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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

DH-10 / CH-10 / CJ-10
Land-Attack Cruise Missiles (LACM)
Hong Niao / Chang Feng / Dong Hai-10

Unlike ballistic missiles, cruise missiles are usually categorized by intended mission and launch mode (instead of maximum range). The two broadest categories are Land-Attack Cruise Missiles (LACM) and antiship cruise missiles [ASCM]. Each type can be launched from an aircraft, ship, submarine, or ground-based launcher. A LACM is an unmanned, armed aerial vehicle designed to attack a fixed or mobile ground-based target. It spends the majority of its mission in level flight, as it follows a preprogrammed path to a predetermined target. Propulsion is usually provided by a small jet engine. Because of highly accurate guidance systems that can place the missile within a few feet of the intended target, the most advanced LACMs can be used effectively against very small targets, even when armed with conventional warheads.

LACM guidance usually occurs in three phases: launch, midcourse, and terminal. During the launch phase, a missile is guided using only the inertial navigation system. In the midcourse phase, a missile is guided by the inertial navigation system updated by one or more of the following systems: a radar-based terrain contour matching system, a radar or optical scene matching system, and/or a satellite navigation system such as the US Global Positioning System or the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System. The terminal guidance phase begins when a missile enters the target area and uses either more accurate scene matching or a terminal seeker (usually an optical or radar-based sensor).

Defending against LACMs will stress air defense systems. Cruise missiles can fly at low altitudes to stay below enemy radar and, in some cases, hide behind terrain features. Newer missiles are incorporating stealth features to make them even less visible to radars and infrared detectors. Modern cruise missiles also can be programmed to approach and attack a target in the most efficient manner. For example, multiple missiles can attack a target simultaneously from different directions, overwhelming air defenses at their weakest points. Furthermore, LACMs may fly circuitous routes to get to the target, thereby avoiding radar and air defense installations. Some developmental systems may incorporate chaff or decoys as an added layer of protection, though concealment will remain a cruise missile’s main defense.

China has developed land-attack cruise missiles (LACMs) for theater warfighting and strategic attack. These cruise missiles seem to have a relatively high development priority to ensure that Chinese forces will have greater conventional firepower. Long-range cruise missiles probably will also be used to bolster the viability of Chinese oncentional military deterrence. The first LACM design produced probably will be air-launched from Chinese bombers. China could develop a sea-launched version for use on either submarines or surface combatants. Some reports claim that a long-range land attack cruise missile will be fired from the torpedo tubes of the new Chinese Type 093 attack submarines.

The PLA first deployed new DH-10 ground-launched land attack cruise missiles (LACMs) in 2008, with 50-250 LACMs. As of April 2008 the PLA had 150-350 DH-10 ground-launched cruise missiles. China deployed 200-500 DH-10 ground-launched land-attack cruise missiles(LACM) by the end of 2009. By 2010, the PLA had 200-500 DH-10 LACMs with a range of 1,500+ km. The air-launched CJ-10 variant has been developed for deployment on the H-6M [four missiles] and H-6K [six missiles] bombers, which were entering service in small numbers in the 2010 timeframe. The DH-10 is believed to have a conventional warhead, while the CJ-10 may have both nuclear and conventional variants. The DH-10 / CJ-10 has a strong family resemblance to the YJ-62 / C-602 Anti-Shipping Cruise Missile [ASCM].

Chinese LACM R&D is aided by an aggressive effort to acquire foreign cruise missile technology, particularly from Russia. China also seeks enabling technologies and subsystems from the United States and other foreign countries. It has been reported that that China transported cruise missile production facilities from Russia to a location in the vicinity of Shanghai in 1993, and recruited cruise missile engineering specialists from Russia in 1995 and. It is also reported that China has obtained technical data concerning a Russian cruise missile guidance system.

The guidance system represents the most significant challenge for a long-range cruise missile program. China would require an extensive database of accurate topographic information to use terrain comparison (TERCOM) guidance. But TERCOM would probably be relatively ineffective in areas such as the South China Sea, which present few navigational reference points. Published reports suggest that GPS would initially be used as the primary guidance system, possibly to be supplemented subsequently with TERCOM.

