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Michael Moiseevich Kaganovich

Michael Moiseevich Kaganovich was Head of the Main Aviation Industry Directorate of the USSR People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry [1935-1936], People's Commissar of the Defense Industry of the USSR (1937-1939) and People's Commissar of the Aviation Industry of the USSR (1939-1940). On 01 In July 1941, he shot himself, upon learning that he was suspected of a right deviation.

Being a national commissar of the defense industry, he contributed to the development of aircraft manufacturing, shipbuilding, tank building, precision instrument making, and optics. He was in charge of educational institutions that trained specialists for these industries. As a people's commissar for the aviation industry, he developed the industry using the experience of building aircraft factories in the USA, which he got acquainted with during his business trip abroad.

He was born 16.10.1888, in the village of Kabany (now does not exist) Radomysl district, of the Kiev province, the older brother of L.M. Kaganovich. He received a primary education, was largely self-taught. In 1905 he joined the RSDLP, Bolshevik, after which he was repeatedly arrested. In 1906 he was imprisoned for 6 monthsi in Kiev prison. In 1907 he was imprisoned for 1 month in Kiev prison. And in 1909 he was imprisoned for 2 months in Kiev prison and sent under public oversight of police in Radomysl district, Kiev province. He became an ironworker [a roof tinsmith] in 1911, and served in the army from 1911 through 1915. After leaving the army, in 1915 he became a foreman on the construction of theOrsha-Voronezh railway.

In 1917-18 he was a member of the staff of the Red Guard Station Unecha (Chernigov province). In 1918 - 1922 chairman of the military revolutionary committee in Arzamas (Nizhny Novgorod province), chairman of the Surazh Soviet of Workers 'and Peasants' Deputies (Smolensk province), district food commissioner in Arzamas, member of the presidium of the Nizhny Novgorod executive committee of the provincial Council, secretary of the Vyksensk district committee of the RCP (b). Participated in the expropriation of bread from the peasants, was engaged in the organization of the work of the food squads. From 1923 to 1927, Chairman of the Nizhny Novgorod Provincial Council for National Economy. Under the patronage of his younger brother transferred to Moscow. In 1928 - 1930 Member of the board of the People's Commissariat of Workers 'and Peasants' Inspection of the USSR. In 1927 - 1930 Member Candidate, 1930-1932 Member of the Presidium of the Central Control Committee of the CPSU (b).

On November 1930 he became a Member of the Bureau, in 1931-32 and General Directorate of mechanical engineering and metalworking, and Deputy of the Supreme Economic Council USSR. Since 1934 he was a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b). In 1934-39 he was a member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee. Since 1937 Kaganovich was a member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

From 1932 to 1936, he was Deputy People's Commissar of Heavy Industry of the USSR (under People's Commissar G. K. Ordzhonikidze). He was the closest employee of Ordzhonikidze. At the same time in 1935-1936, he was Head of the Aviation Industry Directorate of the People's Commissariat of Defense Industry. From December 1936, he was Deputy People's Commissar, and from October 15, 1937, to January 11, 1939, Commissar of the Defense Industry of the USSR (ICPC).

Since January 11, 1939, the People's Commissar of the Aviation Industry of the USSR. Laid the foundations of the aviation industry, and traveled to the USA, studied the construction of aircraft factories. The new People's Commissariat, separated from the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry, received aircraft manufacturing as well as educational institutions that trained specialists for these industries. I.F.Tevosyan and B.L.Vannikov were appointed deputies to him.

Vasily Semenovich Yemelyanov, in his memoirs, described the people's commissariat's move to a new building: After receiving the house, the economic department immediately began to redo it. Partitions were broken and new ones were installed. The office of the People's Commissar exorbitantly huge was finished with utmost care and luxury. Panels of mahogany were installed on the walls, and expensive chandeliers were hung up . while where the offices and departments were located, the furniture was much simpler, and the number of desktops was so large and they were so tight that not everyone could squeeze into the gap left for the passage from one table to another.

Yemelyanov in his memoirs described M. Kaganovich in this way: He was a rude, noisy person. I have never seen him with his mouth shut - he always spoke and always taught, he loved to joke, but his jokes were often inappropriate, unfunny and offensive to those they touched.... M M. Kaganovich was poorly versed in the techniques of the case and was essentially headed by the Commissariat of Commissariat, his talented deputies I. T. Tevosyan, B. L. Vannikov, and M. V. Khrunichev."

