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Krasnoyarsk Machine-building Plant (Krasmash)

Krasnoyarskiy mashinostroitel'nyi zavod (Krasmash)

Address: 29 Krasnoyarsky Rabochy Newspaper Prospect, Krasnoyarsk 660123, Russia
Tel: (3912) 33-66-01, 33-66-02, 33-65-37, 33-48-95
Telex: 288122 KPH SU
Fax: (3912) 33-48-91 E-mail: Activity: production of rockets and rocket engines
Status: state enterprise
Subordination: Russian Space Agency
Former Subordination: Ministry of General Machine-building of USSR
Former names: Production Association (PO) "Krasnoyarsk Machine-building Plant", Plant #1001

By decision of the Board of Directors of JSC "Krasmash" since August 9, 2018 Alexander F. Gavrilov was appointed the general director of the company. The decision of the Board of Directors was announced by the executive director for the implementation of defense programs of the State Corporation Roskosmos. Frolov at the meeting of the management staff of Krasmash JSC on August 8.

Vladimir Afanasyevich Kolmykov was transferred to Moscow to the post of general director of one of the leading enterprises of the rocket and space industry. Oleg Petrovich expressed his gratitude to Vladimir Afanasievich for his effective work at Krasmash and wished success to his successor. "Today not only Krasmash, but the whole country is looking at you," he said to AF. Gavrilov.

By 2016 the enterprise was under a large-scale technical modernization of production for the new and prospective products of rocket and space technology. The total amount of investment costs will be more than 16 billion rubles. By the end of the year, the company will have handed over 3 renovated sites, and by 2019 it is planned to complete the modernization of the entire production.

According to Director General of JSC "Krasmash" Alexander Nazarko, the modernization will allow to produce not only more modern equipment and components for the defense industry, but also to expand the range of civilian products. Thus, the enterprise plans to establish a production of parts for oil platforms operating in the Arctic, as well as to take part in the creation of deep-sea research vehicles. The Chairman of the Board of JSC “MIC” Oboronprom” Sergei Sokol is sure that the investments which are being made by the state to renew the productive capacities of the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant, testify of the high value of the product at the federal level. “Scientific and production - technical experience, which has been created at the plant for years of its operation, lets us talk about the great prospects of our Krasnoyarsk enterprise”, - Sergey Sokol said.

Victor Tolokonsky noted that the ongoing modernization of the plant would ensure the plant a long-term prospect and confidence in the future. “The development of capacity of the enterprise is not only important for the defense of the country, but also for the economy of the Krasnoyarsk Kray. This will develop cooperation within the territory. Even now, the largest industrial companies of the territory buy the equipment at “Krasmash”, - said the Governor. - In addition, the region cannot develop science and education, without real tech industrial production, and it is difficult to overestimate the role of the plant.

Long time operation of “Krasmash” had won the authority and credibility of the country’s leadership, which is confirmed by the investments that the state allocates for the modernization of the enterprise”. After inspecting the production and meeting with the administrative board of the plant Victor Tolokonsky presented the Director General of JSC “Krasmash” Alexander Nazarko with the merit badge of Krasnoyarsk Kray “For Labor Merits”, marking his long-term contribution to the development of the strategic enterprise.

Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant is implementing the program of modernization of its equipment, which was last updated in Soviet times, in the 1960-70s. The official cost of the project has been declared at 16 billion rubles in 2013 (0.5 billion dollars). The process is under constant control of the Russian Defense Ministry and its head Sergey Shoigu.

In 2016 new equipment came to the plant. This is the VLC 4000 ATC + C1 - a modern carousel lathe with computer control. Such equipment is made by the Czech engineering company TDZ Turn, founded in 2006, which works in partnership with the German Siemens. Its website openly states that the Czechs are selling these machines to Russia, where their partner (distributor) is a company KR Prohm (originally the division of Kovosvit). To Russia, the Czechs deliver the machines of the latest series. The first CNC controlled horizontal lathe HLC series was transfered to Czech customer in 2014. Till the end of 2016 there were another 5 horizontal lathes to Czech or Russian customers.

"State Order 2016 it regard to the Sineva missiles will be executed promptly and fully; all components are manufactured, the assembly of the products is close to the finish," Krasmash General Direcotr Nazarko reported on Saturday to the Russian Defense Minister Army General Sergey Shoigu.

