Type 075 NEWCON Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD) - Design
The specific data and performance of the Type 075 amphibious assault ship had not been disclosed, and estimates were based on relevant photos and satellite images, but most media speculated that it does not exceed 40,000 tons. The media said that the length of the 075 hull will be less than 250 meters, the main width of the hull is 33 meters, the full displacement is 36,000 tons, the size of the hangar is unknown, it can carry 28 helicopters (not specified size), and the deck has 6 Helicopter takeoff and landing position. The power system uses combined power, and the main engine is a 9000 kW 16PC2-6B diesel engine. In the Sugust 2019 photos, the 075 ship's head is equipped with a bow thruster, which further improves the maneuverability in port.
According to the media, the 075 amphibious ship was 40,000 tons at the beginning of the project, and it can carry 36 helicopters. It was planned to start construction in 2014, but the final design plan is less than one-third of the displacement, and the helicopter capacity was also reduced.
The Type 075 amphibious ship dock can carry the 726A amphibious air cushion landing craft that is currently equipped with the Type 071 amphibious landing ship. The specific number will be between 2 and 4 ships, that is, the ability to directly transport the 96/99 heavy tank to the shore. In the amphibious landing operations, the capabilities and functions of heavy armored units are important.
The media reports that the 075 is different from the US Navy's "Wasp" class amphibious assault ship or Japan's "Izumo" class aircraft carrier. It has not yet planned to carry a vertical take-off and landing aircraft. At present, China does not have an aircraft similar to the Soviet Yak-141 and the United States vertical take-off and landing aircraft such as the F-35B. But it believes that China is also advancing its own vertical take-off and landing aircraft development plan.
In addition to the vertical take-off and landing fighters, the 075 would not have a ski-jump for launching light fixed-wing fighters. One reason is that there is currently no suitable light fighter, and small trainers generally have insufficient thrust. The amphibious landing mission is even heavier, and the amphibious combat mission is the top priority. Therefore, the Type 075, especially in the near future, will use medium-sized helicopters such as Z-18 and other heavy-duty and Z-20 helicopters as the main transportation force. When a fire support is required, a certain number of Z-10 armed helicopters can be used.
There are three platforms, or tubs, on the port side of the new ship, and two on the starboard. The spacing on the starboard side and the port side are symmetrical, but the position of the island is not. On the port side, these protruding platforms are integrated with the personnel passage that is basically connected to the bow and stern. In fact, these five positions and shapes are very regular platforms, the main role is two: First, is the personnel passage from the hangar deck through the step ladder to the upper flight deck, can be up or down. In addition to the interior of the island, and two vertical lifts, these five platforms can add five pedestrian walkways from the lower deck to the surface of the aircraft deck.
The second role may be more important. These five platforms may serve as emergency shelters for people on the surface of the flight deck. If there is an accident, it could easily burn the ship's company. If the decks are hit, it could also cause large-scale explosion shocks and fires. It is impossible for the operators on the flight deck to go all the way to the island to escape. If they jump into the sea, it is equally dangerous, because the flight deck is about 20 meters away from the water surface, which is equivalent to jumping down from the 7th floor of a building. These five platforms, in daily operation, might have an elastic net like a trampoline on the upper surface, and a drop port in the middle of the net. If there is a dangerous situation on the flight deck, the deck crew can choose from 5 platforms. Any one of them will jump quickly to avoid danger. In fact, such a safe haven is also available on the regular aircraft carrier. The five platforms can each accept seven or eight people to jump down together. In this way, even if there are hundreds of people on the deck, they can be quickly evacuated within a dozen seconds to ensure the survival rate of the personnel.
The media said that the 075 will be equipped with two Red Flag-10 (HQ-10) near-anti-aircraft systems, two H/PJ-11 30mm multi-tube near-anti-aircraft, 726 electronic warfare system and 562 anti-torpedo system. There are no standard air defense weapon system plans for the Red Flag-9 (HQ-9) and Red Flag (HQ-16). The media said that the 075 model will be equipped with the ZKT series amphibious command combat system, which is different from the ZKJ series combat command system used by Chinese frigates and destroyers. For example, the 071-type amphibious dock landing ship is equipped with the H/ZKT-1B amphibious operational command system. The media believed that the Type 075 operational command system can perform fleet command and amphibious operations command missions, but will not control any anti-ship weapons and ground fire support weapons. The media believes that the Type 075 will install a cross-platform data link system to ensure air defense, anti-ship and anti-submarine protection through its escort ships. The 075-type equipment, like the amphibious assault ships of Western countries, only carries the short-range self-defense weapon system, with the focus on amphibious assault missions, carrying as many landing combat equipment as possible.
The disposition of elevator[s] to move aircraft between the hangar deck and flight deck was initially a bit of a puzzle. The US Navy LHA-1 Tarawa class class had two elevators, one to port and the other in the stern. The US Navy LHD-1 Wasp class has two outboard elevators to the stern, one to port and one to starboard. The LHA-6 America likewise has two outboard elevators to the stern, port and starboard. The French Mistral design [with roughlly half the displacement of the American ships] features two elevators, a large one in the stern, and a smaller one in the flight deck aft of the island. In contrast to earlier Chinese artwork, which had frequently featured multiple elevators along some variation of the Western designs, the Type 075 at launch appeared to have only a single large stern elevator.
Some high-quality artwork that showed up around the time of the launch depicted another small elevator forward of the island which could accomodate a medium helicopter. This suggests that the aviation hangar deck runs over two thirds the length of the ship. Another visible departure from earlier artwork is the combination of all five air intake / exhaust stacks into a single structure, whereas the early artwork consistenly featured a pair of stacks. The vertical pipes for these air and exhaust gas ducts to and from the engine room pass along the starboard of the ship, suggesting the aviation hangar deck is offset slightly to port.
Many people did not believe that the 075 ship could be built in batches so quickly. The main reason was that the R & D and manufacturing capabilities of supporting aviation combat equipment were weak, not the limitation of shipbuilding capabilities. For example, the Chinese Navy still lacks sufficient performance and types of carrier-based helicopters.
Judging from the current situation, the second ship of 075 appeared so quickly, which proves that this judgment is incorrect. First of all, the research and development speed of the Chinese Navy's carrier-based helicopters is accelerating. Not long ago, foreign media have reported that the Zhi-20 carrier-based helicopters are undergoing intensive test flights. The Zhi-20 land-based helicopters have begun initial batch production service and based on For the land-based basic type, the navy's ship-borne type has also made rapid progress. China has previously had experience in developing straight--8 and straight-9 ship-borne types (including anti-submarine types), and the mature and large-scale of the Z-20 ship-borne helicopters. Mass production is something that has happened in recent years, and the Z-20 carrier-borne transport and anti-submarine helicopter should have been one of the main transport and anti-submarine models on board the 075 ship.
Coupled with the improved model of the Zhi-8 Navy, which has a stronger transport capacity, the carrier-based helicopters on the 075 ship will be sufficient in the short to medium term, and it can fully exert its vertical landing and anti-submarine combat capabilities. As for the new generation of carrier-borne helicopters with more transportation capacity and stronger combat capabilities in the future, such as advanced domestic tilt-rotor aircraft and domestic large-scale helicopter carrier versions (the specifications are equivalent to those of the US "Super Stallion" helicopters), 075 The amphibious assault ship will be even more powerful.
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