Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


Missile Defense Radar Sites

During the Cold War, both the United States and Russia built elaborate systems of spy satellites, radars, and computer networks to scan the skies for ballistic missiles and their deadly nuclear warheads. The US systems were pointed at the Soviet Union and the Soviet systems watched the Americas.

The Dnestr, Dnepr and Dauvaga radars at Skrunda, Mukachevo, Balkhash, Mishelevka, Olenegorsk, Sevastopol, known in the West as Hen House radars, were built in the 1960s and early 1970s. The Daryal radars, known in the West as the Pechora-type, were built at existing Hen House facilities at Skrunda, Mukachevo, Balkhash (Sary Shagan), Mishelevka and at new locations Baranovichi (Gantsevichi), Qabala (Gabala / Lyaki / Mingechaur), Pechora, Yeniseysk (Abalakova / Krasnoyarsk). These new radars were intended to replace the older Hen House radars.

Many radars no longer operate or suffer power outages. Only three of the nine modern large phased-array radars wre in service as of the late 1990s. Three have been deactivated or never completed, and three are inoperable or barely functional. Seven of the ten older, less capable Hen House radars are outside Russia in former Soviet republics, and some may be shut down for political reasons. The Soviet radar system was being modernized when the country fell apart. One of the new replacement radars, in Latvia, was torn down in May 1995. Russia won a temporary reprieve against closing two older Hen House radars in Latvia, but that agreement expired in August 1998. The radar was one of those covering the critical northwestern direction. Other radars used by Russia were in Ukraine, at Sevastopol and Mukachevo; in Azerbaijan, at Qabala; and Kazakhstan, at Balkash. Some are functioning, but there have been disputes over finances and personnel.

A coverage gap appeared after the closure of an obsolete Dnestr-M radar in the Latvian town of Skrunde, 150 km from the ex-Soviet Baltic country's capital Riga, in 1998. Russia leased ground-based radar stations in Baranovichi, Belarus; Sevastopol and Mukachevo in Ukraine; Balkhash in Kazakhstan; and Gabala in Azerbaijan. It also has radars on its own territory in Murmansk (arctic northwest), Pechora (northwest Urals), and Irkutsk (east Siberia).

Pechora LPAR

Hen House LPAR

LPARs - 2012

LPARs - 2013

LPARs - 2014

LPARs - 2015

Voronezh LPAR

Voronezh LPAR

Locale System Military
District
Country Latitude Longitude Start IOC Inactivated
Armavir Voronezh Russia 4500'N 4107'E 2009
Balkhash Hen House Central Asian Kazahkstan 4637'N 7431'E 1967
Balkhash Pechora OS-2 Central Asian Kazahkstan 4637'N 7431'E 1977 1982 2004
Baranovichi (Minsk) Volga 70M6 Byelorussian Belarus 5308'N 2559'E 1986 2001 ?
Barnaul Voronezh Ural Russia 5334'N 8348'E 2020
Chekhov Cat House Moscow Russia 5523'N 3643'E 1974 1995 ????
Kaliningrad, Pionersky Voronezh-DM Western Russia 5451'N 2010'E 2011 2014
Kiev [Chernobyl] Steel Yard Kiev Ukraine ? 5116'N ? 3014'E 1975 ? 1986
Komsomolsk-na-Amure Steel Yard Far East Russia ? 5033'N ? 13700'E 1979 ? 1989
Kubinka Dog House Moscow Russia 5531'N 3639E 1968 1988
Lekhtusi Voronezh Leningrad Russia 6016'N 3032'E 2005 2009
Mishelevka (Irkutsk) Hen House Transbaikal Russia 5253'N 10315'E 1968 2020
Mishelevka (Irkutsk) Pechora OS-1 Transbaikal Russia 5251'N 10311'E 1979 2003 ? 2020
Mishelevka [Usolye-Sibirskoe] Voronezh-M Transbaikal Russia 5251'N 10311'E 2020
Mukachevo (Lvov) Hen House Carpathian Ukraine 4827'N 2242'E 1975 1991
Mukachevo Pechora RO-5 Carpathian Ukraine 4827'N 2242'E 1986 1991 2009
Nikolaev Steel Yard Odessa Ukraine 4705'N 3139'E 1971 ???
Olenegorsk Hen House Leningrad Russia 6809'N 3354'E 1963 1971 2019
Olenegorsk Pechora 3 Leningrad Russia 6809'N 3354'E 1982 1987 2019
Olenegorsk Voronezh-M Leningrad Russia 6809'N 3354'E 2016 2019
Pechora Pechora RO-30 Ural Russia 6514'N 5718'E 1978 1983 2020
Pechora Voronezh Ural Russia 6514'N 5718'E 2020
Qabala (Lyaki) Pechora RO-7 N. Caucasus Azerbaijan 4033'N 4725'E 1982 1987 2012
Sary Shagan Hen Egg Central Asian Kazahkstan 4612'N 7348'E
Sary Shagan Hen Nest Central Asian Kazahkstan 4612'N 7348'E
Sary Shagan Hen Roost Central Asian Kazahkstan 4612'N 7348'E
Sevastopol Hen House Odessa Ukraine 4435'N 3323'E 2008
Sevastopol Voronezh Crimea 4435'N 3323'E 2019
Skrunda (Riga) Hen House Baltic Latvia 5641'N 2201'E 1963 1971 1998
Skrunda (Riga) Pechora RO-2 Baltic Latvia 5641'N 2201'E 1986 1991 1995
Sofrino (Pushkino) Pill Box Moscow Russia 5612'N 3745'E 1978 1989
Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk) Pechora OS-3 Siberian Russia 5808'N 9244'E 1983 XXX 1990
Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk) Voronezh Siberian Russia 5808'N 9244'E 2020

Russian news reports indicate the presence of a radar facility at Solnechnogorsk [5611'00"N 3659'00"E], which is rather far from any reported radar location.

References

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