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China has a vast territory, a vast sea area, numerous rivers and lakes, and the development of water transportation industry has provided good conditions for the development of the navigation marker business. According to statistics, as of the end of 2006, China had set up more than 40,000 various navigation markers. In recent years, due to the introduction of a large number of advanced technologies into the construction and management of navigation aids, the development of navigation aid technology, especially the development of radio navigation aids and the wide application of navigation aid information. The Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) and the Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) use radio technology and digital technology to achieve the integration of ship and shore.

In the 7th year of the Qing Dynasty (1868), the Qing Dynasty Customs set up a fleet of 10 ships for the navigation mark replenishment, waterway measurement and anti-smuggling missions; by 1926 the fleet was expanded to 20 ships and had lighthouse dedicated transport transport ship. During the Anti-Japanese War, the fleet was hit hard. After Japan surrendered, the Customs obtained a number of ships from the US Navy for the recovery and construction of the navigation markers.

In 1953, according to the prevailing situation in the struggle against the enemy, the navigation agency of the Ministry of Communications and the navigation agency that managed the navigation mark were handed over to the Navy Command for management. Since July 5, 1953 , the inland navigation beacons were under the administration of the Inland Navigation Administration and the General Administration of Shipping of the Ministry of Communications, and the Department of Shipping and the Maritime Affairs Offices of the Ministry of Communications were revoked. The coastal and port navigation marks were taken over by the Navy. The Naval Hydrographic Bureau was expanded to the Hydrographic Department.

In 1953, after the PLA Navy took over the coastal navigation markers, the original navigation ship hulls were updated and a number of navigational boats were newly built. Including the anti-submarine net-shell ship "Haijian" and "Haihang" originally built by the United States under the code "AN", it was converted into a new type of navigation ship, and a new type 985 navigation ship (1120 tons of displacement) and 994 type navigation ship (1750 tons displacement) and 999 type navigation boats (95 tons of displacement) were built. Construction of medium-sized navigational vessels (water displacement of 800 tons) began in 1989. As of the end of 2006, the China Maritime Safety Administration owned 73 navigational boats, including 7 large-scale navigation vessels, 12 medium-sized navigation vessels and 54 small navigation vessels.

The People's Republic of China Maritime Safety Administration is the competent authority responsible for the national sea buoy sea navigation mark management. In April 1980, the State Council and the Central Military Commission approved the request of the Navy Command and the Ministry of Communications for "adjusting the management system of public navigation marks in the sea area and strengthening management." Subsequently, after repeated negotiations between the two sides, a handover agreement was reached. From June 1982 to March 1983, the Navy and the Ministry of Communications completed the handover of public navigation aids in the sea area.

The First Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic Administration began in 2010 to deploy "White Dragon" buoys at the launch point in the southeastern part of the Indian Ocean (100E, 8S). The buoy can not only observe atmospheric elements such as sea surface temperature, air pressure, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, rainfall, long wave and short wave radiation, but also collect important ocean parameters such as sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean current and dissolved oxygen in real time. The buoy team maintains the station once a year, and the Bailong buoy deployed in 2016 has been working for nearly one year, so it is necessary to recycle maintenance and maintain the continuity of the observation data of the station.

The international Argo project and its global Argo real-time ocean observation network are the largest marine cooperative survey projects in the history of human ocean observation, which have the longest participation, the longest duration and the most remarkable results. They are also the first in the marine field in China at the beginning of this century.

Compared with the rapid expansion of the international Argo program and the continuous expansion of the global Argo real-time ocean observation network, as well as the enthusiasm of European and American countries, China's participation in the international science program is obviously insufficient, and with the major Argo member countries (USA, Australia) The gap between France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada and India is also widening. The deployment of buoys has not followed the resolutions of the United Nations Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) on the Argo plan and its implementation rules, and has not been included in the management of the China Argo plan, which has seriously affected China's reputation in participating in the international science program.

Floating buoys are generally used on bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes, bays, and the like, to regulate boat traffic and to warn of water safety conditions. Buoys are used to mark navigation channels, to warn of underwater hazards, to mark areas off limits to boat traffic such as swimming areas, to mark areas in which certain boating operation regulations are in effect such as no-wake zones near marinas, and the like.

