Deng Jiaxian, a physicist educated in the United Sates, was instrumental in developing China's atomic and hydrogen bombs. Deng Jiaxian became the founder and pioneer of the Chinese nation's nuclear weapons enterprise.
Oppenheimer and Deng Jiaxian were the leaders of the U.S. and China's atomic bomb designs, each of them a hero in both countries, but their personalities were quite different. Oppenheimer interrupted other people's reports, so that the embarrassing speeches still appeared from time to time. Oppenheimer's speech was very attractive, he was good at rhetoric, the listener was often fascinated. His essays embraced the style and tempo of grace, which describes the modern times - sophisticated and subtle. Oppenheimer was a complex man, with some admiring him, admiring him a lot, and others disliked him. Deng Jia was first the most unobtrusive figure, and to talk to him for a few minutes was to see that he was honest, and never proud.
Deng Jiaxian was born in 1924 in Huaining County, Anhui Province, into a scholarly house. In 1946 he went to Peking, where he was hired as an assistant professor of physics at Peking University and served as president of Peking University Staff Union in the student movement. Embracing more skills to build a new China, he passed the Postgraduate Examination for the United States in 1947. In 1948, he went to the United States to study and received a doctorate in physics from Purdue University. He returned to China in 1950 and did pioneering work in China's nuclear theoretical research. When Deng Jiaxian returned to China, he came to the soon-to-be-established Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science (renamed Institute of Physics in 1953 and renamed Institute of Atomic Energy in 1958) as an assistant researcher and engaged in nuclear theoretical research under the leadership of Peng Huanwu. In 1953, Deng Jiaxu and Xu Lixi married, spent five years after marriage quiet and happy life. In 1956 he joined the Chinese Communist Party.
In the late 1950s, Deng Jiaxian "disappeared" from the pulpit in physics. In 1958, a major turning point occurred in Deng Jiaxian's life. It was at this time that the Central Government made the decision to develop the atomic bomb. By August 1958, he was a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Atomic Energy. At that moment, Qian Sanqiang, deputy director of the Second Machinery Department, found Deng Jiaxian, who was appointed to lead dozens of college graduates to begin researching the theory of atomic bomb making. At that time, he was only 32 years old, but he had begun to take the lead in the development of the first atomic bomb in China.
After Deng Jiaxian took the post of director of the theoretical department of the No.9 Institute of the Second Machinery Department, he first selected a group of undergraduates to prepare the Russian materials and the atomic bomb model. He led more than 20 outstanding graduates to learn from former Soviet experts. In the autumn of 1958, he and 28 newly graduated college students came to a field on the outskirts of Beijing to start the initial effort. As the director of the theoretical department of the nuclear weapons research institute, he led all construction workers together with construction workers to carry out the construction of pilot sites and carry out night-time learning theories at night. The theoretical work of developing atomic bombs in China was just started. However, in June 1959, the Soviet government unilaterally ripped apart the new national defense agreement signed by the two governments and removed all experts in the following year. On behalf of the Central Government of the Party Central Committee, Premier Zhou Enlai conveyed the decision-making spirit of self-reliance and development of nuclear weapons to the leaders of the Second Ministry of Machinery Industry.
In order to prevent people from forgetting, "Project 596" became the code name for China's first atomic bomb project. There was ridicule that when they left the Soviet Union, China could not build an atomic bomb in 20 years. In order to fight this tone, China's first atomic bomb project codenamed "596", meaning "59 years in June".
Deng Jiaxian first said to his colleagues: "It is the interests of the Chinese people to develop nuclear weapons, the blockade is blocked by us abroad, the experts are also withdrawn, and now it is only by ourselves. We must be willing to be anonymous heroes for a lifetime, It is worth the risk of suffering, and it is worth our dedication to this cause."
After the withdrawal of the Soviet experts, he was appointed as head of the atomic bomb. He proposed three major topics that broke through atomic weapons. They first used theoretical calculations of hand-cranked computers and abacus (later switched to electronic computers) to simulate atomic bombs Exploding process. There was a clear disagreement between the calculation result of a key data and the conclusion made by foreign experts. Deng Jiaxian led everyone to repeated calculations nine times. They work three shifts a day and are fighting for more than a dozen months, checking to prove that our result is correct. Under the strict requirements of Deng Jiaxian, all kinds of data processing is solid and reliable. They organized the research on technological forces and used hand-cranked computers that can only dozens of times per second. Six months later, they had figured out the numerical data that depict the physical phenomenon of an atomic bomb explosion using a numerical model.
