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Chinese Anti-Shipping Missiles

Anti-ship missiles are naval weapons developed only after the 1960s. Because of their small size, high speed, low cost, and high power, they were quickly favored by the militaries of various countries. In 1967, in the Third Middle East War, the Egyptian army sank Israels largest destroyer "Eilat" at the time with four inexpensive Soviet-made "Styx" anti-ship missiles. Fame in one fell swoop. After the 1980s, air-launched anti-ship missiles appeared. In the 1982 War on the Islands of Marathon, Argentina used 6 Flying Fish air-to-ship missiles to sink the British Royal Navys multi-billion-dollar USS Sheffields main destroyer and a large transport ship, almost completely changed the course of the war.

China's anti-ship missiles have been developed for four generations. The first generation is the "upstream" series of anti-ship missiles and the Yingzhe-6 anti-ship missiles. The second generation is the YJ-81 and YJ-82 series of anti-ship missiles. The third generation is the YJ-62 , YJ-83 , YJ-91 and YJ-9 series of anti-ship missiles. The fourth generation is The YJ-12 and YJ-18 anti-ship missiles. Among them, the current active anti-ship missiles of the People's Liberation Army are mainly concentrated in the third and fourth generations. The Eagle-83 missiles equipped with large surface ships and submarines have a range of about 200 kilometers, the Eagle-62 missile has a range of 450 to 550 kilometers, and its improved range reaches an unprecedented 600 to 650 kilometers.

Among the fourth-generation anti-ship missiles, the YJ-18 mainly replaces the YJ-83 series and adopts the "sub-super-combination" method. It has strong penetration capabilities and range advantages. It will become China's sea-based anti-ship missiles and shore-based missiles. The core force of anti-ship missiles, the YJ-12 supersonic anti-ship missile has the characteristics of high speed, high maneuverability and large range. It will be the core force of China's air-based anti-ship missiles, with a certain type of long-range air-launched anti-ship cruise missile.

According to relevant information, China has made significant progress in tactical missile guidance systems recently. High-precision laser inertial navigation and optical fiber inertial navigation systems have been used. The second phase of the " Beidou " project has been put into use, enabling China to have an independent satellite navigation and positioning system. This has laid a solid foundation for China's large-scale use of satellite navigation/inertial guidance systems, and also brought China's mid- and long-range anti-ship missile attack capability to a higher level.

The thrifty Chinese are not content to use a single missile for a single purpose, but are known to cleverly deploy the same missile in a variety of launch modes. This parsimony with respect to hardware imposes a penalty with respect to nomenclature, since the virtually identical missile will acquire a new set of designators once it is applied to a new mission or launch mode. Hence, the ship-launched CSS-N-4 SARDINE becomes the CSS-C-8 SACCADE when launched from the shore [in case you are wondering, SACCADE is "the movement of the eye from one fixation point to another" -- and SARDINE is "a small fish"].

Matters are further complicated by the fact that the readily accessible public record fails to disclose the fact of the existence of a variety of designations which are almost certainly in use by either the Chinese military or their observant counterparts in other countries [eg, the Chinese service designation for the SARDINE remains obscure, as does the NATO name for the CSS-N-5].

CHINESEWESTERN
ServiceBuilder
export
Land-LaunchedSea/Air Launched
GLCMSLCMALCMASCMDIANATODIANATO
HY-1 SY-1FL-1 CSS-C-2 SILKWORM CSS-N-1 SCRUBBRUSH
HY-2 SY-1C-201 CSS-C-3 SEERSUCKERCSS-N-2 SAFFLOWER
YJ-6C-201W /
C-601
YJ-16C-101 CSS-C-5 SAPLES
HY-3FL-3C-301CSS-C-6 SAWHORSE
HY-4YJ-61 C-611CSS-C-7 SADSACKCAS-1KRAKEN
KD-63YJ-63 C-611
HY-5YJ-1 /
YJ-8 ? /
YJ-83
C-801 CSS-C-4CSS-N-4 SARDINE
YJ-2 /
YJ-22 /
YJ-82
C-802 CSS-C-8 SACCADECSS-N-8 SACCADE
KD-88YJ-83C-803
YJ-62C-602
DH-10CJ-10 YJ-100
C-701
TL-6/JJ-6C-704
YJ-12CM-302
YJ-18CH-SS-NX-13
SY-2 FL-2 CSS-N-5 SABBOT
FL-4
FL-7


YJ-82 / Yingzhe-82 / Eagle Strike 82

The Eagle Strike 82 anti-ship missile is developed on the basis of the Eagle Strike 8 with increased range. The Eagle Strike 82 is very similar in appearance to the Eagle Strike-8, and it has the same solid rocket booster and guidance system. The biggest difference is that the Eagle Strike-82 uses a turbojet engine to replace the original Eagle Strike-8 solid rocket motor. The missile body has also been lengthened to accommodate more fuel. The Eagle Strike 8, Eagle Strike 81 , and Eagle Strike 82 of the Eagle Strike missile family are all subsonic anti-ship missiles. The export version of the Eagle-82 is called the C-802A anti-ship missile.

