facility was located from the city. In practice, the numbers were in some instances arbitrarily assigned, and changed from time to time, to obscure the actual location of the installation. Thus, the All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) was initially known as Arzamas-60, a postal code designation to show that it was 60 km from the city of Arzamas. But the "60" was considered too sensitive, and the number was changed to "16." In 1947 the entire city of Sarov (Arzamas-16) disappeared from all official Russian maps and statistical documents. The facility has also been known Moscow-300, the town of Kremlev, and Arzamas-75. Zlatoust-20 is probably the same as Zlatoust-36, and Kurchatov-21, Moscow-21, Moscow-400 and Semipalatinsk-121 are almost certainly the same as Semipalatinsk-16.
The naukograds reflect the character of the Soviet system of organising the society to a high degree of purity. More generally, the secret cities were a natural expression of the Soviet emphasis on secrecy, and strict controls on the internal movement of the population. But they were not entirely unique to the Soviet system. For instance, in 1915, Britain built a massive new war factory on the Solway River. HM Factory Gretna employed 30,000 women and men manufacturing cordite for ammunition. The two new Townships of Eastriggs and Gretna were created to house many of the workers who built and worked in the factory. But the new communities did not officially exist because of the secrecy surrounding the operation. Gretna and Eastriggs were referred to by their codename "Moorside" in Government circles. Conan Doyle describes those townships as Miracle Towns, because the houses were not just thrown up without thought. They were designed by prominent architects of the day to modern Garden City principles. Cinemas, Dance Halls, Schools, Churches, State Controlled Public Houses and Leisure Facilities were provided for the needs of the munitions workers. The United States employed a similar philosophy with the Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb during World War II, building secret cities at Hanford, Washington, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Many Soviet era defense plant are, in some ways, a throw-back to a US factory-town. The defense plant is a mini-city in itself, with its own apartments, doctors, clinics, restaurants, and power plants. Outside of Moscow and St. Petersburg, defense plant employees usually live in company apartments, shop in company stores, and eat in company cafeterias. Up to 80 percent of a defense plant's budget goes to maintaining these social services. The plant manager is often as concerned with making deals to bring in potatoes and bread to feed his people as with joint venture agreements, and these and other transactions are often conducted on a barter-basis.
The "secret cities" share these characteristics, but they were separated from other urban areas, self-contained, and protected by fences and guard forces. The secret cities require a special permit for entrance, and are usually surrounded by a concrete wall. Personnel working in the Soviet nuclear complex were under heavy surveillance by the KGB, and underwent an intensive screening process, and their activities were closely monitored. Soviet-era control systems relied heavily on keeping personnel and materiel in secret cities and facilities, closely monitoring nuclear industry personnel, and severely punishing control violations.
The facilities could grow to considerable size, with tens of thousands of employees and dependents. With schools, stores, and recreational facilities, these secret cities contained everything a normal city might have. The selection of goods was often much better than a normal Soviet city, a reward for the difficult lifestyle and secrecy required by the job. Many of these cities are now "open," but remain engaged in military-industrial work. In present Russia, 3 million people live in such naukograds. The problem is what to do with these cities after the end of the militarized East-West contest.
According to one estimate, there are at least 40 known ZATO, ten of which are dedicated to nuclear weapons development and production. In addition, there are thought to be at least 15 ZATO in existence that cannot be accounted for. Other sources suggest that there are thirty-eight localities believed to be secret cities. Seventeen secret cities are categorized as a gorod (city) or gorsovet, a rayon-independent district of a larger size that is largely urban, but usually containing rural locations as well. Gorod/gorsovet secret cities appear to be large manufacturing and research facilities, usually with populations above 20,000. The remaining twenty-one districts are designated as Posyolok Gorodskogo Tipa [PGT] or "Urban-Type Settlement". PGT secret cities are smaller, under 20,000 in population (often ranging down to only a few thousand). These secret urban-type settlements appear to be garrisons for military installations or research/manufacturing centers of secondary importance.
- Cities in bold are the most commonly used designations, while other entries represent alternative designations or entities of uncertain provenance.
- Cities in italic have been mentioned in only one source, and in some instances probably represent alternative designations for more well attested cities. All others have appeared in at least two different sources
- All cities are in the Russian Federation unless otherwise noted
- NA=Not Available
The following list is evidently incomplete in at least two respects. In many cases it is not possible to correlate the letter-box address with a specific facility or enterprise, though in more than a few cases there are several promising candidates in the area. Prominent examples include Naro-Fominsk-5, Nizhny-Tagil-39, Golitsyno-2, and Zagorsk-7. It will also be apparent that many classes of facilities, such as ICBM bases or test ranges, are incompletely represented in this list, though presumably they were all assigned postal code designations.
