Soviet Air Force Cold War
At the end of the Second World War, further development of the Soviet Air Force and Air Defense Forces (PVO) had a significant influence on confrontation between East and West. The real threat of massive air strikes on potential enemy objects and groups of troops with new weapons caused the need for major events to create a single system of air defense of the country.
By the end of the war the separate air defense armies by May 1946 were reorganized into the air defense of the country: the North-West, South-West, the Far East. Leningrad and Baku Air Defence Army converted to the corresponding air defense corps, the remaining corps and divisions were reorganized into divisions and Air Defense Brigade.
The main focus in the postwar period on the improvement of the Soviet Air Force was the transition from piston to jet aircraft. April 24, 1946 in the Soviet Union carried out tests with the first fighter jet engines (Yak-15 and MiG-9), received soon the Air Force and air defense fighter aircraft.
The increase combat capabilities of the Soviet Air Force demanded to improve the management system. In April 1946, he has established the post of Chief of the Air Force - Deputy Minister of the USSR Armed Forces. The first head of the Air Force in the new position became Air Marshal KA Vershinin.
Continued improvement of the organizational structure of the units, formations and associations. As part of the Air Force have been issued distant and military transport aircraft as a type of aircraft, helicopter parts were created. On the arms began to come new means of destruction - guided and unguided missiles, bombs and missiles with nuclear warheads.
In the postwar years the Air Force implemented the transition from piston to jet supersonic aviation, and the Air Defence Force got all-weather fighter-interceptors, antiaircraft missiles and radar systems. In February 1946 the Red Army was renamed "Soviet Army" and the Red Army Air Force in the Soviet Air Force. Also in 1946 was the post of Chief of the Air Force - Deputy Minister of the Armed Forces. Headquarters Air Force converted to Air Force General Headquarters. The troops of air defense of the country in 1948 became an independent view of the Armed Forces.
From jet fighters in a series of mass built the MiG-15 stood out. This aircraft stands out for its high flight-tactical and operational characteristics. It had a wing with a sweep of 35 degrees, tricycle landing gear with nose wheel, sealed cab equipped with new equipment, a new ejection seat. The aircraft MiG-15 received its baptism of fire during the Korean War, which showed their strengths to American fighters of the same class of F-86.
In the future tactical aviation Air Force received more modern jet-La-15, MiG-15, IL-28, and others. At the beginning of the 1950s. fighter aircraft defense beginning equipped with a serial fighter jets MiG-15, MiG-17, MiG-19, Yak-23 and their modifications with airborne radar scopes, guns and guided missiles "air - air" ensures destruction of manned and unmanned air attack beyond their visual appearances. At the beginning of 1951, there were air defense fighter aircraft in 1517 jet fighter aircraft (50.5% of the total), and by the end of 1952, their share had risen to 85.5%.
Considerable weight and large size of the first nuclear weapons development require special means of their delivery to the objectives that led to the priority development of heavy bombers, which had armed with appropriate types of aircraft: M-4, 3M, Tu-95MA, the Tu-95K and others.
In 1953, the Air Force headquarters under the leadership of Air Marshal S. Rudenko questions of application of aviation nuclear weapons were first developed, created the basis for the training of aviation units and formations for combat operations in the operations with the use of weapons of mass destruction. The results have been practical test during subsequent maneuvers of troops and military exercises, including in the Carpathian Military District (1953), on Totsky (1954) and Semipalatinsk (1956) ranges.
In the mid-1950s. in the Air Force fighter-bombers was formed instead of the assault, equipped with special types of fighter-bombers, capable of applying both conventional and nuclear weapons. With the arrival of the Air Force nuclear, and then thermonuclear weapons, the US monopoly was eliminated in the area of nuclear weapons, and greatly enhanced the country's defense. Before the formation of the Strategic Missile Forces Air Force is the only species of the Armed Forces of the nuclear potential.
The Air Defense Forces in this period there was a search of a rational organizational structure in the operational and tactical levels. To create a reliable system of air defense of the USSR was formed county and special air defense corps, and then the air defense areas. In May 1954 it was created the position of Chief of the Air Defense Forces with the rank of Deputy Minister of Defence of the USSR. They became Marshal LA Govorov, a year later - Marshal SS Turquoise.
In December 1951 the Soviet Union started to organize a single radar field. It is possible to carry out complete re parts of aerial surveillance, notification and communication of new radars and systems, radar troops form as a kind of air defense forces. On the basis of the introduction of troops in a fundamentally new weapon - anti-aircraft missile systems and systems in the mid-1950s. was created the 1st Army Air Defence Task armed with the country's first anti-aircraft missile system S-25.
July 15, 1955 the Moscow District Air Defense was formed to provide reliable defense of the capital from air strikes. The following year, flak Air Defense Forces were transformed into anti-aircraft rocket troops and anti-aircraft artillery, a little later - anti-aircraft missile air defense troops, received the status kind of air defense forces. Simultaneously with the construction of a peaceful staff of the Air Force and Air Defense Forces continued to accumulate combat experience in military conflicts in the Far and Middle East, South-East Asia.
In October 1959 the first time in the history of air defense in the area of Beijing (China) to the Soviet S-75 "Dvina" was hit by a high-altitude intruder PB-57D (American production), owned by the Taiwanese Air Force. The following year the anti-aircraft missile air defense forces have successfully solved the problem of the destruction of the American high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft Lockheed U-2, the invading May 1, 1960 in Soviet airspace.
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