Molot M-4 / Mya-4 - Background
After the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet Union revealed a serious backlog of leading Western countries in many aspects of development of aviation technology, and, in particular, long-range strategic bombers and from the United States. Copying the American B-29 bombers in mass production as the Tu-4 was presented the "father" of all peoples as a gift for the 70th anniversary. Stalin then ordered 1,000 of these aircraft.
The issue of four-engine Giants was an increasing pace in the factories number 22 (Kazan), #18 (Kuibyshev) and number 23 (Moscow). Thus, the Air Force long-range aviation in the early stages secured nuclear weapons carriers.
In the second half of the 1940s aircraft manufacturers, military and the more the government had not thought about that the next phase of the long and strategic bombers will be associated with the use of new propulsion principle of operation - gas turbine engines and access to the transonic flight speed, which should will be accompanied by a transition on swept wings. These far distant future of the already clearly marked development in the industry and in the military jets smaller dimension and weight (MiG-15. IL-28 ...). They confirmed the successful and increasingly irreversible transition of military aviation opponents by "cold war" with piston engines and THD TVD strongly on all classes of aircraft.
The possibilities of the Soviet aviation industry in the postwar years were severely limited by economic considerations and experimental aircraft were concentrated in a few large bureau. Long-range and long-range bombers were farmed out to Tupolev, whose authority in the Kremlin was very high. His OKB-156 propeller aircraft engaged in improving the image of the Tu-4 (Tu-70, Tu-75 , Tu-80, Tu-85 ) with increasing dimension and the application of direct wings increasing elongation. OKB-482 Myasishchev with Tupolev and Ilyushin supply in 1946 was disbanded; all premises and industrial base gave Ilyushin, and people from KB and plant scattered aviation industry enterprises. A few years later, and most were required to continue Ilyushin bombers not to engage in long-range; his latest works OKB-240 in this direction were IL-30 (not fly) and IL-46, which are the main indicators inferior Tupolev Tu-16.
In the United States simultaneously with the development of long-range bombers B-47 began to work on designing a strategic bomber B-52. And for the USSR there was an urgent need not only to keep up with rivals, but but the possibilities ahead of them in the creation of this class of aircraft.
Starting a nuclear confrontation between the two superpowers did not evolve in favor of the Soviet Union. Created four years after the Americans own atomic bomb, the Soviet Union not only lost in the size of nuclear arsenal, but could not deliver a "weapon of retaliation" to the United States. Moscow urgently needed to build a fleet of strategic bombers capable of solving this problem. The word "strategic" was not normally used (istead the Soviets used the term "long-range bomber"), but new problems were really strategic. That is a limited number of these aircraft could decide the outcome of the war by destroying the structures of state and military control of large groups of troops, industry and application of the opposite side of such damages, which would make continuation of hostilities impossible. Weapon for such an attack was the atomic bomb.
Terms of reference (TOR) was delivering it to the main targets in the likely opponent. Weight normal payload of 5,000 kg was determined, that is how much weight of the first Soviet spetsboepripasov RDS-1, and the range -12000 km.
The basis of defense of those years were fighters. Based on their characteristics, the new aircraft was to have a flight speed of 900-950 km / h at an altitude of 12-13 km, which allowed him to escape from persecution. Of course, exclude the possibility of interception was impossible in principle, and another point was the presence of powerful defensive weapons, as well as the use of aircraft at night and in any weather with precision bombing above the edge of the clouds. It was planned to build new airfields with concrete runways 3000-5000 m and a width of 50-100 m