The potential use of the American GPS system would render this system vulnerable to jamming of the unencrypted civil signal (CA code) from GPS satellites within view of the Chinese area of operations, or to local jamming and spoofing in the target area. Chinese cruise missiles could still find their targets using intertial navigation system [INS] technology, but without GPS updates they would be significantly less accurate.

The X-600 long range cruise missile project is believed to have started as early as 1977. In the mid-1980s, a 8359 Research Institute was established for cruise missile development, and also a Cruise Missile Institute of China. The Cruise Missile Institute is probably a new name for the Hai Ying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy, which had developed the Hai Ying -1 and Hai Ying-2 (Silkworm) family of anti-ship missiles.

Reports of uncertain reliability claimed in the late 1990s that China was working on several advanced ground-based LACMs: the Changfeng ["Long Wind"] CF-1 and CF-2 [also termed Chang Feng and Chang Feng-JIA], and Hong Niao (HN)-1 and HN-2 missile, with a range between 400 km and 1,800 km, with conventional and possibly nuclear warheads. The ground-launched Hong Niao missiles were said to be fitted with tandem solid-rocket boosters.

In 1995 it was reported that China was funding Israeli development of an air-launched cruise missile based on the Israeli Delilah anti-radiation attack drone, with a 230-mile range. The new missile reportedly was to be larger than the Delilah, while retaining its basic configuration. The range and CEP of the Chang Feng air-launched LACM are claimed to be 600km and 15m, respectively, and Chang Feng -JIA 1300km and 5m. Similar accuracy claims are made for the Hong Niao family of missiles, though these would appear to be rather optimistic.

In May 2001 an air-to-surface missile was reportedly launched from an H-6 bomber. The test, reportedly the first time China had launched the new cruise missile, was apparently deemed successful by US defense and intelligence agencies. The missile, reportedly an extended-range version of the C-802 anti-ship missile, was assessed as being capable of carrying a 500-kilogram warhead to a range of at least 150 kilometers.

The first operational long range Chinese cruise missile, the Hong Niao ("Red Bird") may have entered service as early 1992. The HN-1 was reportedly tested in mid-1999 to a range of 600km. The Hong Niao reportedly derived from the Russian KH-65SE/SD, a short-range version of the Russian Kh-55 [AS-15 KENT] 3,000-kilometer-range strategic cruise missile. The HN-1 apparently has straight folding wings at the mid-body, with a folding tailplane rear assembly. The engine is mounted in the rear of the missile, with an air inlet under the fuselage. Some sources suggest that this missile features inertial guidance with a terrain following radar altimeter, and scene-matching terminal guidance. The missile is variously reported to be able to carry a nuclear, high explosive, or cluster munition warhead.

Reportedly the HN-2 version, with an improved engine and range extended to at least 1,500 kilometers (930 miles), was introduced as early as 1996. In February 2000, Lin Chong-pin, vice chairman of the cabinet-level Mainland Affairs Council, stated that Beijing had also developed a mid-range "Hongniao 2" cruise missile. According to an August 2001 report of doubtful reliability, PLA Navy vessels involved in June 2001 exercises test-fired for the first time the Hongniao-2 cruise missiles, which was claimed to have a range of 1,000 km. According to some reports, the HongNiao-II may have a range of 1,800km, with an inertial and terrain-following guidance system.

Lin Chong-pin also stated in February 2000 that Beijing was developing a long-range "Hongniao 3" cruise missile, with a range of 2,500 kilometers, similar to the Tomahawk cruise missile. Other reports claim that the HN-3 is a 3,000-km-range strategic LACM, capable of both ground-based deployment and of installation on old H-6 bombers and the new-generation HJ-7/FBC-1 bombers. This missile might enter service after 2005.

DF-10 DF-10 DF-10 DF-10

DH-10 - Dong Hai-10 / East China Sea-10

In September 2004 it was reported that China had test-fired a land attack cruise missile (LACM) with a range of 1,500km. The new missile, designated Dong Hai-10, or East China Sea-10, is likely to be accurate to within 10m. According to Jane's Missiles and Rockets, China is developing a land-attack cruise missile known as the Dong Hai-10 (DH-10) that has a range in excess of 1,500 kilometers (Jane's Missiles and Rockets, October 2004). Defense officials in Taiwan stated that some of China's LACMs will be highly accurate, with circular error probables (CEPs) of 10 meters or less (Taipei Times, October 5, 2004).