The simplest marker buoys are typically elongated cylindrical structures which may be on the order of five to six feet in length and nine or ten inches in diameter. Such buoys are formed of rigid closed cell foams encased in a durable plastic, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Ballast is positioned in the lower end to cause the buoys to float in an upright orientation, and the buoys are designed to have about 50 to 55% of their length extending above the water line. A buoy is held in place by a mooring cable secured to a mooring eye which is connected by a through-rod extending the length of the buoy to a top plate. Buoys are usually color coded according to the nature and urgency of their function and often have symbols or messages applied thereto by printing, application of decals, and the like.

Buoys are used for navigation, scientific and data collection platforms, and a wide variety of other purposes. The marine data buoy is the development key, so far altogether China has developed the 14 sets of large-scale, medium and small-scale marine data buoy since 1965, and has built the corresponding shore receiving station separately in the South China Sea, East China Sea and North China Sea. The research work of the II-marine data buoy is presided over by the State Oceanic Administration. II-marine data buoy is disc-shaped made of steel, with diameter 10 m, height 2.2 m, sea gauge 0.85 m, tonnage 52 t. The "Deep marine data buoy" is disc-shaped made of steel, with diameter 10 m, height 2.12 m, tonnage 54 t. single-anchor mooring, operating depth 80 m; Electrical equipment and instrumentation are commonly powered by batteries, charged by solar cells, and in some cases, by diesel-powered generators. Buoy weights range from several pounds for drifters and aircraft-deployed buoys, to nearly one hundred tons. Some of the environmental considerations for the design of buoys are : waterdepth, wave and current conditional, weather, and corrosion. Other design considerations include the magnetic characteristics of the hull, dynamic stability, hydrodynamic drag, and vandalism. Early buoy deployments were fraught with troubles. Buoys were damaged by deploying vessels, sank mysteriously, sustained many mooring failures and went adrift, and experienced many early sensor and electronics problems.

Moored ocean buoys offer the only means of obtaining real-time, continuous, frequent, and accurate observations of marine conditions from the same deep-water location. Often, the first indications that forecasters have of rapid intensification or change in movement of storms come from buoys.

The US Navy designed a boat-shaped, six-meter-long aluminium hull that would support meteorological equipment for transmitting observations automatically and unattended. This was the minimum size capable of supporting the required weight to be moored using a slack moor combining stainless steel wire rope, nylon line, polypropylene line, and railroad wheels for anchors. Subsequently, about 20 of these buoys, called NOMAD for Navy Oceanographic Meteorological Automatic Device, were built in the 1950. The early NOMADs were powered by storage batteries; however, in the 1960s a nuclear power generating system was installed and operated. The devices are included under the general title SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power). These devices have been built and tested for use on buoys with apparently good results. By 1964 strontium 90-fueled SNAP thermoelectric generators had accumulated more than 7 years' continuous operation without failure.

Discus buoys have circular hulls. A mooring system keeps discus-shaped surface buoy within a general vicinity but sufficient slack or scope is provided to allow discus-shaped surface buoy to respond to the waves for better directional wave measurement. A typical mooring system, from the ocean bottom to the surface, may comprise an anchor, a length of chain, shackles, nylon rope and syntactic floats, shackles, another section of chain, swivel and shackles that connect to the buoy bridle. Size and length of the components vary depending on the ocean depth and bottom surface characteristics.

A moored buoy system is essential to the progress of maritime weather forecast and safety by providing a more accurate and precise determination of the surface ocean wave spectra than can be determined from traditional observations from ships or from remote sensing applications. The moored buoy system maintains its position in the face of hazardous maritime conditions that ships would normally avoid and thus can make measurements without hazarding vessels or life. The use of a moored buoy system together with a compact wave measurement system allows the expansion of a network of surface ocean wave spectral measurements co-located with other important maritime environmental observations, such as wind speed and direction, air temperature, and atmospheric pressure.

10-meter buoyThe discus buoys used by the US evolved from a research program conducted for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) during the early 1960s. Some 15 different shapes were studied, including boats, spars, and toroids. It was concluded that the 12-meter-diameter discus buoy was the most reliable solution for subsurface and meteorological measurements. The size was carefully considered and dictated by survivability.

