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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Missile Defense Radar Sites

During the Cold War, both the United States and Russia built elaborate systems of spy satellites, radars, and computer networks to scan the skies for ballistic missiles and their deadly nuclear warheads. The US systems were pointed at the Soviet Union and the Soviet systems watched the Americas.

The Dnestr, Dnepr and Dauvaga radars at Skrunda, Mukachevo, Balkhash, Mishelevka, Olenegorsk, Sevastopol, known in the West as Hen House radars, were built in the 1960s and early 1970s. The Daryal radars, known in the West as the Pechora-type, were built at existing Hen House facilities at Skrunda, Mukachevo, Balkhash (Sary Shagan), Mishelevka and at new locations Baranovichi (Gantsevichi), Qabala (Gabala / Lyaki / Mingechaur), Pechora, Yeniseysk (Abalakova / Krasnoyarsk). These new radars were intended to replace the older Hen House radars.

Many radars no longer operate or suffer power outages. Only three of the nine modern large phased-array radars wre in service as of the late 1990s. Three have been deactivated or never completed, and three are inoperable or barely functional. Seven of the ten older, less capable Hen House radars are outside Russia in former Soviet republics, and some may be shut down for political reasons. The Soviet radar system was being modernized when the country fell apart. One of the new replacement radars, in Latvia, was torn down in May 1995. Russia won a temporary reprieve against closing two older Hen House radars in Latvia, but that agreement expired in August 1998. The radar was one of those covering the critical northwestern direction. Other radars used by Russia were in Ukraine, at Sevastopol and Mukachevo; in Azerbaijan, at Qabala; and Kazakhstan, at Balkash. Some are functioning, but there have been disputes over finances and personnel.

A coverage gap appeared after the closure of an obsolete Dnestr-M radar in the Latvian town of Skrunde, 150 km from the ex-Soviet Baltic country's capital Riga, in 1998. Russia leased ground-based radar stations in Baranovichi, Belarus; Sevastopol and Mukachevo in Ukraine; Balkhash in Kazakhstan; and Gabala in Azerbaijan. It also has radars on its own territory in Murmansk (arctic northwest), Pechora (northwest Urals), and Irkutsk (east Siberia).

Pechora LPAR

Hen House LPAR

LPARs - 2012

LPARs - 2013

LPARs - 2014

LPARs - 2015

Voronezh LPAR

Voronezh LPAR

ArmavirVoronezh Russia4500'N4107'E2009
BalkhashHen HouseCentral Asian Kazahkstan4637'N7431'E1967
BalkhashPechora OS-2Central Asian Kazahkstan4637'N7431'E19771982 2004
Baranovichi (Minsk) Volga 70M6Byelorussian Belarus5308'N2559'E19862001 ?
BarnaulVoronezh Ural Russia5334'N8348'E2020
ChekhovCat HouseMoscow Russia5523'N3643'E19741995 ????
Kaliningrad, PionerskyVoronezh-DM Western Russia5451'N 2010'E 20112014
Kiev [Chernobyl]Steel YardKiev Ukraine? 5116'N? 3014'E 1975? 1986
Komsomolsk-na-AmureSteel YardFar East Russia? 5033'N ? 13700'E 1979? 1989
KubinkaDog HouseMoscow Russia5531'N 3639E19681988
LekhtusiVoronezh LeningradRussia6016'N3032'E20052009
Mishelevka (Irkutsk)Hen HouseTransbaikal Russia5253'N10315'E19682020
Mishelevka (Irkutsk)Pechora OS-1Transbaikal Russia5251'N10311'E19792003 ? 2020
Mishelevka [Usolye-Sibirskoe]Voronezh-M Transbaikal Russia5251'N10311'E2020
Mukachevo (Lvov)Hen HouseCarpathian Ukraine4827'N2242'E19751991
MukachevoPechora RO-5Carpathian Ukraine4827'N2242'E198619912009
NikolaevSteel YardOdessa Ukraine4705'N3139'E1971???
OlenegorskHen HouseLeningrad Russia6809'N3354'E196319712019
OlenegorskPechora 3Leningrad Russia6809'N3354'E198219872019
OlenegorskVoronezh-MLeningrad Russia6809'N3354'E20162019
PechoraPechora RO-30Ural Russia6514'N5718'E197819832020
PechoraVoronezh Ural Russia6514'N5718'E2020
Qabala (Lyaki)Pechora RO-7 N. Caucasus Azerbaijan4033'N4725'E198219872012
Sary ShaganHen EggCentral Asian Kazahkstan4612'N7348'E
Sary ShaganHen NestCentral Asian Kazahkstan4612'N7348'E
Sary ShaganHen RoostCentral Asian Kazahkstan4612'N7348'E
SevastopolHen HouseOdessa Ukraine4435'N3323'E2008
SevastopolVoronezh Crimea4435'N3323'E2019
Skrunda (Riga)Hen HouseBaltic Latvia5641'N2201'E196319711998
Skrunda (Riga)Pechora RO-2Baltic Latvia5641'N2201'E198619911995
Sofrino (Pushkino)Pill BoxMoscow Russia5612'N 3745'E19781989
Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk) Pechora OS-3 Siberian Russia5808'N9244'E1983 XXX1990
Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk) Voronezh Siberian Russia5808'N9244'E2020

Russian news reports indicate the presence of a radar facility at Solnechnogorsk [5611'00"N 3659'00"E], which is rather far from any reported radar location.



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