|Postal Code Name||Local Name||Oblast/Kray/ASSR||Rayon|
|???||Sibirskiy PGT||Altayskiy Kray||??|
|Arzamas-16||Sarov gorod / Kremlev||Nizhegorod oblast||Diveevskiy|
|Arzamas-60||Sarov gorod / Kremlev||Nizhegorod oblast||Diveevskiy|
|Arzamas-75||Sarov gorod / Kremlev||Nizhegorod oblast||Diveevskiy|
|Bologoe-4||Ozernyy PGT||Tver oblast||Bologovskiy|
|Chelyabinsk-40||Ozersk gorod||Chelyabinsk oblast||Kyshtym gorsovet|
|Chelyabinsk-65||Ozersk gorod||Chelyabinsk oblast||Kyshtym gorsovet|
|Chelyabinsk-70||Snezhinsk gorod||Chelyabinsk oblast||Kaslinskiy|
|Chelyabinsk [?]||Trezhinsk gorod||Chelyabinsk oblast||???|
|Chita-46||Gornyy PGT||Chita oblast||Uletovskiy|
|Dombrovskiy-3||Komarovskiy PGT||Orenburg oblast||Yasnenskiy|
|Golitsino-2||Krasnoznamensk gorod||Moscow oblast||Odintsovskiy|
|Kapustin Yar-1||Znamensk gorod||Astrakhan oblast||Akhtubinskiy|
|Kartaly-6||Lokomotovnyy PGT||Chelyabisnk oblast||Kartalinskiy|
|Kosulino-1||Ural'skiy PGT||Sverdlovsk oblast||???|
|Krasnoyarsk-26||Zheleznogorsk gorod||Krasnoyarsk kray||Berezovskiy|
|Krasnoyarsk-35||Podgornyy PGT||Krasnoyarsk kray||???|
|Krasnoyarsk-45||Zelenogorsk gorod||Krasnoyarsk kray||Rybinskiy|
|Krasnoyarsk-66||Kedrovyy PGT||Krasnoyarsk kray||???|
|Kurchatov-21||(NA)||Semipalatinsk oblast, Kazakhstan|
|Mirnyy||Mirnyy gorod||Arkhangelsk oblast||Plesetskiy|
|Moscow-21||(NA)||Semipalatinsk oblast, Kazakhstan|
|Moscow-400||(NA)||Semipalatinsk oblast, Kazakhstan|
|Murmansk-60||Snezhogorsk gorod||Murmansk oblast||Polyarnye|
|Murmansk-130||Skalistyy gorsovet||Murmansk oblast||Polyarnye|
|Murmansk-140||Ostrovnoy gorsovet||Murmansk oblast||Levozerskiy|
|Murmansk-150||Zaozersk gorod||Murmansk oblast||Kol'skiy|
|Naro-Fominsk-5||Molodezhnyy PGT||Moscow oblast||Naro-Fominskiy|
|Novopetrovsk-2||Voskhod PGT||Moscow oblast||???|
|Nizhny-Tagil-39||Svobodnyy PGT||Sverdlovsk oblast||Nizhniy Tagil gorod|
|Ostashkov[?]||Solnechnyy PGT||Tverskaya Oblast||Ostashkovskiy|
|Penza-19||Zarechnyy gorod||Penza oblast||Kuznetskiy|
|Perm'-76||Zvezdnyy PGT||Perm' oblast||???|
|Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy-35||Vulkanniy PGT||Kamchatka oblast||Elizovskiy|
|Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy-50||Vilyuchinsk gorod||Kamchatka oblast||Elizovskiy|
|Semipalatinsk-16||Kurchatov||Semipalatinsk oblast, Kazakhstan|
|Semipalatinsk-121||Kurchatov||Semipalatinsk oblast, Kazakhstan|
|Shkotovo-17||Fokino PGT||Primorskiy kray||Shkotovskiy|
|Sosnovoborsk||Podgornyy PGT||Krasnoyarsk kray||???|
|Stupino-7||Prioksk PGT||Moscow oblast||Stupinskiy|
|Sverdlovsk-45||Lesnoy gorod||Sverdlovsk oblast||Nizhniy Tura gorsovet|
|Svobodnyy-18||Ugelgorsk PGT||Amur oblast||Svobodnenskiy|
|Tatishchevo-5||Svetlyy PGT||Saratov oblast||Tatishchevskiy|
|Tomsk-7||Seversk gorod||Tomsk oblast||Tomskiy|
|Uzhur-4||Solnechnyy PGT||Krasnoyarsk kray||Uzhurskiy|
|Yur'ya-2||Pervomayskiy PGT||Kirov oblast||Yur'yanovskiy|
- Secret and Closed Cities in the Russian Federation by the Center for Post Soviet Studies.This list of known secret or closed cities was originally compiled by Dr. Murray Feshbach and his research staff: Doug Goudie, Janel Lardizabel, Cathy Schaidler and Niki Gallozzi. The data was taken from a wide variety of Russian-language sources, including newspapers, journals and books. It appears as Appendix A in Dr. Murray Feshbach's Ecological Disaster: Cleaning up the Hidden Legacy of the Soviet Regime (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1995, pp. 110-111).
- POST-SOVIET TRANSITION AND RUSSIA'S "SECRET CITIES" By Trey Whittenton
- Russian Administrative Districts The Ethnic Territories of Russia GIS Project, Dr. Robert J. Kaiser also includes an interesting discussion of Rayon-Level Population Data Limitations and Considerations
- Don't Play With Nuclear Fire. The Open `Wounds' of the Closed Cities, Anatoliy Pokrovskiy, PRAVDA, 12/2/1995 -- Discussion of Russia's closed cities in the post-Cold War era.
- From Nuclear War to the War of the Markets, Pilar Bonet, EL PAIS, 11/7/1995 -- Report on the transition of Russia's secret defense research laboratories to the post-Cold War environment.
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