The team that developed the atomic bomb was rapidly expanding. At the end of 1960, the institute had more than 100 people. In order to strengthen the leadership of the research on atomic bomb theory, it set up a theoretical class of eight people headed by Deng Jiaxian and conducted research separately in three aspects. Deng Jiaxian personally presided over the research on the substances under high temperature and high pressure. State study, at that time, did not have the conditions to simulate the state of the atomic bomb in the advanced laboratory like the developed countries in order to verify the correctness of the calculation method. Deng Jiaxian et al. proceeded from the actual simulation possible conditions. With the extrapolation of Chinese characteristics, the problem was satisfactorily solved, and in the work of the theoretical department Deng Jiaxian not only showed himself as an outstanding physicist but also as an excellent organizer of scientific research work.
In September 1962, the theoretical design of the first atomic bomb in our country was born. Based on this plan, the Party Committee of the Second Machinery and Machinery Division submitted the "Report on Self-reliance to Build Atomic Energy Industry" to the Party Central Committee. On November 3, Chairman Mao reviewed the report and personally wrote: "It is very good to agree. Do a good job. " Politburo decided to set up the Central Committee with 15 members headed by Premier Zhou. Under the leadership of General Secretary Deng Xiaoping, the date of the first atomic bomb was set before and after the 12th anniversary of National Day. Deng Jiaxian solemnly signed off on the total reliability of the atomic bomb. Next, a series of experimental estimates and analysis of the results according to this plan. At 16:00 on October 16, 1964, the first atomic bomb in China succeeded. At the end of the vast desert, the mushroom cloud of smoke rising from the flash, the fireball and the rumble, although more explosive than the atomic bomb in the desert of New Mexico in 1945, nineteen years later, it shocked the world strongly.
It is said that while he and a few other comrades were attentively reading various first-hand data, he was told that his mother was in critical condition and asked him to return to Beijing immediately. For the atomic bombing, this unfortunate news had to be suppressed until this time to let him know. Deng Jia returned to Beijing, went straight to the hospital. When her mother saw her son, she took out the red-colored "People's Daily" covering the atomic bomb from the pillow. She did not blame her son for being late, saying that he should have let her know her his job earlier. After that, his mother fell asleep peacefully, as if this last minute all awaited the arrival of her son.
After the successful test of the atomic bomb, Deng Jiaxian continued to lead the new task of developing hydrogen bomb. In fact, as early as the atomic bomb theory made a breakthrough, he had already started to think about further actions. A specialized group started exploratory research on the properties of thermonuclear materials and the thermonuclear reaction mechanism. Deng Jiaxian first organized all the personnel in the theoretical department to work together to explore the principle of hydrogen bomb. In 1965, a group that was engaged in computing and research in Shanghai on large computers identified possible ways to break the hydrogen bomb principle. Deng Jiaxian immediately flew to Shanghai to analyze the calculation results overnight with all of you on the front line for a full month. After discussing the technical issues, he returned to Beijing and organized repeated analysis of technical difficulties and solutions.
He often went to the computer room, slept on the floor in the machine room, or even worked all night long. With the full support of several directors headed by him, a well-established work program was finally formed, which provided a solid foundation for the superior leaders to make the right decisions.
Deng Jiaxian always maintained a democratic style. He served as the leadership of the insitute, but never dominated the leadership. He was good at listening to other people's opinions. He never tried to deceive people. Whenever new problems arose, he always brought everyone together to hold democratic discussions regardless of status. On one occasion, he disagreed with a specific staff member under his leadership on the issue of developing a hydrogen bomb. He and his superiors all believed that from the small hydrogen bomb to the actual use of hydrogen bomb they can save two thermal tests. But the specific comrades thought: Although this may be successful, but not enough, in order to make the development of hydrogen bombs throughout the process With a solid and sound theoretical foundation, the thermal test can not be omitted at one time. They all argued for one night. In the end, Deng Jia first gave up his opinion humbly, and took the initiative to assume the responsibility of providing explanations to higher-level leaders and suggesting changes.
Under the slogan of "grabbing the French," he finally took the time to devote the last battle to developing a hydrogen bomb and eventually broke through the end of 1966 Hydrogen bomb principle. June 17, 1967, get rid of the disturbances of turmoil, China's first successful hydrogen bomb explosion. From the atomic bomb to the hydrogen bomb, the United States spent seven years, the Soviet Union spent four years, France spent eight years, and China only took two years and eight months.
Deng also made significant contributions to the research and tests of other new-type nuclear weapons. Deng Jiaxian's temperament and character were the reason why he succeeded in leading many people of all walks of life to make a historic contribution to the Chinese nation. People know he is not selfish, people absolutely trusted him.