The C802 anti-ship missile weapon system is a shore-to-ship mobile missile weapon system developed by China. It is an improved model of the C801 missile weapon system. It is very similar to the C801 but has an increased length. The performance of its radio altimeter is more complete. The power and maneuverability of the vehicle have been improved. C802 is a medium- and long-range all-weather multi-purpose anti-ship missile weapon system, which can carry out ship-borne, shore-based and airborne launch and sea-skimming flight. The flying height of the cruise section is 20-30 meters, and the flying height when approaching the target is 5- 7 meters.

The C802 anti-ship missile weapon system was developed by the China Sea Eagle Mechanical and Electrical Technology Research Institute, also known as the Eagle Strike-2. It is an improved model of the C801 missile, but the length is increased, and the C801 solid rocket cruise engine is replaced with a turbojet engine , The performance of its radio altimeter is more complete, and the power, maneuverability, and range of the warhead have been improved. C802 missiles have shore-to-ship, ship-to-ship and air-to-ship types. C802 is not only equipped with Chinese navy and air force, but also exported to Bangladesh, Pakistan, Thailand, Indonesia and other places.

The Eagle Strike 83 anti-ship cruise missile is called the C-803 anti-ship missile by Western countries. It is said to be one of the "Eagle Strike" series of anti-ship missiles developed by the Chinese Navy. It is a low supersonic sweep Sea anti-ship missiles are called "Sea Butchers."

In the 1990s, the "Xiongfeng" 2 and "Xiongfeng" 3 anti-ship missiles were developed using American technology against the other side of the strait. The former used a low-fuel-consumption miniature worm gear jet engine and radar/infrared dual-mode guidance technology. It completely overwhelmed the Eagle Strike 8 series; the latter directly "copied" the related technology of the Alvrj (ALVRJ) early years of Maywater Aerospace Corporation (LTV), imitating the so-called "Sky" integrated rocket/ramjet engine . Based on this, the main performance of the projectile is called M2, with a range of 160 kilometers.

Although there is a certain amount of water, it is undoubtedly a problem for the Chinese military and aerospace science and industry departments that are used to claiming to be at the advanced level of the worlds anti-ship missiles. Absolutely unacceptable. So in 1992, the so-called "strength bomb" Eagle Hit 83 was quickly included in the official development plan. In October 1998, the Eagle Strike 83 achieved the indicated target of the anti-ship missile system for the first time, and achieved the result of a long-range missile directly hitting the target ship. In the process of research and integration, it achieved 6 rounds and 5 glories, and it also participated in 1999. The grand military parade on the 50th anniversary of the National Day. In the meantime, the CCTV commentator said "domestic supersonic anti-ship missiles", making the Eagle Strike 83 a star that has attracted much attention.

The Eagle-83 missile has a strong actual combat power, with a maximum range of 150 kilometers for the carrier type and 250 kilometers for the airborne type. The missile adopts the combat mode of high subsonic cruise and supersonic end-stage dive attack. The booster first accelerates the missile to high subsonic speed and then is ignited and propelled by the turbojet engine. At this time, the booster separates from the missile body. When the terminal attack procedure is activated, the secondary rocket engine is ignited, the turbojet engine is disengaged, and the missile enters a dive flight state. At this time, the missile will reach a low supersonic speed of Mach 1.3-1.5 at a distance of 20-30 kilometers from the target.

As a transitional product before the introduction of the Russian-made "Ruby" and Eagle Strike-12 A into service, the significance of the Eagle Strike 83 is that it can effectively improve the penetration capability of the Navy's anti-ship missiles in the short term. In particular , the submarine-launched type of YJ-83 will pose a considerable threat to the US aircraft carrier fleet wandering in the Taiwan Strait.

The JH-7 and H-6 can carry 4 Eagle Strike-83 under the wings, and the eagle can be launched on the destroyer 051B , 052, 052B , 051C and the frigate 054, 054A , part of the 053H 3 guided missile frigate and guided missile boat 022 Hit -83.

