Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk Territory)
The city of Yeniseisk is a small town in the Krasnoyarsk Territory (regional subordination), located in the valley of the Yenisei River on the left bank. The area of ??the territory is 66.4 square kilometers. The relief of the city is gently sloping. The climate of the area in which the Yeniseisk is continental is fairly mild, with cold winters and hot summers. characterized by sharp fluctuations in day and night temperatures. the absolute minimum temperature in winter is minus 59 degrees Celsius, in summer-plus 35 Celsius. The average annual relative humidity is 75%.
The city has a developed automobile network with a hard surface. distance from the regional center is 336 km. The nearest railway station is in Lesosibirsk, which is 46.7 km away. from the city. The nearest airport and marina are within the city limits. There are no large industrial enterprises in the city. The network of objects of social and cultural infrastructure is quite developed. There are children's schools of additional education - choreographic, music, art, sports, the Center of children's creativity, station of youth; leisure cultural institutions, social rehabilitation center, clubs in the place of residence. In the city and institutions of professional education: a pedagogical college, a vocational school, an educational combine. In Yeniseisk traditionally held open area scientific and practical conferences ("Kytman readings", "Culture of Siberia"), open regional youth tournaments in Greco-Roman wrestling in memory of E. Belinsky and G. Fedotov and other events.
Eniseysk is one of the oldest Siberian cities. The history of the annexation of Eastern Siberia to Russia is inseparably linked with its past. The city was founded in 1619 by a detachment of Cossacks as a military fortress (jail) on the left bank of the Yenisei River 12 versts from its tributary - Kemi. For a century and a half this city was the main gateway to Eastern Siberia.
Yeniseysk was in places fertile, rich in beast, fish, iron in the very center of important waterways. Due to this, Yeniseysk became a large industrial city, a city from the "fairy tales of a thousand and one nights", the famous Yenisei about which incredible stories and legends went. Much has survived the city for its eventful 388-year-old life: flowering and decay, fires and a "gold rush." Eniseysk was a city of skilled craftsmen and political exiles.
Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Nerchinsk, Bratsk ... are founded by the Yenisei Cossacks. From here the pioneers traveled to the south and east. Routes of the expeditions of Semyon Dezhnev, Erofei Khabarov, Vitus Bering and many other travelers and explorers of Siberia passed through Yeniseysk. Until the end of the 18th century, Yeniseisk remained the capital of a vast region. Quickly spreading its influence over vast areas along the middle reaches of the Yenisei, the basins of the Angara and Lena rivers to Transbaikalia, he began to collect yasak from the local Ket and Tungus tribes. Furrious riches attracted a lot of industrialists and furs of furs on the Yenisei. Sable became the symbol of Yeniseisk. His image appeared on the coat of arms of the city in 1635.
In the 19th century, Yeniseisk, the largest city in the province, was one of the ten best cities in the Russian state. It was also one of the most beautiful cities in Siberia - there were architects who knew their work, who created beautiful examples of architectural structures. Larch and pine were the main building materials. These breeds and today give the city and its houses a peculiar color. To decorate wooden buildings, the Yenisei masters used different types of carving. An intricate lace frames the platbands of windows, gables and friezes of houses, gates. The houses were decorated not only with wooden carvings, but also with articles made of tin: carved arches and gutters.
The destruction of the Daryal-U above-horizon radar was accompanied by a humanitarian disaster for the village of Yeniseisk-15, when the main town-forming enterprise disappeared. People found themselves without work, without means of livelihood, abandoned to the mercy of fate. People who honestly served their country.
Voronezh High Depot Readiness (HDR)
The construction of a new radar station in Yeniseysk will start in 2013, Deputy Defense Minister of Russia Colonel Oleg Ostapenko said on 27 December 2012. According to him, a lot of preparatory work has already been done on it, as well as on another radar station in Barnaul.
By late 2013, Russia had begun deploying troops of the East Kazakhstan region in the Arctic and building a radar warning system for a missile attack in the Far North (in Vorkuta). In 2013, the radar station of high factory readiness in Armavir was put on alert, which fully compensated for the termination of the operation of the Gabala radar station in Azerbaijan. The creation of new radar stations in Irkutsk and Kaliningrad was nearing completion, and radar stations were being established in the areas of the cities of Yeniseysk, Orsk, Barnaul and Vorkuta.
