Ministry of Aviation Industry
|Main Directorate of Aviation Plants (Glavkoavia)|
|State Trust of the aviation industry - Aviatrest VSNH|
|All-Union Association of Aviation Industry (VOA) VSNH|
|GUAP (Glavnoe Upravlenie Aviatsionnoi Promyshlennosti) |
Chief Directorate of the Aviation Industry of the
People's Commissariat of Industry
|Peter Ionovich Baranov||Jan 1932||05 Sep 1933|
|vacant ??||05 Sep 1933||1935?|
|Mikhail Moiseevich Kaganovich||1935||1936|
|First Main Directorate (aircraft)|
People's Commissariat of Defense Industry
|Moses L. Rukhimovich||08 Dec 1936||15 Oct 1937|
|Mikhail Moiseevich Kaganovich||15 Oct 1937||11 Jan 1939|
|People's Commissariat of Aviation Industry|
|Mikhail Moiseevich Kaganovich||11 Jan 1939||10 Jan 1940|
|Alexei Ivanovich Shakhurin||10 Jan 1940||05 Jan 1946|
|Mikhail Khrunichev||05 Jan 1946||15 Mar 1953|
|Ministry of Aviation Industry|
|Mikhail Khrunichev||19 Mar 1946||15 Mar 1953|
|Ministry of Defense Industry|
|Ministry of Aviation Industry|
|Pyotr Vasilievich Dementiev||24 Aug 1953||14 Dec 1957|
|State Committee for Aviation Technology (GKAT)|
|Pyotr Vasilievich Dementiev||14 Dec 1957||02 Mar 1965|
|Ministry of Aviation Industry [MAP]|
|Pyotr Vasilievich Dementiev||02 Mar 1965||14 May 1977|
|Vasili Alexandrovich Kazakov||03 Jun 1977||17 Feb 1981|
|Ivan Stepanovich Silaev||20 Feb 1981||01 Nov 1985|
|Apollo S. Systsov||01 Nov 1985||14 Nov 1991|
Until 1939, the state administration of the aviation industry was distinguished by the frequent transfer of industry from one department to another and the restructuring of the structure. All the production of aviation equipment was concentrated in the OKB, where prototypes of aircraft were developed and produced. There was practically no serial production of aircraft, with the exception of aircraft produced under foreign licenses (including the DC-3 Dakota).
Nationalisation of the aircraft industry began in January 1918 and continued until the end of the year. In June 1918 Lenin signed a decree to extend the nationalisation to cover all means of production. A commission was established on 01 August 1918 to reorganise the aviation industry; it was part of the ‘Sektsiya aviatsii i vozdukhoplavaniya’ (Section for Aviation and Aeronautics) of Otdelenie voennoi promyshlennosti (Department of the Defence Industry) itself from the Otdel metalla (metal section) of VSNKh (Vyshii Sovet Narodnogo Khozyaistva- Supreme Council of the People’s Economy).
Once aviation enterprises were nationalized, and on December 31, 1918, the Main Administration of Aviation Plants Glavkoavia (Glavnoe pravlenie ob”edinyonnykh aviatsionnykh zavodov – Main Directorate for the Amalgamated Aircraft Factories) was established at the Supreme Council of National Economy of the RSFSR. Glavkoavia was placed in direct control of the nationalised aviation factories of which, at that time, there were only four: Moska, Duks, Motor and Gnom-Ron. The fact that great importance was attached to the development of aviation is evidenced by the establishment in 1918 of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), designed to ensure the development of the fundamentals and practical recommendations for aviation science and technology.
At first Glavkoavia was directed by Glavmetall (Glavnoe upravlenie metallicheskoi promyshlennosti – Main Directorate for the Metal Industry) but from 22 December 1919 by Promvoensovet (Military Council for Industry) under Chusosnabarm. By that time it controlled ten plants: the six additional ones were Gamayun, Lebedev at Moscow and Penza, Russko-Baltiiskii vagon zavod (RBVZ), Salmson and Aerotekhnicheskii. The aviation plants, whih had previously used their pre-Revolutionary names, were given numbers as Gosudarstvennoe Aviotsionnoe Zavody (GAZ).