YJ-62 / Yingzhe-62 / Eagle Strike 62

The YJ-62 missile is a long-range anti-ship cruise missile developed and equipped by China in recent years. Although it belongs to the broad category of the YJ-6 series , it is not a new equipment of the technical grade at all. The missile has a greater range than the previous Eagle Strike-6 series missiles, and solves the problem of the existence of long-range anti-ship cruise missiles in China.

The Eagle 62 anti-ship missile belongs to the category of high subsonic speed. Its flight speed is about 0.6-0.8 Mach, the minimum range is 40-60 kilometers, the cruise altitude is 30 meters, and the final cruise altitude is reduced to 7-10 meters. Because it uses a turbojet engine, the maximum range can reach 280 kilometers, and the weight of the warhead is 300 kg. The unique aerodynamic layout of the Eagle 62 allows it to maintain a long-distance stable flight of hundreds of kilometers at a wave tip height of 3-5 meters. The improved digital missile-borne flight control system allows it to perform multiple maneuvers throughout the entire attack trajectory, which greatly increases the probability of successful penetration.

According to foreign media speculation, this type of missile deployed along the Chinese coast can control most of the waters from the Chinese coast to the first island chain. As long as the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force enters the East China Sea, it has already entered the range of this type of missile.

Eagle -62 elastomer finer and lighter, the H-6 can carry both four (latest H -6K "Ares" amounted to 6); 052C missile destroyers 8 can be loaded. On August 19, 2010, the Chinese Ministry of National Defense website stated that the Peoples Liberation Armys new shore-to-ship missile force conducted a live-fire saturation attack in the East China Sea. The picture of the missile issued by the military's announcement shows that the triple-mounted Eagle-62 anti-ship missile carried by a mobile launch vehicle . Some media describe the Eagle-62 as an "aircraft carrier killer," which makes the US aircraft carrier cautious.

Although the performance of the Eagle-62 has reached the technical level of the late 1980s, considering the gap in comprehensive scientific and technological strength, the Eagle-62 still has many urgent improvements and improvements, especially the micro turbofan engine that requires very high performance and reliability. The appearance of the Eagle-62 is similar to that of the American Tomahawk missile. The turbojet engine consumes a lot of fuel, has a low fuel loading rate, and has a significant gap in range compared to the Tomahawk.

YJ-91 / Yingzhe-91 / Eagle Strike 91

In the 1990s, China purchased an unknown number of KH-31P anti-radiation missiles from Russia. This type of missile is the fourth-generation anti-radiation missile developed by the Soviet Union (the third generation internationally), and it is also based on the Soviet air defense suppression theory. "The Last Masterpiece". In 2007, China improved the KH-31P missile based on its own achievements in microelectronics technology, and successfully developed the Eagle Strike 91 anti-radiation missile, and at the same time developed an anti-ship-type Eagle Strike 91 on this basis.

The Eagle-91 is known as a "tailor-made" nemesis for the Aegis system. It is divided into two types: anti-radiation and anti-ship models. The head structure varies with different missile models. The anti-radiation head is equipped with a passive radar seeker and a killing blasting warhead, and the anti-ship type head is equipped with an active radar seeker and a semi-armor piercing warhead. Based on information from various parties, the Eagle-91 is 4.7 meters long, 360 mm in diameter, 0.6 tons in weight, 90 kg in warhead, and has a maximum range of 50 kilometers and a minimum range of 5 kilometers.

The Eagle-91 anti-radiation missile is superior to the high-speed anti-radiation missiles such as the Mozu and Hamm currently in service in the United States in terms of flight speed and lethality. It can effectively attack large surface ships such as the Ticonderoga class and Burke class. AN/SPY-1 Aegis phased array guidance radar.

In August 2012, the Eagle Strike 91 and Eagle Strike 83 K anti-ship missile models appeared on the deck of the "Liaoning" aircraft carrier. The emergence of the missile model means that the J-15 can use the above two missiles to attack enemy surface ships. The Eagle Strike 91 and Eagle Strike 83 K anti-ship missiles, the combination of sub-superior missiles and active/passive combination of the two missiles, improve the effectiveness of attacking surface ships. Even warships equipped with the "Aegis" air defense system will face severe tests.