The ultra-leftist line started in the late 1950s and the subsequent "Cultural Revolution" brought great disasters to the vast numbers of Chinese intellectuals. Without the protection of Premier Zhou, it is hard to imagine a successful launch of "two bombs and one satellite." In the early days of the Cultural Revolution, his institute (Jiulongyuan) set up two groups of mass organizations and quarreled at the same level as other units in the country at that time. In the first instance, Deng Jia was able to persuade the two factions to continue their work and succeeded in making a hydrogen bomb in June 1967.
In the face of adversity, he was adept at carrying out tenacious and flexible struggles. During the first half of 1971, some people in the Lin Biao counterrevolutionary group used technical problems of three consecutive cold tests that did not lead to experimental results. They forced Deng Jiaxian and a dozen other researchers from the Ministry of Theoretical Research to be transferred to experimental sites in the northwestern part of the country to face organized criticisms by the masses of workers who have no idea of ??the truth of the matter. As head of the theoretical department, Deng Jiaxian clearly knew that he would bring heavy losses to the cause of nuclear weapons if he just said one word. Therefore, despite his own personal safety, on the one hand, he encouraged each other and his comrades in the theory department to adhere to the scientific spirit of seeking truth from facts; on the other hand, he proactively approached the masses of workers to make the necessary explanations. He did a great job in this fight.
After 1972, Deng Jiaxian successively served as vice president and president of the Institute of Nuclear Weapons and shouldered the heavy responsibility. He has more fully demonstrated the qualities of leaders such as the organizational leadership art, the ability to grasp the direction of scientific research, and the foresight of science. It is widely recognized as "a rare handsome talent." He devoted himself to the improvement and development of nuclear weapons and continued to make major contributions to the actual operation of hydrogen bombs and major breakthroughs in principle and research and development of new nuclear weapons. He never made mistakes in major command and decision-making.
He was never satisfied with being the leader in command above. From the theoretical design, processing and assembly, experimental testing to stereotypes production, always keeping track of the end, try to penetrate the grass-roots level, in-depth practical, insist on the front line, when nervous, he was often on the train or the plane, sleeping only three or four hours a day; with no time to eat with two bread rush on the road; sometimes just falling asleep, the phone ringing, wearing clothes and leaving, at night hurrying to the scene in time to solve the problem.
He often showed his lofty dedication to disregard of personal safety at a crucial moment, taking the lead in difficult places or knowing the most dangerous positions. By the late 1970s, as the military cause was greatly damaged by the ten-year "Cultural Revolution" turmoil, a random accident took place during a nuclear test in the late 1970s. On 13 September 1979 The parachute did not open when the plane was dropped, and the nuclear bomb dropped directly from the sky to the ground. People who know the accident are very worried about it, because such things can have serious consequences. Command immediately sent more than 100 anti-chemical soldiers to the scene of the accident to find the scene. They run back and forth on the deserted Gobi Desert and never found the marks of a nuclear bomb.
Deng Jia first decided to go in person. Deng Jia Xian well aware of the danger. Many comrades opposed him. The parachute did not open, causing the bomb to fall straight off from the plane at a point far from the intended blast center. He bent a step by step walking on the Gobi desert, sharp eyes glanced around, looking around. Finally, he found the broken shells. His high sense of responsibility "turned him into a fool in an instant", and he actually picked up the broken atomic bomb fragments with both hands - dangerous radioactive materials. He was hit by the extremely serious radiation damage.
In 1984, he directed the successful test of China's second generation of new nuclear weapons in the depths of the desert. In the last few years of his life, he is absorbed in the study of a new generation of nuclear weapons. He had a noticeable change in his body that time since eating the big "dose." After 1980, he became very old, his hair was white, and his work fatigue was hard to eliminate.
During the 32 nuclear tests conducted by the state before 1986, he personally presided over the scene 15 times. On July 16, 1986, the Vice Premier Li Peng went to the hospital to grant him the "May 1st" Labor Medal. When diagnosed with cancer, he said: "I knew this day will come, but did not expect it to come so fast." It appears that the system of timely medical examination of experts on the system had not been well implemented.
In May 1986, for the first time, the "Liberation Army Daily" was announced to the world. Deng Jiaxian, dean of the 9th Research Institute of the Ministry of Nuclear Industry, was the first theoretical designer of the atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs in China. Deng Jiaxian died of cancer on 29 July 1986 at the age of 62. Since the late 1950s, Deng had striven 28 years conscientiously on the forefront of China's nuclear weapons' development cause and performed outstanding exploits for the successful tests of our nation's first atom bomb and hydrogen bomb to be used as weapons.
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