Myasishchev Molot - RRT - Early Plans
Government Decree - 949-469 on design and construction of new aircraft was signed March 24, 1951, as a manufacturing base stood Moscow plant #23, determined the timing and funding was planned cooperation with other companies. Complementing the new bureau staff, providing assistance from the central organizations of MAP and other departments. These resources are, of course, were not taken from the air, and redistributed, ie were taken from the heads of other teams. So, designers, and aerodynamics specialists translated from Yakovlev, and other Chelomeya KB together with tables and drawing supplies. Not many would give without resistance, but then comes into play in the all-powerful new project curators: Prime Minister Malenkov, his first deputy defense minister and Bulganin, as well as Chairman of the Special Committee on Atomic Energy Beria. Powers of these people were truly limitless. For example, at the entrance of the plant hung spetstelefon and everyone could call reception Beria and report any cases of "sabotage and sabotage." So that the formation of the new bureau was going fast, and it received strong frames. Many leading experts have worked with Myasishchev before, among them the first deputy chief designer and head of KB Project (Brigade of common species) L.L.Selyakov, Ya.B.Nodelman and G.G.Matveev (brigade wing), KI Popov (fuselage), G.I.Arhangelsky (chassis), etc.
New KB got a decent industrial base. Plant 23 entered the aviation industry of the USSR in December 1922 as a concession to the company "Junkers" and pioneered the domestic all-metal aircraft. In 1948 the company began to build a heavy piston bombers Tu-4, and then laid the head series jet Tu-14. The plant was staffed by experienced personnel and well equipped, including got a big batch of equipment brought from Germany.
Report on the results of parametric studies in relation to strategic aircraft (with "transpolar range") was heard at the Scientific and Technical Council of TsAGI. In this paper, STC participated academician AI Makarevskiy (chairman), leading scientists (in the future academicians) Khristianovich, VV Struminskii, G. Byushgens and other specialists. After careful discussion and exploded reports Myasishchev and GN Nazarova leading institute aviation industry ruled the possibility of creating real strategic bomber with performance as a result of long research. With these works actually started designing the future "RRT" according to the aphorism: "Dream - the beginning of implementation."
The "RRT" had to have a huge dimension and a large mass. With a wingspan of 50 m and a carrier in the area of 300m² of its length presented within 44 m Maximum take-off weight - 140 tons, normal - 110 tons, the estimated range - 12000 km with 5 tons of bombs on board. Most bomb load - 20 tons for any set of units caliber from 0.5 to 9 m flight speed to the target of 800 - 850 km / h. There was no heavier aircraft in the Soviet Union.
With these calculated data "RRT" enthusiasts turned to MAP. Minister aviation industry MV Khrunichev promptly contacted with the Kremlin, and March 24, 1951 was signed a government decree on the restoration of OKB Myasishchev 1 at the plant number 23 for experimental and serial production of strategic bomber, dubbed by OKB "2M "troop designation M-4 and the factory -" article 25 ". Last cipher was named the new theme and declared as a shock for related enterprises and institutions and other agencies MAP military-industrial complex. Experienced by businesses Ministry sent a directive was an urgent resource necessary expertise and presence to fill the state DB-23 and the largest plant with indispensable return those designers and manufacturers who previously worked under Myasishcheva factory number 482. In addition, the new venture was announced a set of workers and employees, as well as young professionals from universities and colleges all required fields. At the time of development of industrial areas in the state enterprises were more than 4,000.
There was a rare occasion when designers developers themselves pushed to a new level of tactical and technical requirements for the aircraft conceived. Command of the Air Force and the government could only agree enthusiastically endorse them in a regulation project on designing and building strategic long-range bomber "RRT".
