The Dombarovskiy ICBM Complex is approximately 45 nautical miles (nm) east of the city of Orsk in the southern Urals region. The Dombarovskiy ICBM Complex is located in southwestern Siberia, just east of the Ural Mountains. The complex support facility is approximately 20 nm northeast of the town of Dombarovskiy, with the launch sites deployed over an area about 30-nm square generally north and east of the town. Terrain in the region is gently rolling, with elevations ranging from about 850 to 1,350 feet. Drains are shallow and flow generally west to the Ural river. Few trees are apparent, and there is no evidence of extensive agricultural activity. Orsk is the largest city in the area and, except for Dombarovskiy and a few scattered villages, the area of deployment is sparsely inhabited. The region lies within the rain shadow of the Ural Mountains, which accounts for the light precipitation throughout the year. Summers are fairly warm, with an average temperature about 68° F in July. Winters are relatively mild compared to the general weather pattern in most of the Siberian USSR. Snow cover is normally limited to the period from early November to mid April. Maximum cloudiness over the region occurs from October through De cember when one-fourth or less of the days are clear; minimums are in February and March, and again in July and August when one-third to one-half the days are clear. Transportation facilities serving the Dombarovskiy Complex do not appear to be up to the usual quality of those found at most other complexes. It is not situated on a main rail line. The complex support facility and the rail-to-road transfer point are served by a spur from a single-track branch line running from Orsk through Dombarovskiy and continuing eastward. The existing road network is poor throughout the complex, and there are no first-class connec tions to Dombarovskiy. However, road construction is apparent between some of the launch sites, and they probably all will eventually be served by wellengineered roads. The complex was first notied in August 1964 when the complex support facility and 2 launch sites were present. From the status of these facilities, it was apparent that initial construction of the complex had commenced some time earlier.An unidentified rail-served installation 2.5 nm east of the complex support facility was present prior to construction of the complex. Subsequently construction started on 2 additional launch sites and expansion of the complex has continued until it consisted of 29 launch sites in 5 groups. The 6 sites in Launch Group A had the most Type IIIC launchers of any in the Soviet Union and was the only one with 5 launch groups. On 12 July 2006, Russia inaugurated a new spaceport with the launch of a Dnepr rocket from Dombarovskiy, a converted ICBM site located in the south of the country near its border with Kazakhstan. The Dnepr vehicle successfully carried Bigelow Aerospace’s Genesis Pathfinder inflatable demonstration mission into low Earth orbit (LEO). On July 26, a separate Dnepr launch from Baikonur Cosmodrome failed when its engines prematurely terminated 86 seconds into flight, causing the vehicle to crash 25 kilometers (15 miles) downrange. Three small satellites from Russia and Italy and several one-kilogram “CubeSats” were lost.
As of 01 July 2008 there were a total of 52 operational SS-18s deployed at Dombarovskiy, as well as 2 non-deployed SS-18s. The complex consisted of nine completed SS-9 launch groups (each group consists of six type TIC launch sites) and a tenth group, launch group A.
By 1973, of the 26 more hardened type IIIF launch sites under construction at five SS-9 complexes, the six sites at the Dombarovskiy ICBM Complex launch group A were the most advanced inconstruction. Additionally, it was the only deployed type IIIF launch group to have a type IIIX site and to have formerly completed type IIIC launch sites undergoing conversion to the type IIIF launch sites. Construction activity in launch group A at the Dombarovskiy ICBM Complex indicated that when completed the group would consist of 11 sites (one type IIX and ten type IIIF).
Launch group A, 5 nm west of the complex rail-to-road transfer point, is the oldest launch group at this complex and was completed by August 1966. No changes were noted in the group until December 1970, when construction began for new sites within or near this launch group. By March 1971 five launch sites, designated type IIIF, were under construction. The pace of construction for these five sites was very slow until November 1972, when construction was apparently halted. A resumption of construction activity was observed with the beginning of a program to convertthe formerly completed type IIIC launch sites to the more hardened type IIIF site started by April 1973.