The U.S. Department of Defense assesses that these LACMs will allow for "greater precision than historically available from ballistic missiles for hard target strikes, and increased standoff". In 2006, the US DoD reported that "Land-attack cruise missiles (LACMs), such as the DH-10 now under development, or special operations forces could be used to attack regional land bases." In March 2009 the US DoD reported that "The PLA is developing air- and ground-launched LACMs, such as the YJ-63 and DH-10 systems for stand-off, precision strikes. As of April 2008 the PLA had 150-350 DH-10 ground-launched cruise missiles."


The CH-10 [East Sea-10] is China’s new LACM [Land Attack Cruise Missile] that was originally designated the DH-10. It is believed to be a variant of the six copies acquired from Ukrainian of the Russian Kh-55 cruise missile that China reverse engineered. CH-10 is believed to have a range of 1,500- 2,000 kilometers with as many as 250 or more produced and deployed in groups of 20 - 30 launchers with three missiles each. Mail display cards from the pre October 1, 2009, 60th. anniversary celebration showed the CH-10 type as a Naval and or land PLA (army) system but the entire mailing card series seemed to be themed towards the PRC’s Navy.

CAMA – China Airborne Missile Academy is the design organization for China's UAV’s, ALCM’s and ALCM’s.

CJ-20 air-launched cruise missile

ALCMThe CJ-20 air-launched cruise missile is intended for delivery by the H-6 bomber, and may have a range of 2,200 kilometers. A report by the United States Air Force published in 2009 suggested that the CJ-20 also had the potential to carry a nuclear payload. In a war between China and the US, the American naval base on Guam could be a primary target for the CJ-20. The CJ-20 could be ready within five years, the head of the Air Force Global Strike Command indicated in briefing slides dated 07 May 2013.



The existence of the YJ-100 long-range anti-ship missile was leaked in January 2014.Photos of China's supersonic anti-ship missile "YJ-12" and long-range anti-ship cruise missile "YJ-100" were revealed online in February 2015. Li Li, a military expert, during the China Central Television (CCTV) interview, said both missiles can cause a severe damage to enemy's large surface combat vessels. "The "YJ-12" and "YJ-100" can be regarded as an anti-ship duo," Li commented on the two missiles. The "YJ-100" is not a supersonic missile but has a long attack range. Li said that if the range of the "YJ-100" can reach as long as 800 kilometers, it will strike aircraft carrier and large surface targets in a long distance that beyond visual range and the enemy can hardly response properly. If the range can reach 2,500 kilometers as same as that of American air-launched cruise missiles, it will do a great damage to enemy’s large surface warships.

The YJ-100 is a long-range anti-ship cruise missile designed to be delivered by H-6 bombers. It is a derivative of the CJ-10 air-launched cruise missile similar to the United States Tomahawk land attack cruise missile. The YJ-100 cruises at very high subsonic speed. According to the Chinese press the YJ-100 features a range of at least 650 kilometers, between the YJ-18 with 300 kilometers range and the DF-21D with 1,500 kilometers. The anti-ship missile is intended to engage the United States Navy's aircraft carrier battle groups at long ranges in the Pacific. The YJ-100 guidance system combines the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) for mid-course guidance; and an active radar seeker and an infrared seeker in the terminal phase.

The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) YJ-100 is a long-range, subsonic, anti-ship cruise missile designed to be delivered by Type 055 class destroyers starting in 2020. The air-launched YJ-100 features a range of 650-to-800 kilometers but the sea-launched version may feature a shorter range if not provided with a booster or additional fuel.


Surface-LaunchedHong Niao-1Hong Niao-2Hong Niao-3
Air-LaunchedChang Feng 1Chang Feng 2CJ-20
Chang FengChang Feng JIA
Operational? 1992? 19962015 +
Range600 km1,000 - 1,800 km 2,500 -3,000 km
Accuracy? 15 meters??? 5 meters
length6.4 meters ??
diameter~0.5 m??
wingspan 3 meters??
total weight 1,400 kilograms??
warhead weight 300-400 kg??
yield? 90 kt ??


