China - "596 Project"
The project of developing the atomic bomb in China is called "Project 596," which is closely linked with the relations between China and the Soviet Union. From January 1953 to August 1956, the Chinese and Soviet governments signed a total of four agreements in the field of atomic energy. In October 1957, the two governments signed the "Agreement on New Defense Technology", which listed the provisions of the Soviet aid to China in the development of nuclear weapons, including the Soviet Union to provide China with atomic bomb mathematical models and drawings.
When Sino-Soviet relations cooled in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Soviet Union withheld plans and data for an atomic bomb, abrogated the agreement on transferring defense technology, and began the withdrawal of Soviet advisers in 1960. Despite the termination of Soviet assistance, China committed itself to continue nuclear weapons development to break "the superpowers' monopoly on nuclear weapons," to ensure Chinese security against the Soviet and United States threats, and to increase Chinese prestige and power internationally.
When China decided in 1955 to develop atomic bombs it faced a number of technological choices as to the most appropriate route to follow. At that time China could only work on one path, and had to choose between producing Pu239 from a reactor, or developing the method of producing U235 through isotope separation. The uranium path offered two alternatives, either system, either chemical separation or physical separation. Chemical separation of Pu235 from the mixed system of U235 and U238 would have been easier than physical separation, but the separation of plutonium and uranium was difficult due to the high radioactivity of the Pu-U system, and the severe toxicity of plutonium. Therefore, the chosen path was the physical separation of U235 and U238 isotopes. The implosion method of detonating an atomic bomb was considered more technically advanced, though there were questions as to whether China was capable of producing a uranium bomb detonated by the implosion method.
With the expansion of the differences between China and the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union decided to early terminate the agreement on the new national defense technology signed by the Soviet Union and China on 15 October 1957 in Moscow, cut off some aid projects, stopped providing the atomic bomb model to China and the technology for producing atomic bombs data. This treacherous behavior angered Chinese.
China's atomic bomb study can only rely on self-reliance. In September 1958, after the first university graduates were called in, "Doll Doctor" Deng Jiaxian took these young people who just came out of school and learned from the most basic books. The Central Committee of the Communist Party decided in July 1959: Do it yourself, start from scratch, and prepare to build the atomic bomb in eight years. To remember this "national disgrace" incident that took place in June 1959, the Chinese leaders deliberately named their project of developing the atomic bomb as "the 596 Project."
From 1959 to 1962, just as China's "three-year natural disaster" struggled to develop atomic weapons in such extremely difficult times, its difficulties can be imagined. Marshal Nie Rongzhen, who was in charge of the work of the National Defense Science and Technology Commission at that time, pointed out: "By relying on others, they can not rely on them. The party and the state can only pin their hopes on their own scientists." In the spring of 1961, Wang Ganchang, Peng Huanwu and Guo Yonghuai acted as research institutes of nuclear weapons associate dean. Three Chinese top scientists tide inside the tide.
Wang Ganchang burst out at the time such a sentence: "I would like to allow the country!"
Wang Ganchang uttered the aspirations of all scientists who participated in the "596 Project" at that time and, at this critical time concerning the survival of the nation, they indiscriminately provoked the important task of history. Atomic bomb project is the highest secret in the country. All those participating in the research and development work must cut off all contact with foreign countries. Therefore, Wang Ganchang and others since then have mysteriously "disappeared", he changed his name to "Wang Jing." For China's atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs, these top scientists have been invisible for more than a decade, a huge sacrifice for them.
Among China's top scientists, only Guo Yonghuai dealt with "two bombs and one arrow". He studied aerodynamics. Since 1941, Guo Yonghuai, Qian Xuesen, Qian Weichang and Lin Jiaqiao (later members of the American Academy of Sciences) became doctoral students in the world Aerodynamics von Carmen. Tutor appreciation, have made a doctorate, reputation in the American Airlines and the rocket community. Driven by Qian Xuesen, he returned to the motherland in 1956. The following year, he served as deputy director of Institute of Physics, CAS Xue Qiansen as director, responsible for catch "high-speed aerodynamics", "explosive mechanics" and other cutting-edge topics. The advent of three great masters Wang, Peng and Guo greatly strengthened the strength of the Institute of Nuclear Weapons. At the same time, with the approval of Deng Xiaoping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, 105 high and middle-level scientific and technological cadres, including Cheng Kai-kai and Chen Kuan-neng, were selected from the entire country to participate in the research and development work of the atomic bomb. Beginning in the spring of 1960, all the Chinese people themselves organized their own nuclear-weapon effort.
In April 1960, the theoretical design of the atomic bomb officially began. By the end of this year, the outline of the first atomic bomb theory in China was outlined. In detonation mechanics, neutron transport, nuclear reaction and a series of key concepts made a solid, even a small doubt, have never let go. At that time, China did not have a large-scale computer. Once, in order to get rid of a problem, Deng Jiaxian led more than a dozen young people three shifts a day; with four hand-cranked computers day and night even to calculate the manuscript a sack a sack filled the room. In the calculation, scientists exchange ideas with young people on an equal footing, repeatedly discussing the calculation results, and finding out various doubt points and loopholes. Such calculations took place nine times before and after the discussion, which lasted six months. In 1961, Zhou Guangzhao, a young theoretical physicist who had ordered his return to China to participate in the development of nuclear weapons, put this discussion into practice. He reviewed the results of the calculations repeatedly and demonstrated the correctness of the calculation results with deep physical foundation to clarify the problems. After a large number of detailed calculations and in-depth physical discussions, finally figure out the physical laws of the atomic bomb explosion process, which laid the foundation for theoretical design. This is the "nine operations" widely praised by the Academia Sinica for the early development of the atomic bomb.
At the same time as theoretical design, detonation experiments have also started in the suburbs of Beijing. The 17th site at the foot of the Great Wall was originally a shooting range for engineers. This inhospitable land has witnessed the first and most difficult detonation experiment of the Chinese atomic bomb.
In order to provide explosives parts for detonation experiments, the famous metal physicist Chen Nengng led a team of more than 30 people to use an ordinary boiler and borrowed a few more melt barrels from the troops to cast the explosives. Use horse manure paper as explosive mold, welding a double-structured aluminum pot, the outer layer of steam, which melt explosives, hand-stirring, with the pouring. Steam melted explosives, bad smell, toxicity is also large. Foggy dust and steam filled the entire tent. But the more this time, the more need to stir as soon as possible, in order to make the density of explosive parts uniform.
In order to speed up the development of nuclear weapons, the central government decided in 1963 that researchers concentrated in Beijing to capture atomic bombs would gradually relocate to a new nuclear weapons research and development base at Gold and Silver Beach, Haiyan County, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province.
Overnight, hundreds of scientific and technological personnel decided to leave Beijing to go to Qinghai and participate in grassland battles. General Zhang Aiping mobilize the heroic heroic, change Yin Yin Tang, a "west out of the sun have an enemy," the audience was passionate. From the war to excuse me, saying goodbye to young children and loved ones to send off, Beijing Railway Station Yi Deqing situation without a tear, only a cavity of the country's blood turmoil in my heart.
In an important period when China struggled to develop the atomic bomb, Premier Zhou Enlai personally set forth the working principle of "seriousness, meticulousness, reliability, and foolproofness" based on the development of national conditions and scientific undertakings and became an important working principle for the development of China's nuclear weapons.
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