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AG Marine Survey Vessels

China operates the largest fleet of government-owned research and survey vessels in the world, and has stoked diplomatic tensions by regularly sending ships into the EEZs of neighboring Southeast Asian nations. Marine scientific research includes those activities undertaken in the ocean to expand knowledge of the marine environment and its processes". Hydrographic surveys including those for military purposes -- and resource exploration, which Chinas research fleet is known for, are instead considered marine data collection",

A marine survey vessel is a vessel capable of performing marine environmental element detection, marine surveys, and measurements of specific ocean parameters. Any ship that can perform marine environmental measurement tasks can be called a marine survey ship. The early hydrographic survey ships only completed a single ocean water depth measurement, which was mainly used to ensure the safety of the waterway. With the advancement of society and the development of science and technology, oceanographic measurement has expanded from single water depth measurement to seabed topography, seabed topography, marine meteorology, ocean hydrology, geophysical properties, space remote sensing and polar parameter measurements. The modern marine survey ship has a strong comprehensive operation capability, and the tasks of different disciplines and different professional fields coexist with each other. On the platform for accomplishing the main mission and task, it also has considerable universal ocean parameter measurement capability.

The early marine survey vessels were created in response to the need for maritime navigation and transport. The worlds first marine survey vessel was modified by the British Navy with the Challenger warship, from 1872 to 1876. For the first time, global ocean measurements were made, and the results of the measurements had a huge impact at the time.

In order to communicate and apply maritime navigation safety information more effectively and promote the development of marine measurement, the first International Hydrographic Survey was held in London, England in June 1919. After the establishment of the International Hydrographic Survey (IHB) in 1921, an international hydrographic survey was held every five years. The meeting exchanged the results of surveying and mapping and the latest detection technology, introduced the latest innovations of marine measuring vessels, and greatly stimulated the enthusiasm of various marine countries to build new measuring vessels.

During the Second World War, due to the influence of the war, the construction of the survey ship was once stagnant. After the war, due to the recovery of the world economy and the development of the navigation industry, the US Navy took the lead in launching a medium- and long-term construction plan for marine survey vessels. Before the Second World War, the survey ships were mainly modified by other naval auxiliary ships. After the Second World War, it was found that measuring ship operations was not only a reliable guarantee for navigation safety, but also a maritime operational environment reconnaissance, sophisticated weapon test, and ocean. Valuable information on resource development and scientific research. Therefore, the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and Japan have all built large numbers of measurement vessels for specialized tasks.

Most of the survey ships built in the 1950s and 1960s have a single function, and the measurement range was mainly offshore. Since the release of the "Blue Book" by the US Navy in the 1970s, the scope of marine strategic competition has expanded to the whole world. In the 1990s, the US Navy issued a "white paper" to extend the scope of operations to the coastal waters of countries around the world. Around the changes in the world's ocean competition strategy, the tonnage of the main measurement vessels of various countries has also developed from 1,000 tons, 3,000 tons to 5,000 tons, and special ships even exceed 10,000 tons. The mission function has been developed from a single to a multiple comprehensive operation. The manual manual operation becomes an automatic operation, and the measurement range is expanded from the offshore to the global sea area, and the detection space is expanded from the plane to the stereoscopic all-round.

The modern marine survey vessel has a strong hull, high seaworthiness, stability, seakeeping and variable speed navigation maneuverability, and has the endurance and self-sufficiency of the global sea area. Most use diesel engine power units, and special measurement ships are equipped with electric propulsion systems. In order to ensure the measurement results, most survey ships are equipped with automatic rudder, side thrust device, adjustable pitch propeller and fin stabilizer, and the power part is implemented with floating raft and vibration reduction and noise reduction engineering. The measuring vessels are equipped with advanced global navigation and positioning systems and a laboratory with a sufficient area. The core of the measuring vessel is an integrated measuring system consisting of various advanced measuring equipment, control systems and processing systems. Helicopters, deep submersibles, sounders, dedicated measuring boats, and measuring buoys can be equipped for mission-critical tasks.

Oceanography covers a wide range of topics, including marine life and ecosystems, ocean circulation, plate tectonics and the geology of the seafloor, and the chemical and physical properties of the ocean. Just as there are many specialties within the medical field, there are many disciplines within oceanography.

Chemical oceanographers and marine chemists study the composition of seawater, its processes and cycles, and the chemical interaction of seawater with the atmosphere and seafloor. Their work may include analysis of seawater components, the effects of pollutants, and the impacts of chemical processes on marine organisms. They may also use chemistry to understand how ocean currents move seawater around the globe and how the ocean affects climate or to identify potentially beneficial ocean resources such as natural products that can be used as medicines.

Geological oceanographers and marine geologists explore the ocean floor and the processes that form its mountains, canyons, and valleys. Through sampling, they look at millions of years of history of sea-floor spreading, plate tectonics, and oceanic circulation and climates. They also examine volcanic processes, mantle circulation, hydrothermal circulation, magma genesis, and crustal formation. The results of their work help understand the processes that created the ocean basins and the interactions between the ocean and the seafloor.

Physical oceanographers study the physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean such as waves, currents, eddies, gyres and tides; the transport of sand on and off beaches; coastal erosion; and the interactions of the atmosphere and the ocean. They examine deep currents, the ocean-atmosphere relationship that influences weather and climate, the transmission of light and sound through water, and the ocean's interactions with its boundaries at the seafloor and the coast.

Biological oceanographers and marine biologists study plants and animals in the marine environment. They are interested in the numbers of marine organisms and how these organisms develop, relate to one another, adapt to their environment, and interact with it. To accomplish their work, they may use field observations, computer models, or laboratory and field experiments.

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Page last modified: 01-08-2021 14:08:13 ZULU