The troops of the aerospace defense plan to deploy in five years a network of stations warning of a missile attack. A step-by-step transition to dislocation of missile warning systems is being implemented only on the territory of Russia and the creation of a continuous radar field of a ground level warning of a missile attack is being completed. Radar stations had been set up in the regions of Yeniseysk, Orsk, Barnaul and Vorkuta.
The completion of the first phase of the construction of the technological position of the VZR radar in the Krasnoyarsk Territory made it possible to conduct the installation of the technological building and the antenna system of the product in a timely manner, and the past construction work on the technological position of the VZG radar in the Altai Territory ensured the beginning of installation of the product metalware from October 2013.
Yeniseysk-15 / Krasnoyarsk radar
The 1972 ABM Treaty and its subsequent Protocol ban deployment of ABM systems except that each party can deploy one ABM system around the national capital or at a single ICBM deployment area. In an effort to preclude a territorial ABM defense, the ABM Treaty limited the deployment of ballistic missile early warning radars, including large phased-array radars used for that purpose, to locations along the national periphery of each party and required that they be oriented outward. The Treaty permits deployment (without regard to location or orientation) of large phased-array radars for purposes of tracking objects in outer space or for use as national technical means of verification of compliance with arms control agreements.
In 1980, work began at early warning system for missile attack [ORTU] "Yeniseisk-15" to create a continuous radar field on the outer border of the USSR in the northeasterly missile area, after repeated calls by the Supreme Command of the USSR Armed Forces in 1983, a new node of the "Daryal-U" above-horizon radar station Yeniseisk - Yeniseisk-15. Experts predicted the presence of nuclear submarines with Trident missiles and Trident-2 missiles off the western coast of the United States, capable of attacking the entire territory of the USSR.
In July/August 1983 the United States revealed that it had detected a large early warning radar under construction at Abalakova in the Soviet Union. Although known in Russia as as the Yeniseysk-15 radar, since it was situated in the Yeneseysk region, it quickly became known to the world as "the Krasnoyarsk radar," after the nearby city with many military facilities. The facility, located on a river, included housing, rail lines and electrical power generators. Construction of the complex had apparently begun as early as 1978. This installation was roughly 800 kilometers from the nearest border and thus in violation of the ABM Treaty (which required that all such radars be located on a nation's periphery and oriented outward). The United States raised the issue of the Krasnoyarsk radar in the fall 1983 Standing Consultative Commission (SCC) session.
In May 1987, the station was inspected by a group of American specialists. On the basis of the data received, a detailed report on the trip for the Speaker of the House of Representatives was prepared: "Based on what we saw with our own eyes, we believe that the likelihood of using the Krasnoyarsk station as a radar missile defense system is extremely low." The lack of protection, independent sources of power supply and inappropriate frequency all speak against using it for such purposes. at the moment the station does not violate the ABM Treaty. " The second section, access to information, also has an important place in the report: "... we have witnessed such an openness, which can not be called spectacular." Nine Americans (including William Broad, a scientific reporter for The New York Times) received the opportunity to visit the radar station and spend almost four hours there, over 1000 photographs were taken, two videotapes were taken, a tape recording was made. "
The United States and the Soviet Union conducted the third Review of the ABM Treaty as required at five-year intervals by the provisions of that Treaty. The Review was conducted from 24 August 1988 to 31 August 1988. During the Review, the United States emphasized the importance of Soviet violations of the ABM Treaty, which are a threat to the viability of the Treaty. Throughout the Review Conference, the Soviet Union gave no indication that it was prepared to correct the violations without linking their agreement to do so to unacceptable demands.
Specifically, the United States discussed with the Soviets its serious concern that the Soviet Union's deployment of a large phased-array radar near Krasnoyarsk constitutes a significant violation of a central element of the ABM Treaty. Such radars take years to build and are a key to providing a nation-wide defense -- which is prohibited by the Treaty. The Treaty's restrictions on the location, orientation, and functions of such radars are, thus, essential provisions of the Treaty. Hence, the Krasnoyarsk violation is very serious, particularly when it is recognized that the radar constitutes one of a network of such radars that have the inherent potential for attack assessment in support of ballistic missile defense.
