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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

China - Early Nuclear Research

In 1930, Wang Ganchang, an assistant professor of physics at Tsinghua University, took several students and went to study at University of Berlin in Germany. At the forefront of world physics research, Wang Ganchang, with his special interest in experimental physics and his keen insight into scientific hotspots, recognized the new direction of modern physics. In December 1933 he obtained a doctorate. In April 1934, Dr. Wang Ganchang returned to the disaster-ridden China by boat and successively served as professor in the Department of Physics of Shandong University and Zhejiang University. Wang Ganchang, when still in China, was always concerned about major international developments in physics.

As early as the 1940s, experimental physicist Wang Ganchang, who was already well-known abroad, had concealed his family name for seventeen years with a firm attitude of "taking the country by himself" after receiving the task of developing atomic bombs. He devoted his life to obscurity; the famous theoretical physics Peng Huanwu won two PhDs in the UK and was called "the first Chinese to gain a professor's title in the UK." Someone asked him why he came back? He said: "Returning to China requires no justification and does not justify returning to China." In his view, "I am a Chinese person" is the most important reason.

In 1937, Qian Sanqiang, a Chinese student, came to Curie Laboratories, Radium University of Paris, France. Like Wang Ganchang, he was a graduate of Tsinghua University Physics Department. After coming to Paris, Qian Sanqiang, under the guidance of the Curies, engaged in radiation research. From 1946 to 1947, Qian Sanqiang and his wife He Zehui discovered the "three divisions" of uranium nuclei. Later, they also found the "four split" phenomenon. Their work, considered by the Curies, was one of the major achievements of the laboratory since the end of World War II.

With Tsinghua University, Peng Huanwu was a nostalgic, legendary figure. In the winter of 1938, he came to the United Kingdom University of Edinburgh Department of Theoretical Physics, where he was a doctoral student of the famous Max Born. It is well-known that Born played a groundbreaking role in the development of quantum mechanics and established a school of thought at Gottingen University, Germany's most famous university. That department of physics became the theoretical center of theoretical physics in the world. Under the guidance of Professor Born, Peng Huanwu studied solid theory and quantum field theory, and achieved outstanding achievements in these two fields, obtaining two doctoral degrees, which were unique among Chinese students at that time.

In order to return to the motherland, renowned mechanistic expert Guo Yonghuai never participated in confidential work while studying in the United States Before returning home, a fire burned his unfinished manuscript. The mechanic, together with Wang Ganchang and Peng Huanwu, formed the first three pillars of China's nuclear weapons research.

Shortly after the nuclear physicist Zhu Guangya obtained his doctorate, he returned to China early in 1950, and successively trained at Peking University and Northeast Peoples University China's construction personnel. During this period, he also participated in the armistice negotiations in North Korea as a translator. Since 1959, he was transferred to the Chinese Academy of Sciences for technical leadership. Since then, he laid the groundwork for the development of the nuclear weapons cause and devoted all his efforts to the pioneering defense of the motherland.

Theoretical physicist Cheng Kaijia returned to China with a doctorate degree and worked in Zhejiang University, Nanjing University coaching. In 1960, he ordered him to participate in the design and research of atomic bombs at the Chinese Materia Medica. He was soon appointed to form a nuclear test research base and team. Theoretical physicist Deng Jiaxian, known as "Doll's Doctor, The first thing after returning to China in the year is to visit the five-star red flag fluttering in the new China's hunting and flying to Tiananmen Square ... In 1958, the earliest among the ranks of participating in atomic bomb research.

Another pioneer must also be mentioned - the highly respected Mr. Zhao Zhongyao. He was the first Chinese physicist who witnessed a nuclear explosion. On June 30, 1946, the United States exploded another atomic bomb on the Pacific island Bikini. On the Pan Min Na, which was 25 kilometers away from the island, there are representatives of the four allied countries of Britain, France, the Soviet Union and China that came to see the tests at the invitation of the United States Government.

Among them, the Chinese representative Zhao Zhongyao was a physicist. He carefully watched the mushroom cloud rising, while the visual field calculated data silently kept in mind. After this exercise, the delegates returned to the United States. When the representatives of the US Department of Defense returned to China at the airport for an ally tour, they found the Chinese representative "missing." How is this going? Originally, Zhao Zhongyao went abroad to take on the task entrusted to the director and physicist Sauber, who was then director of the Academia Sinica: to learn as much as possible about the new developments in nuclear physics in the United States and to try to purchase nuclear physics research equipment, trying to raise money for him to remit.

In this way, Zhao Zhongyao mysteriously "disappeared". He managed to return to the California Institute of Technology, where he was studying for a doctorate from 1927 to 1930. He often struggled with his former teacher and colleague, taking the opportunity to climb up and down the accelerator's workbench and components to gain detailed knowledge of accelerator design and manufacturing. Lawrence, the inventor of the cyclotron, Nobel laureate Laurence respected the patriotism of Zhao Zhongyao, hired him, but also intended to arrange more contact with experimental equipment and drawings. Saab Dong secretly remitted 125,000 US dollars, as Zhao Zhongyao buy laboratory equipment and personal use of life.

Zhao carefully calculated that at least 400,000 US dollars to order an accelerator, but could not get the export license, because the U.S. government strictly forbids the export of such cutting-edge technology. Therefore, the only solution is to go back to China to design and manufacture some of the precision parts that can not be manufactured domestically in the United States. Since then, Zhao Zhongyao had become a "temporary workers", he often went to several familiar physics labs to sign the "au pair agreement" for the laboratory to complete some research projects in exchange for the manufacture of accelerator technology information and parts. Every day, he worked an average of more than 16 hours, most of the three meals a day were boiled water, in order to save $125,000.

At the beginning of 1950, the news of the founding of new China was already spread among the Chinese-American scientists in the United States. Zhao Zhongyao also completed the booking plan and was ready to return. August 29 that year, he and Qian Xuesen and his wife departed the United States on the "President Wilson" steamship. As they were about to sail, the FBI agents boarded to conduct a suprise search. Qian Xuesen's more than 800 kilograms of books and notebooks were seized, and he himself was said to be "Mao's spy". Zhao Zhongyao's dozens of boxes of things were also investigated. In fact, as early as a month earlier, he had brought some important materials and equipment back to China and smashed the rest of the spare parts for random stacking in order to confuse the searching officials. However, when the ship passed Yokohama, Japan, Zhao Zhongyao was still locked in the Sugamo prison by the Supreme Command of the U.S. Army.

Once the news was leaked, it immediately aroused the attention of the world public opinion and caused questions and protests from the domestic scientific community in the United States. The U.S. government, forced by domestic and international pressure, had to release him. By the end of 1950, Zhao Zhongyao returned to the motherland, after many years of absence, with a large amount of accelerator data and key equipment. In 1955, after Zhao Zhongyao brought back the equipment and components, he presided over the construction of China's first accelerator, conducted a study of atomic physics. It was at this time that Qian Xuesen, who was described by the U.S. Navy chief as being "worth five divisions," also returned to China. The Pentagon forgot to estimate how many divisions Zhao Zhongyao and his technical equipment and equipment brought back to China were worth.

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Page last modified: 04-02-2018 17:30:54 ZULU