In the United States, the 12-meter-diameter discus buoy, also known as the Monster Buoy (weighing nearly 200,000 pounds), was developed to prevent capsizing by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) during the 1960s. By 1995 the National Data Buoy Center of the National Weather Service (NWS), a part of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operated three monster buoys, but in the fleet was soon reduced to two buoys. The Coast Guard used the 12-meter hull in its large navigational buoy. Instrumentation on these buoys was mounted on a 10-meter mast. Monster buoys were deployed with a tugboat. Electrical power for the "monster buoys" was supplied by two four-cycle engine/generators, utilized alternately for charging a nickel-cadmium battery bank.

The high cost of the 12-meter buoy led to the development of the less-expensive, 10-meter discus buoy (weighing 114,000 pounds). Weather instruments are mounted on a 10-meter mast. This large, steel hull, along with its inverse-catenary mooring, is specifically designed to withstand severe currents, such as could occur during a meandering of the Gulf Stream. In addition, the 10-meter buoy can be boarded and serviced at sea with relative ease. The 10-meter buoys are used extensively by Japan. Unfortunately, the smaller hull is less stable and more difficult to board by service members.

NDBC's operational discus buoys are designed in three sizes: 12-meters, 10-meters, and 3-meters. The steel-hulled, 12-meter discus buoys are more sturdy in rough weather than the smaller, steel-hulled 10-meter discus buoy, but are more costly to maintain. The 10-meter buoy has been known to capsize in certain environmental conditions and the overall motion of the buoy is more lively than that of the 12-meter buoy. Due to their size, in the USA the 10-meter and the 12-meter buoys generally had to be towed behind a Coast Guard Cutter to their appropriate locations.

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has conducted an Ocean Data Buoy Program since 1968. The first of this series of operational buoys was fabricated in 1972 and deployed at a site about 770 kilometers south-west of Tokyo in 4,160 meters of water from August 1973 to May 1974. The JMA then started deploying buoys in the seas adjacent to Japan. Over the years, the UKMO has experimented with a number of moored buoy systems from small (2. 5-meter) inshore types to large open-ocean buoys with diameters greater than eight meters.

Within weeks of the devasting 2004 quake and tsunami, governments across the Indian Ocean vowed to establish a tsunami warning system that would protect their coastal residents from another disaster. China's State Oceanic Administration (SOA) deployed two tsunami buoy systems in the South China Sea that can issue an alert two hours before seismic sea waves arrive, the Science and Technology Daily reported 11 May 2018. Each buoy has been attached to an anchor chain linking to an observation platform 4,000 meters below sea level, which can observe the seawater depth through a pressure sensor, and report to the buoy through an acoustic system.

The buoys are located near the Manila Trench, which is the most likely source of tsunamis affecting China. Numerical simulations have shown that if a magnitude 8.5 tsunami were to strike, the waves could exceed 10 meters, reach the western Philippines within half an hour and then affect the coastal regions of southern China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and other countries within one to four hours. Under normal circumstances, large marine hydrometeorological data buoys refer to buoys with a diameter of not less than ten meters, and the buoys can realize the function of automatic collection and transmission of data. For a long time, China's large-scale marine hydrometeorological data buoys existed as national key marine meteorological observation projects, providing important information materials for related fields.

The East China Sea Ocean Science Integrated Observation Buoy System is a large-scale comprehensive observation buoy with a diameter of 10m. It is the core of the East China Sea Ocean Buoy Observation Array and an important part of the construction of China's offshore ocean observation and research system. The observation elements of the buoy system include more than ten categories of hydrology, meteorology and water quality, radiating the East China Sea. The East China Sea Ocean Science Integrated Observation Buoy System can observe the meteorological, hydrological and water quality parameters of the sea area in a fixed and long-term continuous manner.

On 13 October 2010, under the guidance of the China Meteorological Administration and the guidance of the Functional Office of the Guangdong Meteorological Bureau, with the assistance of the Shantou Maritime Safety Administration and the cooperation of the Nanao Shipyard, the Shantou Meteorological Bureau passed more than 40 Hours of tight installation and commissioning, successfully deployed the first 10m large marine meteorological buoy observation station in the scheduled sea area of the South China Sea. For Shantou City, which has historically suffered from typhoons and other disasters, its completion will enable all-weather observation in the northeastern South China Sea.

