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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Missile Defense Radar Sites

Russia managed to do what the USSR failed in its time: to create a comprehensive missile attack warning system. In the Soviet Union, until its collapse, there was a serious gap in the northeastern direction, not covered early warning radars, the North Pacific Ocean and partly Alaska. Submarine missile carriers of a potential enemy in the event of a full-scale nuclear war would be able to strike from these areas at our cities and military facilities. This direction in 1980 was supposed to be covered by the Daryal-U radar station, which was being built just near Yeniseisk. However, in 1987 Mikhail Gorbachev, succumbing to pressure from the United States, suspended the project. And in 1989, 90 percent of the finished station was dismantled. The "Gorbachev Gap" remained open for 28 years.

The Aerospace Forces are proposing including the construction of radiolocation stations for the nuclear attack warning system as part of a new post-2025 state armament program. “It is crucial for us to receive data about adversaries from other strategic aerospace directions. We know these places and are working actively so that the Defence Ministry includes this point in a state armament programme”, Anatoly Nestechuk, head of the command unit of the 15th Army of the Russian Special Purpose Aerospace Forces, said 05 October 2019, adding that in line with the ongoing plan, that 2021 will see a new radiolocation point in Vorkuta in northern Russia, in 2022, such a station will be built in Olenegorsk in the Murmansk Region, and in 2024 – in Sevastopol, Crimea.

During the Cold War, both the United States and Russia built elaborate systems of spy satellites, radars, and computer networks to scan the skies for ballistic missiles and their deadly nuclear warheads. The US systems were pointed at the Soviet Union and the Soviet systems watched the Americas.

The Dnestr, Dnepr and Dauvaga radars at Skrunda, Mukachevo, Balkhash, Mishelevka, Olenegorsk, Sevastopol, known in the West as Hen House radars, were built in the 1960s and early 1970s. The Daryal radars, known in the West as the Pechora-type, were built at existing Hen House facilities at Skrunda, Mukachevo, Balkhash (Sary Shagan), Mishelevka and at new locations Baranovichi (Gantsevichi), Qabala (Gabala / Lyaki / Mingechaur), Pechora, Yeniseysk (Abalakova / Krasnoyarsk). These new radars were intended to replace the older Hen House radars.

Many radars no longer operate or suffer power outages. Only three of the nine modern large phased-array radars wre in service as of the late 1990s. Three have been deactivated or never completed, and three are inoperable or barely functional. Seven of the ten older, less capable Hen House radars are outside Russia in former Soviet republics, and some may be shut down for political reasons. The Soviet radar system was being modernized when the country fell apart. One of the new replacement radars, in Latvia, was torn down in May 1995. Russia won a temporary reprieve against closing two older Hen House radars in Latvia, but that agreement expired in August 1998. The radar was one of those covering the critical northwestern direction. Other radars used by Russia were in Ukraine, at Sevastopol and Mukachevo; in Azerbaijan, at Qabala; and Kazakhstan, at Balkash. Some are functioning, but there have been disputes over finances and personnel.

A coverage gap appeared after the closure of an obsolete Dnestr-M radar in the Latvian town of Skrunde, 150 km from the ex-Soviet Baltic country's capital Riga, in 1998. Russia leased ground-based radar stations in Baranovichi, Belarus; Sevastopol and Mukachevo in Ukraine; Balkhash in Kazakhstan; and Gabala in Azerbaijan. It also has radars on its own territory in Murmansk (arctic northwest), Pechora (northwest Urals), and Irkutsk (east Siberia).

Pechora LPAR

Hen House LPAR

LPARs - 2012

LPARs - 2013

LPARs - 2014

LPARs - 2015

Voronezh LPAR

Voronezh LPAR

ArmavirVoronezh Russia45°00'N41°07'E2009
BalkhashHen HouseCentral Asian Kazahkstan46°37'N74°31'E1967
BalkhashPechora OS-2Central Asian Kazahkstan46°37'N74°31'E19771982 2004
Baranovichi (Minsk) Volga 70M6Byelorussian Belarus53°08'N25°59'E19862001 ?
BarnaulVoronezh Ural Russia53°34'N83°48'E2020
ChekhovCat HouseMoscow Russia55°23'N36°43'E19741995 ????
Kaliningrad, PionerskyVoronezh-DM Western Russia54°51'N 20°10'E 20112014
Kiev [Chernobyl]Steel YardKiev Ukraine? 51°16'N? 30°14'E 1975? 1986
Komsomolsk-na-AmureSteel YardFar East Russia? 50°33'N ? 137°00'E 1979? 1989
KubinkaDog HouseMoscow Russia55°31'N 36°39E19681988
LekhtusiVoronezh LeningradRussia60°16'N30°32'E20052009
Mishelevka (Irkutsk)Hen HouseTransbaikal Russia52°53'N103°15'E19682020
Mishelevka (Irkutsk)Pechora OS-1Transbaikal Russia52°51'N103°11'E19792003 ? 2020
Mishelevka [Usolye-Sibirskoe]Voronezh-M Transbaikal Russia52°51'N103°11'E2020
Mukachevo (Lvov)Hen HouseCarpathian Ukraine48°27'N22°42'E19751991
MukachevoPechora RO-5Carpathian Ukraine48°27'N22°42'E198619912009
NikolaevSteel YardOdessa Ukraine47°05'N31°39'E1971???
OlenegorskHen HouseLeningrad Russia68°09'N33°54'E196319712019
OlenegorskPechora 3Leningrad Russia68°09'N33°54'E198219872019
OlenegorskVoronezh-MLeningrad Russia68°09'N33°54'E20162019
PechoraPechora RO-30Ural Russia65°14'N57°18'E197819832020
PechoraVoronezh Ural Russia65°14'N57°18'E2020
Qabala (Lyaki)Pechora RO-7 N. Caucasus Azerbaijan40°33'N47°25'E198219872012
Sary ShaganHen EggCentral Asian Kazahkstan46°12'N73°48'E
Sary ShaganHen NestCentral Asian Kazahkstan46°12'N73°48'E
Sary ShaganHen RoostCentral Asian Kazahkstan46°12'N73°48'E
SevastopolHen HouseOdessa Ukraine44°35'N33°23'E2008
SevastopolVoronezh Crimea44°35'N33°23'E2019
Skrunda (Riga)Hen HouseBaltic Latvia56°41'N22°01'E196319711998
Skrunda (Riga)Pechora RO-2Baltic Latvia56°41'N22°01'E198619911995
Sofrino (Pushkino)Pill BoxMoscow Russia56°12'N 37°45'E19781989
Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk) Pechora OS-3 Siberian Russia58°08'N92°44'E1983 XXX1990
Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk) Voronezh Siberian Russia58°08'N92°44'E2020

Russian news reports indicate the presence of a radar facility at Solnechnogorsk [56°11'00"N 36°59'00"E], which is rather far from any reported radar location.



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Page last modified: 09-11-2020 18:34:44 ZULU