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People's Liberation Army Navy - Marine Corps

China plans to expand its Marine Corps from the current 20,000 to 100,000 troops in order to better protect the country's marine lifeline and rising overseas interests, Hong Kong-based South China Morning Post reported on 13 March 2017. Some Marine Corps troops will be assigned overseas, including Djibouti and Gwadar Port of Pakistan, said the report.

The 2019 US DOD "Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the Peoples Republic of China" stated : "The PLAN has continued expanding the PLAN Marine Corps (PLANMC) force structure. The PLANMC previously consisted of two brigades and approximately 10,000 personnel, and it was limited in geography and mission to amphibious assault and defense of South China Sea outposts. By 2020, the PLANMC will consist of seven brigades, may have more than 30,000 personnel, and it will expand its mission to include expeditionary operations beyond Chinas borders. A newly established PLANMC headquarters is now responsible for manning, training, and equipping PLANMC forces. For the first time, the PLANMC also has its own commander, although it remains subordinate to the PLAN. The PLANMC may also establish an aviation brigade, which could provide an organic helicopter transport and attack capability, increasing its amphibious and expeditionary warfare capabilities....

"Ultimately, the PLANMC will be capable of operating from land, sea, and air as the PLAs global military force, but this goal will likely not be realized by Chinas stated goal to complete PLA reforms by 2020. Four new brigades have been established, bringing the total number of combat brigades to six, but only the original two brigades are fully mission-capable. There is no evidence to indicate the new brigades are manned, trained, and equipped to perform expeditionary missions yet. Additionally, the PLANMC may establish an aviation brigade, but there is no evidence this unit exists yet.

"The PLANMC is employing new equipment to perform an expeditionary mission, but the equipment is not arriving in sufficient numbers to meet the 2020 goal. Fifteen wheeled armored combat vehicles, more effective for land-based operations than amphibious operations, have been deployed with the PLANMC unit currently in Djibouti; they are the first-observed wheeled armored vehicles in the PLANMC. China lacks a sufficient inventory of wheeled armored vehicles to support multiple PLANMC expeditionary deployments adequately. Fully operational brigades are equipped exclusively with amphibious armored vehicles. The PLANMC has not received the helicopters required for an air assault capability, and it will likely need a minimum of 120 attack and medium-lift helicopters to be fully mission capable.

"Achieving this level of capability would include basing helicopters overseas to support PLANMC units and operating from amphibious ships. In 2018, PLANMC out-of-garrison exercises increased in frequency and size. In one exercise, likely the largest PLANMC exercise on record, more than 10,000 marines participated in a series of very simplistic training. This surge in training likely served to indoctrinate new PLAN marines into the service, but it lacked the complexity needed to allow these units to become proficient in expeditionary warfare."

Two special operations brigades had already been incorporated into the PLA Navy's Marine Corps, taking the number of soldiers to 20,000 with more to come. China has at least two brigades of special combat soldiers have been deployed to the marines. China will add a third brigade that will undergo a transformation such as special training and learning how to conduct amphibious operations. The PLA Navy Marine Corps would expand to 100,000 troops, including six brigades, to fulfill new national missions. One source said that overall troop numbers of the PLA Navy would increase by 15 percent from the current 235,000. But if China's Marine Corps were to have an expansion to 100,000 troops, that would account for 42.6 percent of the current 235,000 troops of the Navy, much more than 15 percent.

There is both more and less here than meets the eye. A force of 100,000 Chinese marines, would give China an amphibious assault force second only to the 240,000 marines of the United States Marine Corps, and vastly larger than third place Vietnam, with 27,000 marines. But the apparent growth would largely be achieved by moving four existing Amphibious Mechanized Divisions from the PLA to the PLAN. These existing formations have some amphibious capabilities, but lack meaningful amphibious assault lift support, and are oriented towards a "one time" operational "lunge" against Taiwan, rather than ongoing amphibious operations.