In the early 1920s, the first aircraft-building design bureaus in the USSR were being formed; pilot construction and mass production of domestic aircraft began to develop. In 1923, at the State Aviation Plant No. 1 (GAZ No. 1; formerly Dux) under the direction of N.N. Polikarpov. Created reconnaissance aircraft R-1 and fighter I-1, entered mass production. In 1923, GAZ No. 3 “Red Pilot” in Petrograd began the serial production of the U-1 training aircraft. At the same plant, Grigorovich DP resumed his design activity, releasing the flying boat M-24.
On 28 January 1925 Glavkoavia was replaced by Aviatrest which was given a much greater degree of autonomy. Aviatrest, now effectively an independent industrial sector, was subordinated to Glavmetall and made commercially accountable. It was allowed to buy property, lease buildings and open offices and branches etc. On 1 Febuary 1925 Aviatrest controlled eleven plants. The GAZ numbering system of aviation factories was in use until 1927. GAZ-1 became zavod 1 in 1927 but all other aviation plants were renumbered, most of them by having 20 added to their original GAZ number.
On 3 March 1930 a Vsesoyuznoe aviatsionnoe ob”edinenie, VAO, was formed within Aviatrest which itself reported to the GU metallopromyshlennosti of VSNKh. This arrangement was short-lived as Aviatrest was abolished on 15 April 1930 and totally replaced by the VAO. In June, control of the VAO passed from VSNKh to Narkomvoenmor (Narodnyi komissariat po voennym i morskim delam, SSSR).
With the creation in January 1932 the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry (NKTP), management throughout the defense industry was concentrated in the Main Military Mobilization Department (GVMU) NKTP. The composition included GVMU and All-Union Association of Aviation Industry (SAI). On 5 January 1932 VSNKh was abolished and replaced by three Narodnye Komissariaty (People's Commissariats): Tyazheloi (Heavy), Legkoi (Light) and Lesnoi (Timber) Promyshlennosti (Industries). VSNKh had grown too large and unwieldy and the intention was to make smaller, more flexible management units capable of delivering the required expansion. VAO was replaced by GUAP (Glavnoe Upravlenie Aviatsionnoi Promyshlennosti, Chief Directorate of the Aviation Industry) and in addition the GUSP (Glavnoe Upravlenie Sudostroitel'nyoi Promyshlennosti, Shipbuilding Industry) and the GVMU (Glavnoe Voenno-Mobilisatsionnoe Upravlenie, Chief Directorate for War-mobilisation) were created. The last named controlled the arms plants. Trusts still controlled Military Chemicals, Organic Chemicals, Synthetic Fibres, Cartridges Shells and Tanks.
On September 5, 1933, PI I. Baranov, head of the GUAP, was killed in a plane crash. This loss was hard on the fate of the aviation industry. M.M.Kaganovich, brother of the all-powerful Lazar was appointed the new head of the GUAP. Unfortunately, his knowledge, organizational skills, erudition were significantly lower than that of P.I.Baranov.
The precise chronology of the leadership during this period is more than a bit hazy. By one account, it seems that M.M.Kaganovich promptly succeeded Baranov, possibly immediately, but in any event by 1935. By another accounting, the office seemed to have remained vacant for three years after Baranov's death, only to be filled by Moses L. Rukhimovich on 08 December 1936, who was appointed head of the First Main Directorate (aircraft) People's Commissariat of Defense Industry. This is plausible, since Andrei Nikolaevich Tupolev in 1933 became Deputy Head of TsAGI in the experimental construction sector. From 1936, Andrei Tupolev combined the management of an OKB isolated from the TsAGI system, with the post of chief engineer of the General Directorate of Aviation Industry of the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry (NKTP).
The military at the end of 1933 categorically demanded in the near future to increase the speed of fighters to 450 kilometers per hour. When the design bureaus and factories of the aviation industry received this demand, the phones of the Air Force Directorate rang. There was evidence that the most likely adversary has already begun to solve this problem. The dispute had to be brought up for an extended joint meeting of representatives of the Commissariat of Defense and the People's Commissariat of Industry, which then included the General Directorate of Aviation Industry.
In 1934, the BOA (from 7 December of the same year transformed into the Main Department of Aviation Industry [GUAP Glavnoe Upravlenie Aviacionnoe Predpriyatie, sometimes seen as - SUAE - State Unitary Aviation Enterprise) of GVMU was reassigned to NKTP. Thus, the aviation industry moved from the military department in the Office of Economics.