In order for the Soviet Union to correct this violation, the Krasnoyarsk radar must be dismantled. The United States has been urging the Soviet Union for more than five years, both in the Standing Consultative Commission established by the Treaty and in other diplomatic channels, to correct this clear violation by dismantling the radar. During the Review, the U.S. outlined the specific Soviet actions necessary to correct this violation in a verifiable manner. The United States has also made clear that the continuing existence of the Krasnoyarsk radar makes it impossible to conclude any future arms agreements in the START or Defense and Space areas. The United States has observed a slowdown in construction, but this slowdown, or even a full construction freeze, would not be sufficient either to correct the Treaty violation or to meet U.S. concerns about the significant impact of the violation.
The Soviet Union agreed at the 22-23 September 1989 Wyoming Foreign Ministers meeting to eliminate the radar without preconditions during two days of meetings between U.S. Secretary of State James Baker and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze. On 23 October 1989, Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union Eduard Shevardnadze conceded that the Krasnoyarsk radar was a violation of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. According to Shevardnadze "We investigated the station for 4 years.... The whole truth did not become known to the country's leadership right away." The Soviet Government offered to convert the radar into an international space research facility.
Retired Soviet General Y.V. Votintsev, Director of the Soviet National Air Defense Forces from 1967 to 1985, subsequently publicly stated that he was directed by the Chief of the Soviet General staff to locate the large phased-array radar at Krasnoyarsk despite the recognition by Soviet authorities that the location of such a radar at that location would be a clear violation of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty; and that Marshal D.F. Ustinov, Soviet Minister of Defense, threatened to relieve from duty any Soviet officer who continued to object to the construction of a large-phased array radar at Krasnoyarsk.
As of May 1991 the was about 12 percent dismantled, with all the internal electronic components and some external parts having been removed. By June 1991 the Soviets were dismantling the radar in an orderly way. They didn't simply blow it up, but rather dismantled it. The United States expected the dismantling down to the ground to be completed by the end of 1991.
However, as of March 1992 the dismantlement of Krasnoyarsk had not been completed, as promised, though the equipment had been completely dismantled and 70% of the buildings destroyed. As of June 1992 a local businessmen was hoping to set up a furniture factory and a small clothing shop in what was left of the structures -- about 60,000 square meters -- that once housed the transmitter and its receiver.
All radar transmitter panels were removed, and the upper structure was "irrevocably dismantled" under the conversion agreement. The US-Russian agreement on Krasnoyarsk allowed the remaining 30 to 40 percent of the radar facility to be converted into factory space, provided the plans were approved by the US government and that inspections of the finished building were permitted. By early 1993 the 19-story receiver building had been reduced to just five stories, and there was even less left of the smaller structure, which contained the transmitter. Some 300 workers still lived in the apartments built for the station.
In early 1991 the Soviet Union annouced plans to build a new radar at Komsomolsk-na-Amur during a session of the Standing Consultative Commission, the bilateral forum that meets regularly on ABM Treaty compliance issues. The new radar station in the Far East was to be a replacement for the adar station near Krasnoyarsk in Siberia. The US believed the Soviets would use components from the dismantled radar near Krasnoyarsk. The new radar was expected to be located within 200 miles of the Pacific coast and oriented in a northeast direction, closing the gap in the missile detection and tracking radar network.
For specialists brought up in the spirit of patriotism, the destruction of the most powerful radar complex as the shield of the Motherland was the end of the world. It was a pity not only for the swollen billions of people's money, the enormous forces spent on erecting a mass of the most complex objects among swamps and forests, but understanding the essence of what happened was a pity for the country that remained.
To this it remains only to add that the United States unilaterally withdrew from the 1972 ABM Treaty limitation treaty in 2002. On December 13, 2001, US President George W. Bush notified the President of Russia of the unilateral withdrawal of the US from the Treaty, after which, according to the provisions of the treaty, he remained in force for another 6 months, until June 12, 2002.
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