The early years of mooring activities were devoted to research, model testing, and actual field measurements. The goal was to provide a long-term, deep-water mooring that would be simple in design, fabrication and deployment, and relatively low in cost. Since data buoys would not be used for navigational purposes, tight mooring watch circles (radius of movement of buoys due to wind and current) were not a requirement. This allowed for the choice of a single-point mooring with liberal scope.

Buoys are subject to deterioration over time due to their exposure to weather and ultraviolet radiation, collisions by boats, bird droppings, plant life such as algae, and pollutants which may be in the water in which the buoys float. Such factors can fade or otherwise obscure the color of the buoys and the markings thereon. Additionally, the structure of the buoys can be weakened from such factors. Buoys have been known to be broken completely in half when struck by boats. In order to avoid the possible consequences and liabilities which can result from inadequately marked channels and hazards, buoys must be inspected regularly and maintained when necessary by authorities and agencies responsible for regulating the bodies of water in which buoys are employed or by buoy tender companies contracted by such authorities and agencies.

Conventionally, buoy maintenance involves disconnecting the mooring cable or chain, lifting the buoy out of the water, cleaning and painting at least the exposed portion of the buoy, applying the required markings, either by the application of decals (including wrap-around vinyl decals) or stenciling the markings on the buoy, replacing the buoy in the water, and reconnecting the mooring tether. If a buoy is missing, broken in half, or otherwise damaged beyond repair, a new buoy must be installed. Such conventional buoy maintenance is laborious and time consuming and, thus, expensive both in terms of labor and materials.

On 20 October 2012, the East China Sea Marine Science Integrated Observation Buoy System completed the overhaul task and began a new round of observation operation cycle. This overhaul is the first time that the buoy has been docked and overhaul since it was put into service in August 2009, including offshore recycling, standard maintenance, anchor system inspection and replacement, observation equipment replacement, power supply system maintenance and replacement, equipment assembly, system integration, Power testing, communication debugging, offshore deployment and other aspects.

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Long-term and continuous ocean observation data acquisition of the comprehensive observation buoy system for marine environmental forecasting, weather forecasting and climate prediction, disaster warning, regional economic development, etc. for national and local marine, meteorological, environmental protection, fishery, shipping, national defense and other sectors The development of the project is of great significance. At the same time, it provides key measurement basis and background information for the long-term changes of the marine ecosystem and its resource and environmental effects, and the development of prediction models for various environmental factors.

The Institute of Marine Instrumentation of Shandong Academy of Sciences has developed a mature and reliable product category represented by buoys for the urgent needs of national marine monitoring and development. Today, in the field of marine monitoring equipment, their research and application are dominant in China. In the eyes of users, they are often the only "trusted" choice.

The development of marine buoys in China began in the 1960s, and the original prototype was only developed. Beginning in the 1980s, several research institutes in China began to research marine data buoys. In the end, only the Institute of Marine Instrumentation of Shandong Academy of Sciences made relatively mature products. In 1989, the first marine buoy developed by the Institute of Marine Instrumentation of Shandong Academy of Sciences was put into operation in Beihai.

During the "Seventh Five-Year Plan" period, Wang Juncheng and his team conquered the technical difficulties of the buoy system to survive and obtain basic measurement elements in a harsh marine environment, and initially established a buoy technology system. During the "Eighth Five-Year Plan" and "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period, he led the team to overcome the difficulties of satellite transmission, energy supply, and data measurement accuracy, improved the performance of the buoy system, and further improved the buoy technology system. During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, he presided over the "Buoy Key Technology Research" of the National 863 Program.

The most important condition for undertaking large projects is to have the technological advantages at the national level. After years of research, the Institute of Marine Instrumentation of Shandong Academy of Sciences successfully mastered the key technologies of marine welding and broke the monopoly of foreign technology. Today, no matter in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Diaoyu Islands, or the Arctic, more than 100 sets of 10 m large buoys that are deployed in China along the coast are almost all developed by the Institute.

