Myasishchev 28 High-altitude bomber
Even at the stage of the preliminary design of the SDB aircraft, in August 1951, it became clear that its maximum range would be achieved in flight at altitudes from 8500 to 14 000 m. Due to the lack of excess wing lift, ascending to a great height is the key to invulnerability from means Air defense - it was impossible. In this regard, the bomber "M" greatly lost to the American B-52.
December 27, 1951 A. Vasilevsky, M. Khrunichev, P. Dementiev and P. Zhigarev asked I. Stalin with the proposal “... to approve the task ... to Comrade Tupolev and Comrade Myasishchev to develop a conceptual design of a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft with two combined Dobrynin engines with power 11 000 h.p. with a flight altitude of at least 17,000 m above the target and range (...) of at least 7,000 km at a speed of 800 km / h. The deadline for the development of a preliminary design shall be three months from the date of receipt of the preliminary design of the Dobrynin engine. ”
In the draft resolution of the Council of Ministers, the engine is designated as VD-5K, using the energy of exhaust gases. The scout was supposed to be equipped with a Rubidium-MM radar and a stern artillery mount with two 23 mm guns.
Judging by the reference, the VD-5K was supposed to develop a power of 11,000 hp. at an altitude of 17,000 m and was a piston engine, the weight of which without a 16-blade propeller with a diameter of 7 m, radiators and a nacelle with a diameter of 2.4 meters was estimated at 3700 kg. With screws and radiators, the weight of the power plant reached 6700 kg. Some kind of fantasy invented by smart people.
Three months later, on March 29, 1952, after the Council of Ministers issued a decree on the M machine, a similar document No. 1549-542 became the basis for starting work on a long-range high-altitude bomber (DVB), which subsequently received an index of 2M or “product 28” (VM -28). The aircraft was now calculated for four VD-5 turbojet engines with take-off and rated thrusts of 13,000 and 11,000 kgf, respectively. The machine was designed to deliver bomb cargo weighing 5000 kg to a distance of 12,500 km, while the height above the target at the request of the customer was to reach 17,300 m, and the maximum speed was in the range of 940–970 km / h. Calculations showed that in this case, the take-off weight of the aircraft will be about 185,000 kg, with a maximum fuel supply (including hanging tanks) of 107,000 kg.
Initially, the DVB layout was close to the M-4. Its wingspan was 48.5 m, length - 50 m, the wing area was estimated at 320-340 square meters. The crew is six people. The plane was supposed to lift up to 24 tons of bombs. The composition of the offensive weapons included the FAB-250M, FAB-5000M, BRAB-6000, FAB-9000M bombs and the AMD-2M, Desna, A-2 sea mines, as well as torpedoes 45-36AV. Defensive armament consisted of upper and lower mounts with two 23 mm cannons with 250 rounds of ammunition per barrel and a double-barreled aft mount with 800 rounds of ammunition. In the last version, embodied in the layout and considered by the Air Force Commission in January 1953, all four engines were placed on pylons under the wing, the fuselage was oval. The government first ordered the presentation of the 2M aircraft for state tests in May 1954, and then in June next year. But this did not come to this.
March 27, 1953 D.F. Ustinov reported to Bulganin: “In December 1953, the State breadboard commission examined the breadboard model, as well as the calculation and design data of the high-altitude Long-Range Bomber with four VD-5 engines, Myasishchev’s design set by the Council of Ministers Decree of March 29, 1952 No. 1549-542 and made a number of requirements, some of which remained inconsistent with the chief designer, since they are not feasible on this aircraft.
These requirements are aimed at creating a universal aircraft, which will lead to a decrease in the altitude and speed of the bomber. These requirements of the breadboard commission include: ensuring a steady bend with a roll angle of 20 degrees above the target of 17,000 m and with bombs at half the practical flight range, calculated with a 5 percent fuel supply, an increase in the calculated supermaximum pressure head, a new booking scheme, an increase in the nomenclature and number of bombs for the reload version of the aircraft and a number of others (15 points in total).
Acceptance of these requirements (...) will lead to an increase in the weight of an empty aircraft by 2900-3000 kg and (...) in a high-altitude version of the flight will cause a decrease in range by 2250 km (while maintaining a predetermined flight altitude of 17 000 m above the target) or decrease in altitude by 540 m ( while maintaining a given flight range of 8500–9500 km / h.) Thus, the fulfillment of the indicated requirements of the mock commission makes it impossible to simultaneously fulfill the range and altitude specified by the Government over the target of an aircraft with VD-5 engines.”
Seven months later, on October 16, 1954, another decree of the Council of Ministers was issued, which stated: “In connection with the insufficient flight range of the 2M high-altitude long-range bomber (7700 km), design of Comrade Myasishchev and with the issuance of new tasks to the Ministry of Aviation Industry for the modification of the M-4 bomber, providing a range of up to 14,000 km, as well as for the construction of an experimental detachable (compound. - Auth.) Long-range bomber with a range of 13,000 km and over a target of 14,000-15,000 m (...) to accept the proposal of the Ministry of Aviation Industry, the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Agricultural Engineering (after the war, the Ministry of Agriculture was engaged not only in tractors and seeders, but also in the production of various weapons and ammunition. - Approx. termination of work on the design and construction of long-range high-altitude bomber 2M ... "
Unfortunately, the first estimates of any machine, as a rule, are very optimistic. In the course of further work, much has to be adjusted. The subcontractors specify the geometry and weight of their products, the engine drivers exceed the promised specific fuel consumption, and aerodynamics do not provide the required aerodynamic quality. As a result, the flight mass of the aircraft is growing, range and speed are falling. So it was with the 2M bomber.
Concluding the story about the M-4, it should be noted that on its basis a high-altitude photo reconnaissance “25F” with an increased wing area was developed. It was expected that with a take-off weight of 120 tons, its range would be no less than 7,500 km, and the ceiling would reach 16,500 m. But this project also remained on paper. In addition, in 1952-1953, an aircraft was developed with two VD - 5 engines with a thrust of 13,000 kgf each. According to calculations, its flight range from 5,000 km of bombs reached 11,850 km. In the 1960s, the release of Myasishchev's bombers began to decline, and then was discontinued. The leadership of the country shifted its priorities towards the development of rocket technology.