Sword-10 by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Research Institute of the Third Research Institute responsible for the deployment of the People's Liberation Army subsonic mid-range cruise missiles. In 1991, the Gulf War broke out. "Tomahawk" cruise missiles debut: low altitude flight, stealth penetration, "acupuncture" precision strike, thousands of miles raid, beheading a rival ... ... for a time, shocked the world. "We also have our own cruise missiles!" But how easy is it to engage in cruise bombing? Strong manpower, material needs, a huge technical gap. It was a daydream to China at that time.At that time, the state leaders firmly stated: "We must engage in such a missile." Immediately afterwards, a "national team" led by China's Aerospace Science and Industry Institute as the leading research and development unit quietly assembled and the cruise missile development gate opened urgently. Drawing inspiration from the experience of the development of the airship missiles, the Third Institute boldly innovated and scientifically predicted the future development of the weaponry and equipment. Taking the key technologies of the card neck as a breakthrough point, the institute proposed a pre-research program aimed at the international advanced level at that time. The Sword-10 is the first type of ground-to-ground cruise missile developed by China and the first missile in the Sword series. The successful development of Sword-10 made China the third country in the world to independently develop, manufacture and equip cruise missiles after the United States and the Soviet Union. On October 1, 2009, China's cruise missile empire passed solemnly and majestically through Tiananmen Square. The world marvelled that China has a precision strike weapon that strikes the enemy. On January 18, 2013, the cruise missile development team won the first batch of national science and technology progress awards (innovation team), and was honored as a national advanced model. This is also the only award-winning team in the national business community. The most famous long-range cruise missile in China is the Dongfeng-10 missile. The missile, which looks like a tomahawk, was first unveiled at the 2009 National Day parade. The development started in the 1990s and the first test-firing in October 2000, 2003. The flight test was successfully completed in 2006 and the armed forces began to operate around 2006. At present, the Dongfeng-10 missile has been developed to the second generation of improved Dongfeng-10A cruise missiles, deriving multiple versions of land-based, air-launched and anti-ship navigations. According to Western media speculation, DF-10 missile size and weight are greater than the US tomahawk missile, about 8.3 meters long, weighingt 2 tons, with diameter 650 mm. It is reported to have a cruise altitude 30 to 50 meters, a small turbofan engine, cruise speed of 0. Mach, 500 kg warhead, the effective range of 2500 km or more. Guidance method is cruise inertia + terrain matching + satellite-aided navigation, and final guidance is guided by optical scene matching. The end-point accuracy CEP of target of 2000 km is less than 3 meters. Sword -10 It is reported that the Sword -10 missile range has developed the CJ-10, DH-10A, DH-2000, CJ-20 and other seed models. The original purpose of the Sword-10 development was to equip the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy shore missile fleet to play a role in preventing the intervention of the USA in the possible crisis across the Taiwan Strait. For a time, it was named the East China Sea-10. It was originally planned to equip naval shore-based anti-ship missile units with a naval-oriented priority. Therefore, the missile was named "the East China Sea" After the task of adjusting the mission, in turn to the precise remote attack on the ground for the development of the direction, it renamed the Sword 10 - CH-10. People have always referred to this type of ground-based cruise missile of the Second Artillery Corps as "Sword-10." But now the name seems to have changed. In April 2015, the online exposure of a picture of the type of cruise missile launch showed that the missile body has a "DF-10" message, that is, Dongfeng-10 Dongfeng 10's original design was due to the Navy. Due to the Dongfeng-10's heavy weight up to 2 tons and a radius of 650 mm or more, it is impossible to get into the torpedo tubes of a submarine. The diameter of the torpedo tubes of China's Navy's nuclear submarines and conventional submarines is only 533 mm. Sword-10 was developed by the then China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation Third Research Institute of Science and Technology Commission. With Deputy director Liu Yongcai as chief designer, began in 1999 engine life test, the first flight in 2001, 2003 began full-state test flight. Sword-10 created records of China's winged missiles flying the furthest distance, missile weapons flying the longest time, the most complicated changes in a flight trajectory. On September 20, 2006, the Second Artillery