He demanded from his subordinates the most decisive uprooting of the enemies of the people from the defense industry. On 08/03/1937 Kaganovich spoke at the general party meeting of the People's Commissariat, announced the disclosure of espionage nests at the enterprises of the industry, the arrest of many engineers and technicians. He gave the task to carefully look at al who were familiar and in contact with the arrested: "The duty of the Communists to be Chekists."

During the Great Purge in 1937 Tupolev was groundlessly accused of espionage and sent to jail. In October, 1937 Tupolev was arrested by the NKVD and after it many leading experts of the Design Bureau were also repressed. Almost all TsAGI aircraft designers were jailed with him.

Despite, or perhaps, and thanks to his kinship with L.M.Kaganovich, on January 10, 1940, Kaganovich was dismissed from the post of People's Commissar and appointed director of the aviation Plant No. 124 named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze in Kazan.

In February 1941 at the XVIII All-Union Conference of the CPSU (b) resolution On updating the central organs of the CPSU (b) (February 1941) one of the points was: To warn M. M. Kaganovich, who, being People's Commissar of the aviation industry, worked poorly that if he does not correct himself in the new work, if he does not fulfill the instructions of the party and the government, he will be removed from the membership of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and removed from the leadership.

According to the story of L. M. Kaganovich, a meeting was called by I. V. Stalin at the Council of People's Commissars, with G. M. Malenkov , L. P. Beria and A. I. Mikoyan . In order to testify, he was called L.V. Vannikov and others. Hearing what they were saying, the quick-tempered M.M.Kaganovich almost rushed at them with his fists, shouting: You bastards, scoundrels, you are lying! According to L. M. Kaganovich, the brother was accused of conspiracy with the espionage organization, with Vanikov, that they were Germans together with Vannikov and others, and even Hitler meant to make my brother almost the head of the government (F. I. Chuev. Thus spoke Kaganovich. M., 1992, p. 79).

On the same day, on 01 July 1941 Kaganovich shot himself. According to one version, he went to the reception, according to another, to the restroom, according to the third, to the corridor. He had a revolver with him. According to L. M. Kaganovich, recorded by the historian G. A. Kumanev, it was he who asked JV Stalin to confront him, because he was convinced of the innocence of his younger brother. And he shot himself, preferred the death of the investigative prison. According to another version promulgated by the head of the General Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU, V. N. Malinin at the June (1957) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, he shot himself in the restroom at Lubyanka (Molotov. Malenkov. Kaganovich. 1957. Transcript of the June Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU and other documents. M . 1998. p. 430).

There is another interpretation of this story: I. V. Stalin told L. M. Kaganovich about the testimonies that convicted his brother in relations with the Rights. After I.V. Stalin told his brother that Kaganovich was hob-nobbing with the Right, Lazar did not speak in his defense. L. M. Kaganovich telephoned this to his brother, and he shot himself the same day. By one version, when the brother phoned LM Kaganovich , they came to arrest me! - he said to him: "I have one brother - Comrade Stalin!" Lazar Moiseevich always, in everything resolutely and unequivocally supported Joseph Vissarionovich.

He was buried without honors at the Novodevichy cemetery.

On 05 May 1953 L.P. Beria sent a note to the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee addressed to G.M. Malenkov: The USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs checked the archival materials on charges of Comrade. Kaganovich Mikhail Moiseevich in belonging to a right-Trotskyist organization. As a result of the inspection, it was established that these materials are slanderous, obtained in b. NKGB of the USSR as a result of the use of perverted methods in investigative work, and Comrade. M. Kaganovich, being slandered, committed suicide.

On this basis, the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs issued an opinion on the rehabilitation of Comrade. M. Kaganovich. Sending a copy of the conclusion of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs on the results of the inspection, I consider it necessary to establish a personal pension for M. Kaganovichs wife, Tsitsiliya Kaganovich, (APRF. F. 3. Op. 24. D. 439. L. 2). 05/07/1953 a note by L. P. Beria was considered at a meeting of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU. The materials of the former NKGB of the USSR in relation to MM Kaganovich were deemed slanderous. He was fully rehabilitated (posthumously).

His wife Tsitsilii Yulyevna (1896 - 1959) was given a lump sum in the amount of 50 thousand rubles and established a personal pension. Their daughter, Julia (1919-1961) married the famous violinist Mikhail Izrailevich Fikhtengol'ts (1920-1971).

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