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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


5N32 Duga [Arc] - Operational

The first experimental inclusion in the facility was made in 1980. The state tests of station 5N32 with the launches of ballistic missiles were conducted by a commission headed by high-ranking representatives of the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Radiocommunications. Since the tasks of calibration of models for testing combat ZGRLS were being solved, the launches were carried out according to the criteria of geophysical conditions approved by the commission. If the approved criteria were confirmed, the launch was conducted.

After conducting state tests, in 1981 the ZGRL node in Komsomolsk-on-Amur was put on trial duty. The number of false alarms turned out to be large, but on June 30, 1982 the unit was put on combat duty to detect the mass and group launches of ballistic missiles from the Western US testing range in an automatic mode. In the same year, the site was linked to the PRN system and became part of the 3rd Army warning of a missile attack.

In 1981 the Minister of Radio Industry Peter Stepanovich Pleshakov, moved his deputy, Vladimir Ivanovich Markov to director of NIIDR. From March 1963 to 1968 Markov had been Director of the Research Institute-37 (NIIDAR). From 1968 to 1981, he was Deputy Minister of Radio Industry of the USSR, since 1970 - General Director of the Center for Strategic Research "Vympel". From 1981 to 1989 Markov was again the director of NIIDAR . Under the guidance of V. I. Markov, the institute developed a radar for the early detection of ballistic missiles "Volga" , a radar control system for outer space "Krona", a radar for over-horizon detection of sea and air targets "Volna".

Order No. 371 of the Minister of Radio Industry of the USSR, P. Pleshakov, dated August 24, 1981, stated: "Comrade. Kuzminsky Franz Alexandrovich to dismiss the director-scientific director of the Scientific Research Institute of Long-Distance Radio Communication of the TsNPO "Vympel" in connection with the transition to another job on personal request. Noting the long-term and fruitful work on the post of director of the institute, to declare comrade F. Kuzminsky. thanks. We wish you, dear Franz Alexandrovich, further success in your work." On the same day, August 24, 1981, the Minister of Radio Industry of the USSR signed another order No. 373: "Comrade. Kuzminsky Franz Alexandrovich to be appointed deputy director of the Scientific Research Institute for Long-Distance Radio Communication of the TsNPO "Vympel" for scientific work".

The ideology Markov proclaimed was that, in his opinion, it was impossible to squeeze anything out of the two stations, apart from the characteristics that they already give. Therefore, their further development was a useless work. As an exit, it was necessary to achieve that to alleviate the already lightened characteristics of the combat system with another adjustment of the requirements [TOR]. Removing generally from the TK the requirements for single targets. Quickly patch up the project, refine it as possible combat system and give it to the military in operation.

Obviously, in 1982 the relationship between the director Markov and the chief designer Kuzminsky became very complicated, and in early 1983 they became intolerant.

In May 1982, after summing up the results of the work on the creation of an over-the-horizon radar system in the interests of the APWM, the Resolution of the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers was adopted, which determined the fate of the radar nodes and the system as a whole. The decree stated that for the first time in the domestic practice, radar, designed to detect automatically starting ballistic missiles during a massive launch at a range of 8-9 thousand kilometers. With the creation of these funds, a number of complex scientific technical problems, including the creation of unique antenna systems, powerful transmitting devices, highly sensitive receiving devices and large-scale computing systems, but it was not possible to achieve the specified tactical and technical characteristics.

The normal functioning of the nodes was largely determined by the state of the signal propagation path and processes occurring in the ionosphere, which had not been sufficiently studied to date. This made it impossible to calculate the actual attenuation of radio signals, to develop a reliable model of over-horizon detection, and led to a number of limitations, especially in the circumpolar circuits.

In December 1982, the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers was issued, which determined the direction of further work on the creation of means for over-horizon radar. These decisions were approved by the customer and after they were tested on the experimental radar, they are recommended for introduction at the station 5N32 in Chernobyl, and then in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Modernization was entrusted to the Nikolaev branch of the NIIDAR. By the beginning of 1986 the bulk of the work on upgrading the station in Chernobyl had been completed. More sophisticated detection algorithms have been introduced, the class of probing signals used has been significantly extended with the system of automatic selection of the optimal ones for current geophysical and jamming conditions. Full-scale tests showed that in combination, the implemented technical solutions allowed to increase the real potential of the station and thereby significantly improve the detection characteristics.

Until the next stage of the modernization of the complex, which began in 1986, the frequency range of the Duga-1 ZGRS coincided with the operation of aviation systems, which caused a lot of indignation on the part of the European Community. Prior to upgrading, the use of DGRFA was difficult, since part of the operating frequency range coincided with the frequency of operation of the aircraft systems. Some sources claim that after the beginning of the robot of the Chernobyl radar, a number of Western governments declared that this system is inadmissible, which hinders the safe operation of civil aviation in Europe. Although the developers of ZGRLS rejected the accusations and said that the indignation of the governments of European countries lies in the fact that the USSR covered the "cap" with all the airspace over Europe and the NATO countries could not provide anything to it. The problem was solved after modernization.

In November 1986, the upgraded ZHRS 5N32 in Chernobyl planned to be presented for state testing. The Chernobyl disaster destroyed these plans.

The station at the village of Kalinovka in Komsomolsk-on-Amur at the site "Duga-2" after significant modifications was put on alert June 30, 1982. Provided coverage of the Pacific Ocean to the territory of the United States. "Test performed on the Duga-2 over-the-horizon radar showed that introduction of new technical concepts allowed improving the probability of detection of single launches of ICBM's at a range of 6,000 Km from 0.5 - 0.7 to 0.9 - 0.92. In the same period, work was done on the evaluation of a possibility of the over-the-horizon detection of short- and medium-range missiles. The results showed that the over-the-horizon radars can detect these targets with a 0.9 probability at a range up to 3,500 Km.

Due to the low efficiency of dual-band over-the-horizon radar in the second half of the 1980s, the question arises as to whether the Duga-2 node should be used for its intended purpose and in 1987 the node's tasks are specified. The loss of the western complex of the over-the-horizon radar system was a reason for abandoning the upgrading of the eastern complex.

Until the end of 1986, almost all the new equipment was transported to Komsomolsk. Having received positive results of the US-KS space system, the customer gradually lost interest in the over-the-horizon radar in the interest missile warning. In 1988, the modernization of the station in Komsomolsk-on-Amur was considered inexpedient. In connection with the reduction in the number of air defense personnel, the commander-in-chief IM Tretyak came out with a proposal to the military-industrial complex and to the minister of defense to remove the facility from duty. This proposal was accepted. On November 14, 1989, the Duga missile system in Komsomolsk-on-Amur was withdrawn from combat duty.

In the early 1990s, a fire broke out at the node, as a result of which the station ceased to function as a missile warning system.

From the articles in the newspaper Izvestia (numbers from October 18 and 24 and from November 18, 1991), for all those who are familiar with the history of objects classified under the code "Doug", it was clearly visible that someone was trying to fix attention in every possible way correspondents and prosecutors only on the facts of plundering and plundering of the electronic filling - especially containing precious metals - on one of such objects in the Bolshaya Kartely area.




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