The general director also said that the modernization carried out at Krasmash would guarantee the company with orders for the long term. "Modernization will make it possible to manufacture a new generation of products with new technologies," stressed Nazarko. According to him, it is now possible to expand the range of products for the Ministry of Defense "in terms of diameter, and weight, and size characteristics." "The plant boldly looks into the future and is willing to work on a new subject," said the CEO, adding that the problem of import substitution cannot be applied to the plant, because all the components that are used by Krasmash are Russian products.

In February 2017 Krasnoyarsk Machine Building Plant (Krasmash, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory) received from the Ministry of Defense an order for the production of ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads, which should replace the obsolete Soviet missiles, the shelf life of which will expire in 2018-2019. Among them are the sea-based P-29RMU2 Sineva missiles (according to NATO classification, SS-N-23 Skiff), which is mounted on nuclear submarines of the Dolphin class and its modification of P-29RMU2.1 Liner. These missiles have been tested and put into service of the Russian Navy.

But the most important project of Krasmash is the production of strategic nuclear land-based RS-28 Sarmat missiles (in NATO classification, Satan-2), which is the modernization of Soviet missile R-36M (in NATO classification, Satan, the timing of its operation expires before 2020). This missile will only begin the tests in 2017, but now the Russian propaganda extols its tactical and technical characteristics.

Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu demanded that the schedule for the modernization of the Krasmash plant be maintained, with the production of the latest Russian Sarmat missiles planned at the facilities, the press service of the military department said. "I want to emphasize that any failure in the modernization of technological lines can lead to a disruption in the terms established by the master plan. The whole gap, the limit that we had in stock, is exhausted, and now we should strictly follow the confirmed schedule," Shoigu said during a February 2017 conference call at the Defense Ministry.

Russian Defence Minister General of the Army Sergei Shoigu, who arrived in Krasnoyarsk in June 2017, received reports from the heads and designers of the Krasmash plant about the future developments of the plant. The plant has been producing missiles for the Armed Forces and the Space Industry. Vladimir Kolmykov, the Krasmash General Director, reported to the head of the military department on the progress of the state defence order, modernization of the production base of the plant to produce prospective products. The Minister of Defence watched informational footage about testing of Krasmash products. Moreover, Sergei Shoigu inspected the organization of the educational process at the Military Engineering Institute of Siberian Federal University.

Enterprise Director General Vladimir Kolmykov reported to the minister that the plant has started large-scale modernization in 2014 that will enable Krasmash to be involved in the development of prospective military products, production of new military hardware and special orders. The upgrading of the plant's production capacities is expected to be completed in 2020. This year, the enterprise plans to produce another batch of Sineva intercontinental ballistic missiles, which are in service with Project 667BDRM strategic nuclear-powered missile submarine cruisers, Krasmash said.

The project is implemented for the production of new, advanced missile and space equipment in the framework of the State program of the Russian Federation "Space activities of Russia for 2013-2020". Now the factory is engaged in serial production of missiles "Sineva", basic modules of upper stage and various components for the enterprises of Russian defense industry.

On 31 August 2017, an interdepartmental commission under the direction of O.P.Frolov, a member of the board of the Military-Industrial Commission of the Russian Federation, arrived at Krasmash on a working visit. The commission included the leadership of the State Corporation Roskosmos, JSC GRC imeni V.P. Makeeva and other leading enterprises of the Civil Code on space activities. During the visit to production facilities, the General Director of JSC Krasmash VA. Kolmykov familiarized the working group with the progress of reconstruction and modernization of the plant's capacities at the present stage. Then a meeting took place, at which the results of the conducted activities were considered and compliance with further scheduled schedules.

The new Russian intercontinental ballistic missile system ‘Sarmat’ was unveiled at Krasmash factory in Krasnoyarsk on 08 March 2018. According to the first deputy director general of Krasmash factory Aleksander Gavrilov, the Sarmat missile is being produced at the factory “as part of the Armed Services Procurement under the guidance of the Ministry of Defence and Roscosmos.”

Russian President Vladimir Putin earlier described Sarmat as “new missile complex carrying heavy ICBM.” “At a weight of over 200 tones it has a short active part of the flight which makes it’s interception with missile defence systems difficult,” he said. Putin also mentioned during his annual address to the Federal Assembly, that Sarmat “practically has no range limits.”