The next reorganisation took place in 1936 when NKTP was replaced by NKOP (Narkomoboronprom, People’s Commissariate for the Defence Industry). In 1936 GUAP occupied a central place in the military industry, which was part of the NKTP system. There were 24 companies in its submission. Trust was the largest GUAP Aircraft, and the second in the number of enterprises - the engine. In December 1936, the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR seperated out an independent sector for defense, with the creation of the People's Commissariat of Defense Industry (ICPC). Initially, it was headed by ML Rukhimovich and from October 15, 1937, the ICPC was led MM Kaganovich.
On January 11, 1939 by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the division of People's Commissariat of Defense Industry of the USSR" the NKOP was deemed too large and cumbersome to manage more expansion effectively and was dissolved, to be replaced by four People’s Commissariats: the People's Commissariat of Aircraft Industry NKAP (Narodnyi Komissariat aviatsionnoi promyshlennosti) for aircraft production, NKSP (NK sudostroitel’noi promyshlennosti) for shipbuilding, NKV (NK vooruzheniya) for armaments and NKB (NK boepripasov) for munitions.
In September 1939, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) adopted a resolution "On the reconstruction of existing and construction of new aircraft factories." It provided that by the end of 1941 to increase production capacity aircraft factories in more than one and a half times compared to 1939. It was decided to build 9 new aircraft manufacturing plant and reconstruction of the existing 9 plants.
The attention of the Soviet military and political leadership to the military industry in general, and to the aviation industry, in particular, was motivated by foreign policy developments which required increased military production. This was the main reason that prompted the Soviet leadership in early 1939 to split Commissariat of Defense Industry of the USSR into four specialized military-industrial Commissariats. Re-organisation was the product of the desire to introduce administrative measures in the military-industrial production principles of cooperation and specialization, to establish tighter operational control over the state of the process and, consequently, the mobilization deployment schedules.
It cannot be excluded that the dismemberment of the People's Commissariat was part of a systematic operation to reduce the sphere of influence of GK Ordzhonikidze, in the course of the internal struggle in the upper echelons of the party and the government establishment.
MM Kaganovich descended from the post of People's Commissar of the largest industry, to the position of director at the not most successful aircraft factory in Kazan. It was probably in connection with his dismissal of the Commissar, in the prewar months, there was a cooling of IV Stalin and his brother, LM Kaganovich. As a result, MM Kaganovich, apparently in anticipation of arrest, committed suicide shortly after the start of World War II - July 1, 1941.
Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR
(Minaviaprom USSR / MAP)
In January 1946, the People's Commissariats were transformed into ministries; MV Khrunichev headed the aviation industry. On March 15, 1946 NCAP reformed in the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR. Minaviaprom Soviet Union, according to the Regulations led the industry (sector) for the production of airplanes, helicopters and other aircraft, engines, spare parts, instruments, units and special equipment of the Ministry. The unit of the Ministry of Aviation Industry and its subordinate enterprises, organizations and institutions were a single system of the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR.
Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR - the Union-Republican ministries that guided the aviation industry in the Soviet Union. Established on March 15 1946 the year from the People's Commissariat of Aviation Industry of the USSR. According to the Soviet defector Tokaty, the previous Minister, Shakhurin, and the Head of the Soviet Air Force, Marshal Novikov, were fired in early 1946 for falling behind the Germans in rocket and jet technology. (Grigorii A. Tokaty, "Foundations of Soviet Cosmonautics," Spaceflight Vol. 10, No. 10, October 1968, p. 342.)
On 15 March 1953 it was merged with the Ministry of Defense Industry of the USSR, newly formed by the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from on August 24 1953. On December 14 1957 it was abolished, and on its base was created the State Committee of the USSR forn Aeronautical Engineering.
The third time was established on March 2 1965 the year on the basis of the State Committee on Aviation Technology of the USSR.
Decree of the State Council abolished from 14 November 1991, and it discontinued operations 1 December 1991. RSFSR presidential decree of November 28, 1991 # 242 "On the reorganization of the central administration of the RSFSR" property, funds, companies, organizations and institutions of the abolished Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR transferred to the Ministry of Industry of the RSFSR.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|