As with the Daryal radar, the Volga radar consists of separate receiver and transmiter antennae. In contrast to the Dnepr [HEN HOUSE], which operates in the meter bandwidth, the Volga radar operates in the decimeter bandwidth, as does the Daryal radar. This greatly improves the accuracy of tracking, and reduces the dimensions of the radar, and thus the time and cost of constructing the stations. The Volga radar was a digital high-power radar with a very broad bandwidth, several times broader than that of the American PAVE PAWS. This improved the resistance to jamming in wartime, and made for improved electromagnetic compatibility in peacetime.
The Volga radar is an element of the Russian missile attack warning system and is designed to control the territory of Western Europe and the patrol areas of NATO submarines in the North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea. The station of this type is the only one and is located on the 474th ORTU "Gantsevichi" ("Kletsk-2", w / h 03522) in Belorussia (Ozerechye settlement, Kletsk district, Minsk region, 48 km southeast of Baranovichi, 8 km northeast the city of Gantsevichi).
The transmitting and receiving antennas are similar in design. They are built on the basis of active phased antenna arrays (AFAR). To ensure the decoupling, their positions are separated by 3 km. AFAR RLS "Volga" contains several thousand modules with spiral radiators; around it there are four rows of passive radiators and a frame of absorbing ferrite materials. Modular construction allows you to gradually upgrade the station without removing from the standby mode. The station covers an area of more than 200 hectares. Used by the Russian Federation as a long-term lease. Information is transmitted to the GC PRN, located in the Moscow region.
In the late 1970s, work was begun on a series of radar of the decimeter range Volga, which was supposed to be built between the Daryal radar station. In the intervals between the radar nodes of the meter range of the "Dar'yal" type, it was planned to build nodes of the decimeter range on the basis of the "Volga" radar. This made it possible to create a two-band continuous radar field throughout the periphery of the USSR.
In 1981 Alexander Musatov was appointed chief designer of the Volga radar, and in 1982 he was marked by the development of the first draft of a series of these stations, in which four low-potential Volga-M radar stations are to be built. In accordance with it, it was planned to develop and create a series of domestic solid-state digital radars with the possibility of frequency tuning over a wide range of waves and operation in two frequency bands. The control of transmitting and receiving modules in these radars was supposed to be carried out using a mirror antenna located inside the radar, and their centralized repair was to be carried out at a specially established factory. All this was an integral part of the next system project, which clarified the role and place of the "Volga" radar station in the missile warning system.
August 20, 1984, after clarifying the appearance of the radar in the direction of its simplification and reduction in cost and designation of the chief designer of the Volga radar Stanislav Mironov (NIIDAR), it was decided to create a head radar "Volga" on the western missile line in the area of the city of Baranovichi. For this purpose, a unique microelectronics workshop was created at the Dneprovsky Machine-Building Plant.
|Control of ballistic missiles||
|Control of space objects||
|maximum detection range||4800 km|
|Detection range of objects with EPR||0.1-0.2 m2 - 2000 km|
|size of the transmitting AFAR||36 x 20 m.|
|size of the receiving AFAR||36 x 36 m.|
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