Prior to this event without exaggeration sketch study initiators department aircraft training institute conducted gradually in several stages. Were reviewed, analyzed and screened many variations of aerodynamic layout, space-and weight-power circuits structurally similar aircraft and other classes and types. As a result of selective picking layout schemes designers stayed on two almost identical versions of the preliminary draft with the symbols "RRT" and "1M" (M-2). The first of these had been presented at the NTS TsAGI and illustrated reports and Myasishcheva Nazarov, and the second, called the "first machine" (Myasischev - second) was the basis of the real bomber, which began to develop in the factory number 23. They were close to each other and were the initial steps of improving the overall design and construction of future aircraft "2M" (M-4).
So, "RRT - 1M" - was a large-sized unit normal airplane scheme with swept high wing, swept tail and cycling gear. Wing leading edge had a double sweep. At the root zones (up to fracture) sweep angle was 45º, and in the end - 40º. The trailing edge, which occupied runway mechanization and ailerons had two fractures on each side of the wing due to the local rigidity due to the level of running loads and set of profiles along the span.
Both options were preliminary reflection of the concepts to the far plane with TRD, which, being contradictory, coexist at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s. Constructive force on the wing and tail scheme options were similar developments OKB, which is slightly earlier been given the task to design products "88" (Tu-16). Here and there used flanged design and technology on the joints of the wings reinforced ribs that separated the carrier unit into four parts and were located at a right angle to the longitudinal force elements caissons (otherwise - across the span of the construction of each console). This division was chosen from technological considerations and conditions of aerodynamics. Aerodynamic wing twist was alternating between 8° to the root -3° at the ends.
With the American prototype B-47 and B-52 developed by plane Myasishcheva native installation THD spacing on the wing for his discharge in flight. The layout of the first two options include suspension TKRD AM-03 on pylons under the wing root and another pair of similar engines under the end portions of the wing. This setup does not violate the power group structural integrity and rigidity of the wing box. Limit THD should serve protivoflatternye cargo carriers and side supports cycling gear. Second Embodiment "1M", for a simplified and profiling the base trapezium of the wing (without fractures on the rear edge) of the suspension pylon different engines of four-AM 03. Pylons were put on top of the wing in the form of aerodynamic vanes. According to the developers, the wing would represent a long flexible caisson with profiled toe, moving elements and contain two (right and left) of kerosene tanks. Fuel tanks did not have to interfere with the elastic but solid construction undergo torsional and bending deformations in wide repartitions, since the alternating loads in flight ending can vary vertically with an amplitude of more than 2 m These "sweeps" were not to interfere with normal flight conditions bomber.
Fuselage of the aircraft in the first embodiment ("RRT") was granted a cylindrical shape with an oval cross section (at the nose and tail narrowing), which provides an acceptable space for the bomb bay of the conditions of the internal suspension of two bombs maximum caliber (eg, FAB-9000) vertical package . The remaining volumes are expected to occupy the housing crew, fuel tanks and compartments chassis as well ("loose") equipment and functional systems. Structurally the fuselage and was going out of five independently completed with pieces that docked together on the frames bolted flange. The crew consisted of seven people and was dispersed in the nose and tail of the pressurized cabin: two pilots, navigator, bombardier, two blister arrow radioman and gunner aft. Second housing configuration fundamental differences from the first had, with the exception of cross-sectional shapes, which became circular with a diameter of 3.5 m is required to increase the capacity of the fuel system (due to the focus on improved more powerful and "gluttonous" TRD AM -03). In addition, the rounded bomb bay could accommodate three already devyatitonnye bombs and accordingly many more bombs of smaller caliber than the bid option "RRT".
Tailplane version of "1M" has been modified according to the results of blowdown model "RRT" wind tunnel T-1 MAI and strength calculations TsAGI specialists, Kiel was moved forward in building heights zony large fuselage, and to recover the static moment of its vertical tail area was increased by 7% due to the expansion of the leading edge of the keel. Horizontal tail at a fixed configuration and design was moved back due to increase in the area under the wing to become more flight weight. Plane and in the future promised to gain weight as providing it with new opportunities and in the process of improving the on-board systems.