The deployment of buoys in specific sea areas plays an important role in coastal defense security and safeguarding national rights. It is reported that the General Staff Meteorological Bureau has deployed sets of buoys for different purposes in the relevant sea areas. The Navy placed sets in the relevant sea areas. The State Oceanic Administration has placed sets in the Taiwan Strait and sets on the Diaoyu Islands. The launch of these buoys plays a vital role in safeguarding Chinas maritime sovereignty.

By adding acoustic array detection system and panoramic video detection system on 10m large-scale hydro-meteorological data buoy that has been operational running in China for many years, target vessels on the sea are detected and identified. Then, the marine data are transferred to shore station receiver in real time by high-speed satellite. The whole system adopts low-power embedded microcontroller technology, CAN bus technology, integrate acoustic array detection subsystem, panoramic video detection subsystem, hydrometeor subsystem, buoys security monitoring subsystem and satellite communication subsystem.

These subsystems are integrated by internal network and serial interface. Finally, the sonar signal and the video image data of activity warships surrounding the buoy are collected. Large volume buoy data are transferred to shore station receiver by high-speed data transmission satellite which are added on the buoy. The integration trinity information monitoring demonstration based on target detection and recognition of rights enforcement and transmission technology are carried out, so as to enhance China's all-weather detection and the ability to find marine infringement targets.

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The research and development of the three-anchor buoy integrated observation platform completed the main construction in 2018. As China's first large-scale intelligent observation buoy system with a diameter of 15 meters, it can realize the long-term continuous online real-time monitoring function of sea surface, water body and seafloor, and be like a sea "mobile house" for short-term resident of researchers. It is currently the largest comprehensive observation buoy system in the country. Prior to this, the largest domestic buoy was mostly 10 meters in diameter.

The basic structure of the three-anchor platform is composed of a central main buoy body, three peripheral protection buoys and supporting mooring systems, which effectively solves the problem of equipment entanglement caused by traditional single-moored buoys during underwater profile observation. The central main buoy body adopts a disc-shaped structure with a diameter of 15 meters, which has the advantages of strong anti-destructive ability and good stability; the design of three sets of peripheral buoys keeps three sets of anchoring systems away from the main buoy, and the central observation well of the main buoy The section observation channel and the intelligent judgment function effectively avoid the entanglement of the anchor chain and the section observation equipment, so as to realize the real-time observation of water profile data. The intelligent judgment function of the triple-anchor platform is also a major innovation. In severe weather, when the wind, wave, and current values ??exceed the safety threshold, the profile observation equipment can be safely recovered, and it can be automatically put into operation when the sea conditions improve.

Because the three-anchor buoy integrated observation platform adopts the special mooring method of the three-anchor mooring system, it is very difficult to deploy. To this end, all technicians arrived at the site five days in advance to prepare for deployment, including material inventory, anchoring connection, sensor calibration and detection, winch debugging and safety system inspection, etc. There are 61 deployment procedures alone , which need to be checked in detail.

The three-anchor buoy integrated observation platform draws on the advantages of the 10-meter buoy's strong anti-destructive ability and good stability, and adopts the three-anchor fixed observation system, which can overcome the effect of the single-anchor buoy system with tidal currents and a large range of activities. The anchorage system is easy to entangle with the profile observation system and other shortcomings. At the same time, the intelligent winch is used to carry out the real-time shallow water profile observation of multiple parameters, which can realize the long-term continuous online real-time monitoring function of the sea surface, the water body and the seabed. It is a comprehensive marine observation platform that integrates many functions of emergency ecological disaster monitoring. Its use will provide more abundant and complete data support for Chinas basic marine scientific research.

"The three-anchor buoy integrated observation platform was started in November 2017 and the first main body construction has been completed." Jia Siyang, senior engineer of Huang and Donghai Station of the Offshore Ocean Observation Research Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, told reporters. The buoy integrated observation platform is an important part of the 2017 special offshore exploration platform-offshore buoy profile observation platform purchased by the Institute of Oceans of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and is the first large-scale integrated buoy system with intelligent observation capability with a diameter of 15 meters. He said the system was also the first to be developed and built internationally, according to public data.

