Olenegorsk, Kola Peninsula
Dnestr-M & Daryal radars
In 1961, the Radio-Electronic Research Institute [NIRI] began designing the upgraded Dnestr-M radar, which was to be stationed in the trans-polar area (RO-1 at Olenegorsk in Murmansk) and Latvia (RO-2 at Skrunda in Latvia). Construction began in 1963-1964, and the state tests of the Dnestr-M radar were conducted between 1968 and 1976 at Olenegorsk in the trans-polar area. Between 1968 and 1972, the Ekvator project was developed which was aimed at creation of an uninterrupted radar field in the western, southwestern, and southern missile danger zones. The radar nodes of the early warning system were arranged in western Ukraine, the Crimea, Kazakhstan, Siberia, and on the Kola Peninsula based on the Dnepr radar. One of these "old men" had been working under Olenegorsk for half a century.
In the early 1970s, the new Daryal phased array above-the-horizon detection radar was designed under the supervision of A. Mints and V. Ivantsov. The reduced version of the receiving station was successfully tested in the trans-polar area near Pechora. In 1984-1985, nodes with the Daryal radars were placed on combat duty in the north (Olenegorsk) and in Azerbaijan (Mingechaur). Some sources report that Daryal radar on the Kola Peninsula is located at "Karlovka" rather than Olenegorsk, although there does not appear to be a place with this name on the Kola Peninsula.
By 1977 the Soviets had two large phased-array radars in the northern USSR. One was located next to the Hen House raoar at Olenegorsk, and oriented to detect US ICBMs/SLBMs launched into the western USSR. The second radar installation was located just northeast of Pechora at the northern end of the Ural Mountains, oriented to detect US ICBMs launched into central USSR. The primary advantage of the Olenegorsk radarMEW role would be to provide the Soviets with better trajectory prediction accuracies than the Hen House radar or to provide the capability to handle more targets. The Pechora radar in the BMEWS role would extend early warning coverage to areas not now covered by the Hen House radars and probably would provide an improved target handling capabilityddition to more refined prediction data. ABM battle management radar provides precision information to ABM radars, sort and assign target complexes and could provide them with data for point-in-space Intercepts.
The inhabitants of Olenegorsk, when traveling to nature, often noticed how construction machinery was busily crawling on one of the vacant lots. The northerners were lost in conjecture: is it really possible to rebuild a new cottage settlement for the "masters of life"? Everything turned out to be much more interesting. In August 2016, the information was finally confirmed that a new radar station was being built near the city. The new generation of Russian anti-missile radars is called " Voronezh ", in honor of the river in the south of Russia.
Locator stations are now being created modularly, like the Lego constructor. They are raised in a record time (8-12 months), if only the foundation was already ready. And this despite the fact that in the Soviet years, such buildings were spent up to 10 years. And the staff of the future staff of the station will be modest - 200 staff, against 1,000 in the Soviet years.
The new stations perform the scan even in an unfinished form. The cost of a ready "toy" costs the state about 1.5 billion rubles. How much will have to be paid for the radar in Olenegorsk, was still unknown. Construction was at the primary stage in 2016. "We are completing excavation: the construction of a temporary roadway, preparation of the pile foundation, as well as a drilling and blasting complex. The delivery of piles and reinforced concrete slabs is underway," the Spetsstroi press service said.
Before the organization that works at the facility, the task is to create a system of quality roads on the site, and approaches to it. Their total length will be about 5 kilometers. It is also required to make a strong platform - they will store imported modules. Of these details, then they will assemble a technological colossus. " For the current year before the management is a target task - to prepare the foundation for the engineering complex and a set of prefabricated modules" said Anton Zaykin, the head of the department for construction and overhaul of the Northwest Head of Spetsstroi.
Arctic Control Group
The major Arctic Control Group forward staging bases are at Anadyr (Far East), Mys-Schmidta (Far East), Olenegorsk (Barents Sea), Tiksi (Transbaikal), and Vorkuta (Urals). The use of strategic bomber forward staging bases was dictated by geography and weather. The northern parts of the Soviet Union closest to the United States are in the arctic, with hostile weather conditions. Consquently Soviet strategic bombers were normally stationed at bases in more temperate parts of the Soviet Union, flying training missions from these forward staging bases.
The first permanent deployment of Backfire bombers north of the Arctic Circle was at Olenegorsk in 1988, where they replaced older Badger bombers. According to US Navy Intelligence, "The Backfires introduced into the Northern Fleet late in 1988 provide a supersonic strike capability with improved weapons, fire control systems, and self protection capability when compared to the older Badgers they replaced." In the Pacific Fleet, Backfire bombers were based at Alekseyevka, and Backfire Cs were introduced in the Pacific in 1989.
The Murmansk Region is located in the northern most territory of Northwest Russia on the Kola Peninsula, above the Polar Circle. However, the climate benefits from the warming influence of the Gulf Stream current. The region covers an area of 144,900 square kilometers and extends 405 km from north to south and 536 km from east to west. The region borders Finland to the west, Norway to the north, and the Republic of Karelia (another region of Northwest Russia) to the south. The total population is 1.6 million people. Sixty-four percent of the population is of working age. The region has 12 cities and 20 small towns. Ninety-two percent (92.2%) of the total population lives in cities and towns.