Launch group A consisted of 11 sites: one type IIIX, six type IIIF, andfour type IIIC. The type IIIX site, site 75, was originally identified as a type IIIF launchsite under construction in December 1970, but was redesignated in March 1973 when construction activity, unique to type IIIX construction, was identified. Four of the six type IIIF launch sites (sites 72-74 and 76) were identified under construction by May 1971. The other two, sites 1A and 2A, were formerly completed type IIIC launch sites but were redesignated as type III Fs when conversion activity was identified. Based on observed activity, as of 1973 at least two and most likely all four of the completed type IIIC launch sites in this group also would be converted to the type IIIF site.
Site 75 could be confirmed as a type IIIX site when a type IIIX door and door housing ring were on the silo apron and a rectangularsubsurface building was under construction perpendicular to the silo apron. This building was similar in size (125 by 20 feet) and appearance to a building at the type IIIX sites at the Derazhnya and Pervomaysk SSM complexes and at the Tyuratam Missile Test Center. Construction at site 75 progressed slowly in the early stages, with the insertionof at least four silo wall segments into the site. Two of the segments appeared to be 30 feet high, while the other two were 20 feet high. A fifth segment was not seen at this site, although five segments were installed in the type IIIX sites at the Derazhnya and Pervomaysk SSM complexes. After the insertion of the segments no external construction at this site was observed. At that time a silo door and door housing were on the silo apron. When observed the silo door and door housing ring had been moved to a position under the bridge crane and the rectangular subsurface building was partially roofed.
New construction activity was observed at completed SS-9 launch sites 1A and 2A. This activity was identified as the beginning of aprogram to convert some of the type IIC launch sites to the more hardened type IIIF launch sites. At these two sites all type IIIC silo components including the silo door, silo liner, headworks, and personnel access were removed. The paving blocks were removed from the silo apron, the apron was widened and regraded, and new paving blocks were installed. Type IIIF launch site construction materials were first seen at site 2A, when the bridge crane was assembled and two silo wall segments were under construction on the apron. Launch site 1A was still being dismantled when observed.
New construction activity first observed at SS-9 launchgroup control site 3A indicated an increased group support role for this site. Two buildings had been started near the group support area. One building was next to one of the two original group support buildings, while the other building was approximately 300 feet further south. Another area of new construction was approximately 400 feet south of launch site3A. This area consisted of one semipermanent building under construction, and foundations for two more buildings. A small support camp was nearby with nine small buildings and eight tents.
New cable trenches were identified in the group connecting three of the type IIIF launch sites and the type IIIX site to SS-9 control site 3A. This indicated that control site 3A would at least have a portion of the group control responsibilities.
A large number of silo components were in the receiving area of the complex support facilities. There were four type IIIF silo doors, components for at least four type IIF silo door housings, two type IIIX headworks components, and a large amount of unidentified materials. This material confirmed that at least two of the remaining four completed SS-9 launch sites would be converted to the type IIIF launch site. The other two complete SS-9 launch sites also were expected to be converted.
On July 30, 1988, the first regiment armed with RS-20B Voyevoda missiles was placed on combat duty in the Dombarovka missile formation in the Orenburg region. With a takeoff weight of over 210 tonnes, the missile's maximum range is 11,000 kilometres and can carry a payload of 8,800 kilograms. The 8.8-tonne warhead includes ten independently targetable re-entry vehicles whose total power is equal to 1,200 Hiroshima nuclear bombs. A single missile can totally eliminate 500 square kilometres of enemy defences. By 1990, Voyevoda missiles had been placed on combat duty in divisions stationed outside of Uzhur, Krasnoyarsk Territory, and Derzhavinsk, Kazakhstan. Eighty-eight Voyevoda launch sites had been deployed by 1992.
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