Corps of the People's Liberation Army held a ceremonial pick-up ceremony for this type of missile weaponry and equipment. In 2009, this type of missile weapon system won the special prize of China's National Science and Technology Progress Award. On October 1, 2009, Sword-10 paraded for the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China as the first public ground-based cruise missile party. In 2013, the research and development team (Advanced Penetration and Prevention Technology Innovation Team of Cruise Missile) won the first batch of National Science and Technology Progress Award (Innovation Team). Sword-10 cruise missiles have long range, high precision, and low-altitude flight. The Sword-10 range of about 1500 ~ 2500 km, by the WS-2400 vertical transport launchers equipped with three long-barrel, octagonal cross-section. Guided by GNSS and GPS, four different versions of warheads are available for use on land-based models. One is a heavy warhead weighing about 500 kilos and the other three are 350 kilograms of high-explosive bombs, sub-bombs and earth-penetrating. Although the DF-10 has many improved models and more than 10 years of equipment, the Chinese navy has never used the DF-10 as its carrier or submarine-launched cruise missiles. Instead, it has developed a long-range based on the Eagle-18 missile cruise missile. The Chinese navy's carrier-based and submarine-launched land attack cruise missiles were developed on the basis of the eagle 18 anti-ship missile. On January 8, the 2017 National Science and Technology Awards Ceremony was held in the Great Hall of the People, and the Eagle Strike 18 submarine anti-ship missiles of the China Academy of Aeronautics and Astronautic Science and Engineering were awarded the grand prize. The missile also has an attack land-based, according to launch carrier into ship-based, submarine-type. Including the Navy surface ships vertical launching models, submarine torpedo launching models, submarine vertical launching models, shore-based models. At present, China's newest 093B nuclear submarine can carry 12 eagle -18 anti-ship / cruise missiles. Its huge range can be launched beyond the enemy defensive line and a concealed attack on the enemy inland from the deep sea. Sword -10A [ Edit ] The Sword-10A is a land-based mobile launch cruise missile developed on the basis of the Sword-10 ground-based cruise missiles, which can dynamically identify targets, ultralow hidden covert and multi-angle continuous attacks. On September 3, 2015, Sword-10A was first announced publicly as a strategic third-party team to combat conventional missiles of the armed forces during the commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War . [8] Sword -20 In addition to land-based models used by the Second Artillery Corps, the Sword-10 missile family will also be equipped with three important platforms. The first platform is the H-6K bomber, which uses a more advanced engine and flies farther than the old H-6. Sword-20 (KD-20) for the Sword-10 air-based models, is equipped with the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force. Can be fired by the H-6M(4), H-6K(6) and other mounted launchers. The second platform is the 093 nuclear submarine. 093 nuclear submarines are expected to build a total of 6 to 8 ships. 093 basic water displacement of 5300 tons, underwater displacement of 6800 tons. 093G submarine's water displacement of more than 5600 tons, more than 7200 tons of underwater displacement. Among them, 093 attack nuclear submarines built a total of 2, equipped with 12 vertical launch unit. The 093G nuclear submarine has 24 vertical launch units and has four in service, with reports that more may be built. The 055 destroyer is the latest development of China's 10,000-ton destroyers. The combined combat capability of the destroyer exceeded that of the United States Navy's Arleigh Burke class destroyers and the Aegis destroyers of Japan and South Korea, second only to the U.S.-made Zumwalt destroyers. 055 destroyers will be equipped with 112 ~ 128 vertical launch unit, equipped with a large number of Sword-10 cruise missiles ability. The A in the DF-10A said that this cruise missile has undergone a lot of improvements, almost a new type of missile. The first is that a great change has taken place in the missile carrier, using a new generation of 4-axis monobloc chassis; followed by the firing box from the font-shaped arrangement into a lined arrangement, each firing box can be individually hoisted or fired. Third, fundamental changes have taken place in guidance technology. The new Dongfeng-10A cruise missile is guided by a combination of inertial guidance, satellite guidance, digital scene matching zone correlator for end guidance and infrared imaging guidance. By 2015 the Second Artillery Corps had more than 400 Dongfeng-10 land-based land attack cruise missiles (LACMs) developed by China's Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation and has a range of 1,500 to 2,000 kilometers.

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