The primary industries in the Murmansk Region are mining and metallurgy, along with fishing and power generation. The Murmansk region is rich in natural resources with over 700 minerals, of which 100 were first discovered in this region. The Oblast has 200 deposits of 40 types of minerals, including: apatite-nepheline ore, titanium, rare metals, copper-nickel ores, feldspar, mica, oil and gas. Forty-five of these deposits are currently operational. The Murmansk region has 35 percent of the phosphate stocks of the entire stocks available in the Newly Independent States (NIS), 30 percent of the non-ferrous metals and 80 percent of the rare metals, 75 percent of phlogopite, 93 percent of kyanite, 37 percent of feldspar and pegmatite, and about 4 percent of iron ores in the NIS. More than 70 years of intensive exploration led to the discovery of a huge number of iron ore occurrences, but only the Near-Imandra area has been the target of commercial mining. This area includes 4 functioning mining operations (Olenegorsk, Kirovogorsk, Bauman and October deposits). The estimated stock of titanium deposits is about 50 million tons, and the development of these deposits is of special interest and concern to the local government.
The metallurgical and mining industry in the Murmansk Region is represented by such large companies as Severonickel in Monchegorsk (nickel and other non-ferrous metals); Pechenganickel in Pechenga (nickel; non-ferrous metals); Kandalaksha Aluminum Plant in Kandalaksha; Apatit in Apatity; Olenegorsk Mining; Lovozerovo Mining Plant; Kovdorin Mining Plant; and Kovdorslyda Plant. Severonickel and Pechenganickel are owned by the Norilsk Nickel Corporation. These companies export 95 percent of their production. Severonickel, located in the city of Monchegorsk, employs 11,800 people and manufactures nickel, copper, cobalt, and precious metals concentrates. Pechanganickel produces raw materials for the production of nickel, copper, cobalt, precious metals, and sulfur acid.
Olenegorsk is located in the center of Kola peninsula. The area's terrain includes foothills and shallow lakes. Olenegorsk was founded during August 1947 to exploit the large iron-ore deposits discovered by geologists as early as 1932. The labor settlement was converted into the city Of olenegorsk on 27 March 1957. During August 1981 the city of Olenegorsk city with its subordinate territory was separated from the territory of Monchegorsk. The distance from Olenegorska to Murmansk is 112 kilometers.
The total territory of Olenegorsk is 1,700 square kilometers (1,2% of territory of Murmansk region), including of territory of the city itself, which is 38.8 square kilometers. The permanent population on 01 January 1999 was 39,200 people (3,9% of population of Murmansk region). The density of population is 23 people per square kilometer. Eight rural populated areas are located on the subordinate territory.
The Olenegorsk region is rich in iron ore reserves. The ore obtained from the olenegorskyy deposits contains comparatively a little iron (in average about 28 %). The positive properties of ore are that it is low in harmful impurities (phosphorus and sulfur). This makes it possible to produce enrichment, without creating fundamental damage to the ecology of the city.
Olenegorsk is the center of iron-ore industry in the Transarctic, and is the location of one of the most important industrial companies of region - OAO Olenegorski1. This ore-dressing combine, which is the town-forming enterprise of Olenegorsk, entered the system of production in 1955. The Combine accomplishes the production and processing of iron-bearing ores. It is composed of a mine and concentrating plant. The deposits are developed in an open pit manner, with horizontal layers consecutively mined from top to bottom. At present it is beginning work on preparation for the development of the olenegorskyyo deposit by the mineshaft method. The basic form of production is iron-ore concentrate (iron concentration 67 %) which includes the production of iron-ore super-concentrate, an excellent raw material for obtaining powders of pure iron. The content of iron in it is up to 72 %. The combine also produces ferritestrontium powders. From the production wastes are made the silicate brick, organized crushed stone production.
The Olenegorsk Mechanical Plant (joint stock company), was founded in 1971. The plant, which has a workforce of about 1,000, includes the following main sections: a casting shop (for the production of heavy, medium and light castings) and assembly shops. Auxiliary workshops include a machine repair shop, instrument-making shop, pattern-making shop, materials and equipment supply shop and a power supply area. The factory's principal products are: titanium pipes; crane grabs; submersible pumps and sand pumps; water-cooling elements for metallurgical furnaces; stocks of spare parts and non-standard equipment for metallurgical and mining enterprises; steel, copper and non-ferrous metal castings. RAO Norilsk Nickel is the world's largest company producing nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals. Norilsk Nickel holds a monopoly in Russia for the production of nickel-electrolyte, copper-electrolyte, metallic cobalt, cobalt concentrate and metals of the platinum group. RAO Norilsk Nickel owns 100 percent shares of five daughter companies: Norilsk mining and metal combine (Norilsk); Severonickel combine (Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region); GMK Pechenganickel (Zapolyarnykh, Murmansk Region); Olenegorsky Mechanical Plant (Olenegorsk, Murmansk Region); and Gipronickel Institute (St-Petersburg).
The city also includes enterprises of machine building and metal working, food industry, industry of building materials are arranged/located. Along the subordinate territory the automobile route and railroad main line pass from St.-Petersburg. Murmansk.
The Kola Nuclear Power Plant [NPP] is the first nuclear power plant beyond the polar circle. The first unit was commissioned 25 June 1973. Kola NPP is the main electricity supplier for industry of the region and towns of Murmansk, Monchegorsk, Olenegorsk, Kandalaksha, Apatity and Polyarnie Zori. The Kola Nuclear Power Plant currently produces half of the energy in the Oblast.
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