The construction of the three-anchor buoy integrated observation platform is the Chinese Academy of Sciences offshore observation network observation form of upgrading and technological innovation, is based on the offshore observation network for many years observation technology, observation experience accumulation of useful attempts, is an innovative application project.

The buoy integrated observation platform uses intelligent winch to carry out a number of parameter observations of the real-time shallow water profile, which can realize the long-term continuous on-line real-time monitoring function of sea surface, water body and seafloor, and is an innovative integrated ocean observation platform to meet the current shallow sea observation needs. In terms of observation content and mode, the observation platform has the characteristics of sea gas interface observation, tringe observation, surface observation, water body observation, seafloor observation and many other functions of special monitoring of emergency ecological disasters, and its use will provide more abundant and complete data support for the basic research of marine science in China. It is also very user-friendly. Like a sea "mobile house", it allows researchers to stay in the buoy interior space for a short period of time, with living utensils, beds, ventilation lighting systems, storage space, etc. These observation buoys are like sentinels who are dedicated to their duties . No matter the day is calm or the typhoon is squally windy, they stay in the offshore waters of China, and always send back the observed marine environment data and provide them to relevant units in time. The analysis and application of scientists and technicians provide reliable data support for marine scientific research, regional economic development, and natural disaster prevention.

The Yellow Sea Station and the East Sea Station established by the Chinese Academy of Sciences are currently operating dozens of buoys and submarine systems. However, due to the lack of offshore water profile observation methods, a full-scale set of ocean atmosphere, ocean surface, profile water and seabed has not been established. The observation system cannot meet all-round three-dimensional monitoring requirements. The operation of the three-anchor buoy integrated observation platform can well solve the technical difficulties of profile water observation, thus making up for the establishment of a full-scale observation system covering the ocean atmosphere, ocean surface, profile water and seabed.

On 22 February 2013, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yi Yiwei announced at an afternoon press conference that Japan had discovered that China had installed buoys in the East China Sea. According to the Sankei Shimbun, from the beginning of 2013, Japan began to notice that China began to deploy buoys in the Japan Exclusive Economic Zone in the East China Sea. The Japan Coast Guard has already carried out "photographing and evidence collection" for the Chinese side to deploy buoys. On February 21, after the Chinese fishery boat re-entered the Diaoyu Islands, Japan decided to disclose the matter.

It is said that Chinas basis for deploying buoys on the exclusive economic zone of Japan was a method of dividing the exclusive economic zone that Japan has always proposed unilaterally. That is to say, the so-called "Japan-China Middle Line" in the middle section of the China-Japan coastline is the boundary of the exclusive economic zone. This unilateral method of spending has never been recognized by the Chinese side. As early as 2006, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs made a statement emphasizing that the East China Sea has not yet been demarcated.

Regarding the intention of the Chinese to deploy buoys, the "Sankei Shimbun" speculated that the Chinese side is to test the submarine activities of the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force and intends to record the sound data of the Japanese submarines. After the deployment of the marine buoy, the Chinese side will be able to determine the sound of the Japanese submarine engine through sound waves, thereby confirming the movement of the submarine from the underwater of the Diaoyu Islands. The Chinese side can also collect some of the basics of the Japanese side through the transmission of sound wave data.

After the establishment of this system, peacetime can be used for marine development; in the event of an emergency or regional tension, its long-term accumulated data can be used as a basis for military response measures. Just as high-precision maps can be used for mineral development or as a reference for military maps, the observation buoy system also has great significance in both military and civilian areas.

The South China Sea is vast in area and has a water depth of several kilometers. It is not only a "fortress area" for China's strategic missile nuclear submarines, but also a paradise for submarine activities. Whether it is anti-submarine or submarine activities, it is inseparable from the mastery of marine environmental information, because seawater is not a transparent piece, not only has complex underwater terrain information, but also complex salinity and temperature in different locations and different depths of seawater. , density and internal wave changes, just like the sky with many changes in meteorology. These work for the exploration of the sonar, the navigation of the submarine, the use of weapons in the water will have a huge impact. To put it bluntly, naval warfare must master the information of the marine environment. Just as the land war must master the mountain and river topographic information, and for air warfare must be as important as the weather information.

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Page last modified: 01-08-2021 14:07:30 ZULU