An end strength of 100,000 Chinese marines is roughly half the active duty end strength of the US Marine Corps, which is used to size the US Navy amphibious assault fleet. The US Navy has nine Amphibious Squadrons, and the future 36-ship amphibious force is being shaped to allow the formation of 12 amphibious ready groups (ARGs). Doing the math, it might be expected that PLAN force goals would include six large amphigious assault ships [LHA/LHD] of a class not yet in evidence, as well as a dozen LPDs of the Type 071 Yuzhao class. Such a shipbuilding program could by completed by 2025, if not bit sooner.

The South China Morning Post commented that the PLA's decision to expand the Marine Corps reflected its strategic transition from relying on large quantities of troops to win land battles to relying on highly specialized troops to deal with diverse security challenges. The Hong Kong-based newspaper's report also mentioned that China is building a naval base in Djibouti but hasn't revealed how many troops the base will accommodate.

This is part of the policy of restraining the US; otherwise a five-fold increase in the number of Marines is simply not necessary. China wants to be a state comparable in military potential to the US in the Asia-Pacific Region [APR]. That's why it needs 100,000 marines.

According to an expert on geopolitics and former analyst of the defense committee and the State Duma international affairs committee, Konstantin Sokolov, said that it is necessary to assess the number of marines primarily with respect to the territory that can be controlled. "In East and South-East Asia, there are a lot of island territories that are part of the economic interests and security interests of China. I presume that if a likely enemy appears in these zones and there is a need of control, a large number of military police or the Marine Corps will be needed. Therefore, from my point of view, China, probably, can justifiably go on increasing the number of its marines," Sokolov said 13 March 2017.

The PLA set up its first marine regiment in April 1953. The regiment was enlarged to be a Marine division under the East China Navy of the PLA. In June 1957, the marine division was reorganized. Though the Marine Corps was originally established in the 1950s to conduct amphibious operations against Nationalist held islands, the organization was disbanded in October 1957 when the PLA essentially abandoned plans to liberate Taiwan by force. Following the disbanding of the Marine Corps, the PLAN did maintain a naval infantry, which consisted of several infantry and amphibious tank regiments.

In December 1979, the PLA Navy started under orders to reestablish the Marine Corps to meet the demand of modern warfare. In 1979 the CMC re-established the Marine Corps and organized it under the PLAN. On May 5, 1980 the 1st Marine Brigade was activated on Hainan Island.

The Marine Corps of the Navy of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) celebrated its 30th anniversary on 05 May 2010. Amid the majestic martial music, 15 marine phalanxes passed by the rostrum in uniform steps. The most advanced amphibious assault vehicles, amphibious infantry combat vehicles, amphibious howitzers and other amphibious heavy equipment of the PLA in neat formation made an imposing appearance, showcasing the great achievements made by the marine corps of the PLA Navy over the past 30 years.

The Marine Corps has infantry, artillery, armor and engineering units, as well as reconnaissance, chemical defense and communications units. It is intended to be a rapid assault force for amphibious operations, forward base seizure, and coastal defense.

The Marine Corps is headquartered in Beijing and reports directly to the commander of the PLAN for administrative issues, though it has an operational chain of command to the South Sea Fleet commander. It is possible that during wartime, the Marine Corps would report to the General Staff Department. [Cole 2002]

The commander of the Marine Corps is likely to be a senior captain and does not have an official position on the SSF staff.

It is principally comprised of some 10-12,000 troops organized into two brigades, both located in the South Sea Fleet.

The Marines are equipped with Type-63A tanks, Type-63 armored personnel carriers and various artillery pieces. The Marine Corps does not have an organic aviation capability.

Prior to 1999, Marine Corps officers were trained in Army academies. In 1999, the PLAN's Guangzhou Naval Vessel Academy established a Naval Marine Corps Tactics Command Department, which is responsible for training all new and company-grade Marine Corps officers.

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