The Krasnoyarsk company had beaten off major rivals to win a 205 million rouble contract for 16,000 Olympic torches, some 2,000 of these being for the Paralympics. There were claims the torch was a 'techno wonder' but it has become the butt of jokes over its performances so far. The first time it suddenly extinguished was as it was carried through the Kremlin moments after the relay was officially launched by President Vladimir Putin in a televised ceremony on Red Square.

The flame was re-lit by a nearby official with his cigarette lighter. Sochi Organising Committee head Dmitry Chernyshenko blamed the mishap on a valve that had not been opened properly, and said people should 'not pay any attention' to what had happened.

But other similar cases were recorded. Then, by 22 October 2013, there were claims the torch was 'engulfed by flames' during the nationwide relay. This time Chernyshenko was forced to admit that there was a 'strong flame' while denying media there had been an explosion and a 13-year-old girl had suffered light burns during the incident. There were no burns, the torch did not explode in the hands of the participant. The '13-year-old girl' was actually an adult employee of the legal service of the Sochi 2014 Organising Committee,' he explained. But a pro-Kremlin movement claimed that by 9 October the torch had gone out four times.

Mikhail Vasilyev, chief of the Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs of Krasnoyarsk region, insisted: 'No complaints against the Krasnoyarsk machine building plant had ever been lodged before. 'All the plant produced 'always worked and hit the target.'


Joint Stock Company "Krasnoyarsk Machine Building Plant" was founded in 1932. The main activity of the plant today is the production of rocket and space equipment. In late 1950s the Plant was ordered to start serial production of R-9 ICBMs, developed by OKB-1 (now Energia RSC). For production of missiles a so called Site 2 of the Plant was created in Krasnoyarsk-26 (Zheleznogorsk), next to the Mountain Chemical Combine, producing weapon-grade plutonium. [2]

In 1950s the Plant #1001 was subordinate to the State Committee on Defense Technology (GKOT). With establishment of the Ministry of General Machine-building (MOM) in 1965 the Plant was transferred to the 1st Main Administration of MOM and was renamed Krasnoyarsk Machine-building Plant.

In 1983, the plant was entrusted with the production of the 11C861 booster block, the manufacture of separate units and parts of the DM block, which were supplied to the Experimental Mechanical Engineering Plant, was started. In 1989, Krasmash began developing and releasing the basic modules of the Proton and Zenit launch vehicles for launching spacecraft into high-energy orbits.

After break-up of USSR reported to the Goskomoboronprom/ Ministry of Defense Industry of the Russian Federation. After disbandment of this Ministry in 1997 was resubordinated to the Russian Space Agency in 1998.

Krasmash concern and the Storm, Temp, Torch, Metallist, and mechanical plants were reorganized into a state enterprise Krasnoyarsk Engineering Plant by merger. On January 11, 1993, the Resolution of the Regional Committee for the Management of State Property No. 08-01 was issued on the basis of the order of the State Property Committee of the Russian Federation No. 7-r of January 5, 1993. In 1997 it began work on the base module of the DM-SL upper stage for the Zenit launch vehicle -3SL "for the project" Sea Launch ". Over the years of work in this direction, the company has mastered the production of fourteen modifications of the upper stages. On April 28, 2008, as part of the international program "Land Launch"

Under Department of Defense Defense Threat Reduction Agency Contract # HDTRA110D0006 RFP # HDTRA110R0008 (Includes: Contract, Sections B-J, Task Order, SOW, Modification 1), Krasmash was paid in June 2010 for work on Elimination of SS-N-18 Liquid Propellant Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBMs).

In 1964 V.P.Kotel'nikov was assigned a Director of the Plant. Later he was replaced by V.K.Gupalov.

Main Activity

Principal directions of space-related activity include:
  • production of kick stages for heavy space launch vehicles;
  • production of liquid rocket engines for spacecraft;
  • test firings of engines for rocket and space systems;
  • production of orbit correction engines for spacecraft;
  • production of steering machines for launch vehicles;
  • production of assemblies of automation systems for launch vehicles [1]
  • Krasmash is also known to produce sea-launched ballistic missiles and be engaged in dismantement of thereof.