YJ-12 / Yingzhe-12 / Eagle Strike 12

YJ-12 supersonic anti-ship missile development is China's fourth-generation anti-ship missile, developed with reference to its Russian 3M80E (NATO reporting name SS-N-22 "Sunburn") supersonic anti-ship missiles, but from the public Eagle In terms of the ratio of Hit 12 and H-6 carrier aircraft, the length of the Eagle 12 projectile is about 6 to 7 meters, and the projectile diameter is about 0.5 meters. In contrast, the 3M80E projectile is more than 9 meters long, and the projectile diameter reaches 1.3 meters. , The size is obviously different from the latter. The smaller size shows that its load-bearing performance is better than the latter, especially suitable for light and medium ships.

The Eagle-12 anti-ship missile adopts Chinas most advanced four-inlet integrated ramjet supersonic anti-ship missile, which are arranged evenly and symmetrically around the body; the wings adopt a foldable X layout, and the warhead adopts a slightly pointed Parabolic aerodynamic shape.

Yingzhike-12 adopts GPS + " Beidou " joint satellite guidance + terminal broadband active radar system, which has extremely high hit accuracy. After the missile is launched, it climbs to a certain altitude and receives the first target parameter confirmation of its own early warning radar through the data link. After the guidance system sends the parameters to the flight control system, the missile begins to descend and enter the low altitude cruise state. Flying silently at a speed of Mach 1.5 and an altitude of 12-15 meters. The YJ-12 anti-ship missile weighs between 2 and 2.5 tons, the terminal penetration speed can reach Mach 4.0, and the range is about 150-300 kilometers. If Yingzha-12 focuses on "saturation attack", its destructive power will be even more amazing.

The high speed of the Eagle-12 makes it very powerful against anti-missile missiles. Today, any short-range interception system in service in the West cannot do anything against it. This missile is incompatible with the well-known Dongfeng- Combining operations with 21D will enable China to form a coordinated attack capability in both high and low directions, which can effectively penetrate the US militarys current carrier defensive network composed of the Aegis system.

For the choice of the Yingzhe-12 carrier aircraft, the " Flying Leopard " fighter-bomber was the first to appear . The " Flying Leopard " has strong bomb-carrying capability, long range, sufficient body space and large external capability, which is very suitable for conversion into a heavy-duty missile carrier. The " Flying Leopard " has a combat radius of 1,650 kilometers, plus the missile's 400-kilometer range, which will deter potential enemies along China's east and south coasts, as well as the ability to threaten enemy maritime targets inside and outside the second island chain.

Navy and Air Force have a lot of equipment Su-30MKK, Shenyang J-16, H--6 G / K and other models, also YJ -12 ideal carrier aircraft; in the combat radius, these three than the " Flying Leopard " more Some can carry out anti-aircraft carrier and anti-ship combat missions on a larger scale.

YJ-18 / Yingzhe-18 / Eagle Strike 18

After the Chinese Eagle Strike -18 missile was lifted up vertically from the carrier-based vertical launch system, it turned quickly by using its tail gas rudder, and the solid booster section was thrown away after completing the boost mission; Then the turbojet engine at the rear of the missile body is ignited to make the missile enter a constant cruise stage and fly 180 kilometers at a speed of 0.8 times the speed of sound. After the fuel is exhausted, the turbojet engine is thrown away again; the separated front body is An independent "small missile", the missile is propelled by a solid rocket motor, can fly at 2.5-3.0 times the speed of sound, and has a range of 40 kilometers; at this time, the missile mainly relies on the huge kinetic energy when hitting the target to increase its power.

Surface ships generally have a maximum range of about 40 kilometers when intercepting ultra-low-altitude targets. Such missiles are extremely difficult for the defending ship to intercept. Therefore, the Eagle-18 has a high penetration probability and hit rate. From the appearance , it is somewhat similar to the Longsword-10 missile equipped by the People's Liberation Army , but it is obviously different after careful comparison.

It is said that the Eagle-18 can evade the air defense firepower of enemy ships by implementing turning maneuvers with a gravitational acceleration of 10G, and can "defeat the U.S. Navys Aegis air defense system and destroyers." This capability will enable the United States And Japan s dream of relying on the Aegis system to play a key role in the future Japanese or US theater missile defense system has been hit hard.

British media speculated that the Eagle -18 is estimated to use a very mature relay inertia plus terminal active radar guidance, and the carrier can use the data link to correct the missile's trajectory to change the missile's attack trajectory or target. As long as it hits an Eagle Strike-18, its huge impact of 3 times the speed of sound and nearly 300 kilograms of high explosive energy is enough to make an "Aegis" warship incapable of combat. It is said that the bomb also has an anti-radiation function, even if it explodes at a distance of 50 meters from the enemy ship, it can destroy 60% of the enemy's shipboard electronic systems.






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