Projects participated

Krasmash appears to be a diversified company, working on serial production of various kinds of articles, designed by different Prime Contractors.

  • In 1964 Krasmash was set responsible for serial production of RSM-40 (SS-N-8) SLBMs. Later it apparently also produced RSM-50 (SS-N-18) SLBMs [8] and possibly some others as well.
  • Krasmash participated or continues to participate in production of Proton and Kosmos launch vehicles [1].

Organizational Structure

Structure of Krasmash included 6 Productions, or individual plants:
  • Production of rocket and space technology;
  • "Chemical Plant" branch - Production of cryogenic products and stand base for test firing of liquid rocket engines;
  • Production of commodities for production and technological purposes and of consumer goods;
  • Production of means of technological outfitting;
  • Production of industrial refrigerating equipment;
  • Metallurgical and preparatory productions.
In late 1991 Krasmash Production Assn. was transformed from an Association to a Concern and 6 its Plants were re-registered as independent enterprises. These were:
  • "Fakel" chemical plant
  • "Shtorm" machine-building plant
  • "Metallist" metallurgical plant
  • plant of refrigerators
  • Plant of means of technological outfitting "Temp"
  • mechanical plant
"Shtorm" was a purely military production, others apparently served to support it. "Fakel" was engaged in test firings and later - neutralization and dismantlement of missiles, fueled by UDMH and N2O4.

All Plants, but Fakel, are located on one site. Fakel is located separately, 60 kilometers off Krasnoyarsk, not far from Krasnoyarsk-35/Sosnovoborsk. In 1992 Fakel applied for privatization. However, on 30 September 1992 by Directive of Goskomimushchestvo 5 out of 6 Plants, with exceptio of Plants of Refrigerators were transformed from Concern back into State Enterprise.

Production Capabilities /Testing facilities

Experimental base of Krasmash include:
  • Complex of stands for static testing under loading with external and internal pressure;
  • Complex of stands and facilities for investigation of mechanical properties and testing of materials;
  • Complex of facilities and equipment for chemical, spectral, gaseous analysis,non-destructive methods of inspection and magnetic measurements of materials, parts and assembly units, including X-ray, magnetic and fluid defectoscopy
  • Complex of stands for test firings of engines [1]

Economic Status

In early 1994 there was unrest prompt, by 4 month delay of salaries, closure of assembly shops for 1.5 months and cutting working week from 4 till 3 days. At that moment the Ministry of Defense owed 11.3 billions rubles [4](more than $7 millions).
Similar situation repeated in August 1997, when delays in salaries reportedly reached 9-10 months [6].

Employment: no data


Krasmash is exempt from privatization in accordance with the Decree of the Government #802 of July 18, 1996 [3].

Production Cooperation

Main industrial partners of Krasmash are:

International Cooperation

No data.

Conversion / Diversification

Non-space related directions of activity include production of:
  • details and assemblies for household refrigerators;
  • cooling and heating system for [mobile] refrigerators;
  • automatic tools for thermal processing of plastics;
  • equipment for production of mono- and policrystallic silicon;
  • meat processing equipment for small-scale production;
  • equipment for mini-bakeries;
  • equipment for enterprises of oil-producing and oil-processing industry;
  • -"- for natural gas industry
  • cutting and measuring tools;
  • non-standard equipment;
  • rigs, stamps, press-forms, etc
  • cryogenic products [1].
In February of 1998 Russian Government authorized Ministry of Finances and Vnesheconombank to take a loan of up to $40.5 millions to finance purchase of equipment for production of heating and cooling units for refrigerators at Krasmshzavod [7].


1. Directory of Russian Space Industry 1996-1997.-M.;ASCONT - p.B-37-38.
2. S.Golotyuk in: Novosti Kosmonavtiki #17, 1994, p.42-43.
3. Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation #802 of July 18, 1996 "About list of enterprises and organizations of defense complex, privatization of which is prohibited"/ Rossiyskaya Gazeta - 18 July 1996 - p.6.
4. Izvestia 15 February 1994, p.1.
5. Izvestia 16 December 1992, p.3.
6. Izvestia 29 August 1997 p.2.
7. Directive of the Government of the Russian Federation #136-r, 2 February 1998. - Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 13 February 1998, p.20.
8. Memorandum for START Treaty, 1997.

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